Routine Fire Wx Fcst (With/Without 6-10 Day Outlook)
Issued by NWS Shreveport, LA

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6
000
FNUS54 KSHV 292044
FWFSHV

FIRE WEATHER PLANNING FORECAST FOR SOUTHWEST ARKANSAS...
NORTHWEST LOUISIANA...EAST TEXAS...AND EXTREME SOUTHEAST OKLAHOMA
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SHREVEPORT LA
344 PM CDT FRI AUG 29 2014

.DISCUSSION...
WIDELY SCATTERED SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS WILL REMAIN POSSIBLE THIS
EVENING OVER THE REGION...AS A WEAK UPPER LEVEL DISTURBANCE INTERACTS
WITH AVAILABLE HEATING AND INSTABILITY AS IT REMAINS STATIONARY OVER
EAST TEXAS...SOUTHEAST OKLAHOMA...AND SOUTHWEST ARKANSAS. HOWEVER...
SHOWERS AND A FEW THUNDERSTORMS WILL INCREASE TONIGHT FROM THE SOUTH
ACROSS PORTIONS OF THE ANGELINA DISTRICT...AS WELL AS NORTH LOUISIANA
AS ANOTHER UPPER LEVEL DISTURBANCE SHIFTS NORTH FROM THE NORTHERN GULF
OF MEXICO. SHOWERS WITH EMBEDDED THUNDERSTORMS ARE EXPECTED TO ENCOMPASS
MUCH OF NORTH LOUISIANA AND SOUTHCENTRAL ARKANSAS SATURDAY MORNING...WITH
BENEFICIAL RAINFALL EXPECTED...AS AMOUNTS RANGE FROM 1-2 INCHES. RAINFALL
AMOUNTS FARTHER WEST ACROSS NORTHWEST LOUISIANA AND EAST TEXAS ARE
EXPECTED TO BE LIGHTER...GENERALLY LESS THAN A THIRD OF AN INCH. THIS
RAINFALL WILL DECREASE SATURDAY NIGHT...ALTHOUGH ISOLATED TO SCATTERED
SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS WILL REMAIN POSSIBLE SUNDAY BEFORE DIMINISHING
NEXT WEEK AS AN UPPER LEVEL RIDGE OF HIGH PRESSURE BEGINS TO BUILD BACK
WEST INTO THE SOUTHERN PLAINS AND LOWER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. THUS...HOTTER
TEMPERATURES AND MOSTLY DRY CONDITIONS ARE EXPECTED BY THAT TIME.

ARZ050-051-059-OKZ077-301200-
SEVIER-HOWARD-LITTLE RIVER-MCCURTAIN-
344 PM CDT FRI AUG 29 2014

...ARKANSAS DISTRICT 2...
...OKLAHOMA SOUTHEAST PROTECTION AREA...
...OUACHITA NATIONAL FOREST-BROKEN BOW UNIT...

                      TONIGHT      SAT          SAT NIGHT    SUN

CLOUD COVER           MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY
PRECIP TYPE           TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS        NONE
CHANCE PRECIP (%)     40           40           20           0
TEMP (24H TREND)      71 (-3)      90 (+3)      71           94
RH % (24H TREND)      100 (+13)    50 (-12)     100          49
20FTWND-AM(MPH)                    S  3                      S  5
20FTWND-PM(MPH)       S  5         SE  8        SE  5        S 13
PRECIP AMOUNT         0.12         0.13         0.02         0.00
PRECIP DURATION       2            3            1            0
MIXING HGT(M-MSL)     75           1942         75           2207
MIXING HGT(FT-MSL)    246          6371         246          7241
TRANSPORT WND (M/S)   S  4         N  1         S  4         S  8
TRANSPORT WND (MPH)   S  8         N  1         S  9         S 17
VENT RATE (M^2/S)     300          1942         300          17656
CATEGORY DAY          1            1            1            5
MIX HGT 500 TEMP(F)                78                        80
STABILITY CLASS       E            B            F            C

REMARKS...NONE.

.FORECAST FOR DAYS 3 THROUGH 7...

.MONDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID
90S. SOUTH WINDS 5 TO 10 MPH. CATEGORY DAY INDEX IS 5.
.TUESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID
90S. SOUTH WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.WEDNESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.THURSDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE
MID 90S. SOUTHEAST WINDS UP TO 5 MPH.
.FRIDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS UP TO 5 MPH.

$$

ARZ060-061-070>073-301200-
HEMPSTEAD-NEVADA-MILLER-LAFAYETTE-COLUMBIA-UNION AR-
344 PM CDT FRI AUG 29 2014

...ARKANSAS DISTRICT 4...

                      TONIGHT      SAT          SAT NIGHT    SUN

CLOUD COVER           MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY
PRECIP TYPE           TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS
CHANCE PRECIP (%)     50           60           40           20
TEMP (24H TREND)      72 (-1)      86 (-6)      72           90
RH % (24H TREND)      100 (+10)    61 (+12)     100          52
20FTWND-AM(MPH)                    S  3                      S  5
20FTWND-PM(MPH)       S  6         S  8         S  5         SW 12
PRECIP AMOUNT         0.15         0.67         0.23         0.04
PRECIP DURATION       2            4            2            1
MIXING HGT(M-MSL)     17           1634         17           1983
MIXING HGT(FT-MSL)    56           5360         56           6505
TRANSPORT WND (M/S)   S  3         N  2         S  5         S  9
TRANSPORT WND (MPH)   S  7         N  5         S 10         S 21
VENT RATE (M^2/S)     51           3268         85           17847
CATEGORY DAY          1            2            1            5
MIX HGT 500 TEMP(F)                78                        80
STABILITY CLASS       E            B            E            C

REMARKS...NONE.

.FORECAST FOR DAYS 3 THROUGH 7...

.MONDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID
90S. SOUTH WINDS 5 TO 10 MPH. CATEGORY DAY INDEX IS 5.
.TUESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID
90S. SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.WEDNESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.THURSDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE
MID 90S. SOUTH WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.FRIDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS UP TO 5 MPH.

$$

TXZ096-097-108>112-124>126-137-138-301200-
RED RIVER-BOWIE-FRANKLIN-TITUS-CAMP-MORRIS-CASS-WOOD-UPSHUR-
MARION-GREGG-HARRISON-
344 PM CDT FRI AUG 29 2014

...TEXAS ZONE - LINDEN...

                      TONIGHT      SAT          SAT NIGHT    SUN

CLOUD COVER           MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY
PRECIP TYPE           TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS
CHANCE PRECIP (%)     40           40           20           0
TEMP (24H TREND)      74 (-2)      90 (+1)      74           94
RH % (24H TREND)      96 (+13)     51 (-4)      98           47
20FTWND-AM(MPH)                    S  3                      S  6
20FTWND-PM(MPH)       S  6         SE  6        SE  5        S 13
PRECIP AMOUNT         0.13         0.20         0.03         0.00
PRECIP DURATION       2            3            1            1
MIXING HGT(M-MSL)     51           1847         51           2177
MIXING HGT(FT-MSL)    167          6058         167          7142
TRANSPORT WND (M/S)   S  4         NW  1        S  5         S 10
TRANSPORT WND (MPH)   S  8         NW  1        S 12         S 22
VENT RATE (M^2/S)     204          1847         255          21770
CATEGORY DAY          1            1            1            5
MIX HGT 500 TEMP(F)                79                        81
STABILITY CLASS       E            B            E            C

REMARKS...NONE.

.FORECAST FOR DAYS 3 THROUGH 7...

.MONDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID
90S. SOUTH WINDS 5 TO 10 MPH. CATEGORY DAY INDEX IS 5.
.TUESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID
90S. SOUTH WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.WEDNESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.THURSDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE
MID 90S. SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.FRIDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.

$$

TXZ136-149>153-301200-
SMITH-CHEROKEE-RUSK-PANOLA-NACOGDOCHES-SHELBY-
344 PM CDT FRI AUG 29 2014

...TEXAS ZONE - HENDERSON...

