Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 310206
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
2006 MDT Thursday, July 30, 2015

This forecast is for Friday, July 31, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 79.7 F/26.5 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 845 ft/min (4.3 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 14893 ft MSL (9586 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 86.0 F/30.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10108 ft MSL (4801 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 08/01..... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 17119 ft MSL (11812 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 08/01........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:57:22 / 20:14:40 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 17 min 17 sec (857 min 17 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:48 MDT... 68.41 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/31/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15521 ft MSL (10214 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 13356 ft MSL (8049 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 13861 ft MSL (8555 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.5
K index......................... +22.2

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -67.2 -89.0   270   29   15   2.3   1.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.6 -78.9   265   42