                      TONIGHT      SAT          SAT NIGHT    SUN

CLOUD COVER           MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY
PRECIP TYPE           TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS
CHANCE PRECIP (%)     40           30           30           20
TEMP (24H TREND)      74 (-1)      89 (-1)      74           94
RH % (24H TREND)      99 (+11)     54 (+1)      99           48
20FTWND-AM(MPH)                    LGT/VAR                   S  6
20FTWND-PM(MPH)       S  6         SE  8        S  5         S 13
PRECIP AMOUNT         0.15         0.13         0.05         0.02
PRECIP DURATION       3            3            2            2
MIXING HGT(M-MSL)     38           1722         38           2095
MIXING HGT(FT-MSL)    125          5649         125          6874
TRANSPORT WND (M/S)   SE  4        S  2         S  5         S  8
TRANSPORT WND (MPH)   SE  8        S  3         S 12         S 17
VENT RATE (M^2/S)     152          3444         190          16760
CATEGORY DAY          1            2            1            5
MIX HGT 500 TEMP(F)                79                        81
STABILITY CLASS       E            B            E            C

REMARKS...NONE.

.FORECAST FOR DAYS 3 THROUGH 7...

.MONDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS 5 TO 10 MPH. CATEGORY DAY INDEX IS 5.
.TUESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.WEDNESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.THURSDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.FRIDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.

$$

TXZ165>167-301200-
ANGELINA-SAN AUGUSTINE-SABINE TX-
344 PM CDT FRI AUG 29 2014

...EAST TEXAS FOREST-ANGELINA AND SABINE...

                      TONIGHT      SAT          SAT NIGHT    SUN

CLOUD COVER           MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY
PRECIP TYPE           TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS
CHANCE PRECIP (%)     40           50           30           30
TEMP (24H TREND)      73 (-2)      84 (-7)      74           91
RH % (24H TREND)      100 (+11)    67 (+15)     100          53
20FTWND-AM(MPH)                    LGT/VAR                   S  6
20FTWND-PM(MPH)       SE  6        SE  8        S  4         S 12
PRECIP AMOUNT         0.25         0.35         0.10         0.10
PRECIP DURATION       3            4            2            2
MIXING HGT(M-MSL)     30           1497         30           1891
MIXING HGT(FT-MSL)    98           4911         98           6204
TRANSPORT WND (M/S)   SE  4        SE  3        S  5         SE  7
TRANSPORT WND (MPH)   SE  9        SE  6        S 10         SE 16
VENT RATE (M^2/S)     120          4491         150          13237
CATEGORY DAY          1            3            1            4
MIX HGT 500 TEMP(F)                79                        83
STABILITY CLASS       D            B            F            C

REMARKS...NONE.

.FORECAST FOR DAYS 3 THROUGH 7...

.MONDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS 5 TO 10 MPH. CATEGORY DAY INDEX IS 5.
.TUESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.WEDNESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.THURSDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.FRIDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.

$$

LAZ001>004-012-301200-
CADDO-BOSSIER-WEBSTER-CLAIBORNE-BIENVILLE-
344 PM CDT FRI AUG 29 2014

...LOUISIANA DISTRICT 4...
...KISATCHIE NATIONAL FOREST-CANEY RANGER DISTRICT...

                      TONIGHT      SAT          SAT NIGHT    SUN

CLOUD COVER           MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY
PRECIP TYPE           TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS
CHANCE PRECIP (%)     40           60           30           20
TEMP (24H TREND)      73 (-2)      85 (-9)      73           92
RH % (24H TREND)      96 (+9)      64 (+23)     100          50
20FTWND-AM(MPH)                    LGT/VAR                   S  6
20FTWND-PM(MPH)       S  7         SE  7        S  5         S 12
PRECIP AMOUNT         0.20         0.50         0.15         0.03
PRECIP DURATION       2            4            2            1
MIXING HGT(M-MSL)     34           1578         34           1936
MIXING HGT(FT-MSL)    112          5178         112          6351
TRANSPORT WND (M/S)   SE  3        S  2         S  5         S  9
TRANSPORT WND (MPH)   SE  7        S  5         S 12         S 20
VENT RATE (M^2/S)     102          3156         170          17424
CATEGORY DAY          1            2            1            5
MIX HGT 500 TEMP(F)                79                        81
STABILITY CLASS       E            B            E            C

REMARKS...NONE.

.FORECAST FOR DAYS 3 THROUGH 7...

.MONDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS 5 TO 10 MPH. CATEGORY DAY INDEX IS 5.
.TUESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID
90S. SOUTH WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.WEDNESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.THURSDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE
MID 90S. SOUTH WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.FRIDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.

$$

LAZ005-006-013-014-019>022-301200-
LINCOLN-UNION LA-JACKSON-OUACHITA-WINN-GRANT-CALDWELL-LA SALLE-
344 PM CDT FRI AUG 29 2014

...LOUISIANA DISTRICT 3...
...KISATCHIE NATIONAL FOREST-WINN AND CATAHOULA RANGER DISTRICTS...
...LOUISIANA DISTRICT 5...

                      TONIGHT      SAT          SAT NIGHT    SUN

CLOUD COVER           MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY
PRECIP TYPE           TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS
CHANCE PRECIP (%)     60           70           40           30
TEMP (24H TREND)      73 (-1)      83 (-9)      73           89
RH % (24H TREND)      98 (+8)      70 (+22)     100          54
20FTWND-AM(MPH)                    SE  3                     S  6
20FTWND-PM(MPH)       S  6         S  8         S  5         S 12
PRECIP AMOUNT         0.45         0.81         0.25         0.15
PRECIP DURATION       3            7            3            2
MIXING HGT(M-MSL)     7            1198         7            1564
MIXING HGT(FT-MSL)    23           3932         23           5130
TRANSPORT WND (M/S)   SE  4        SW  6        S  4         S  7
TRANSPORT WND (MPH)   SE  8        SW 14        S  9         S 16
VENT RATE (M^2/S)     28           7188         28           10948
CATEGORY DAY          1            3            1            4
MIX HGT 500 TEMP(F)                80                        81
STABILITY CLASS       D            B            D            C

REMARKS...NONE.

.FORECAST FOR DAYS 3 THROUGH 7...

.MONDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS 5 TO 10 MPH. CATEGORY DAY INDEX IS 4.
.TUESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.WEDNESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. EAST
WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.THURSDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. EAST
WINDS UP TO 5 MPH.
.FRIDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS UP TO 5 MPH.

$$

LAZ010-011-017-018-301200-
DE SOTO-RED RIVER-SABINE LA-NATCHITOCHES-
344 PM CDT FRI AUG 29 2014

...LOUISIANA DISTRICT 6...
...KISATCHIE NATIONAL FOREST-KISATCHIE RANGER DISTRICT...

                      TONIGHT      SAT          SAT NIGHT    SUN

CLOUD COVER           MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY        MCLDY
PRECIP TYPE           TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS        TSTMS
CHANCE PRECIP (%)     60           70           30           30
TEMP (24H TREND)      73 (-2)      83 (-8)      75           92
RH % (24H TREND)      98 (+9)      72 (+22)     99           52
20FTWND-AM(MPH)                    LGT/VAR                   S  6
20FTWND-PM(MPH)       S  6         SE  8        S  5         S 12
PRECIP AMOUNT         0.40         0.79         0.12         0.12
PRECIP DURATION       3            7            2            2
MIXING HGT(M-MSL)     22           1394         22           1762
MIXING HGT(FT-MSL)    72           4575         72           5780
TRANSPORT WND (M/S)   SE  4        S  4         S  4         S  7
TRANSPORT WND (MPH)   SE  9        S  9         S  9         S 15
VENT RATE (M^2/S)     88           5576         88           12334
CATEGORY DAY          1            3            1            4
MIX HGT 500 TEMP(F)                80                        83
STABILITY CLASS       D            B            D            C

REMARKS...NONE.

.FORECAST FOR DAYS 3 THROUGH 7...

.MONDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS 5 TO 10 MPH. CATEGORY DAY INDEX IS 5.
.TUESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S. SOUTH
WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.WEDNESDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.THURSDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.
.FRIDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY. SLIGHT CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS. LOWS IN THE MID 70S. HIGHS IN THE MID 90S.
SOUTHEAST WINDS AROUND 5 MPH.

$$

15





USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.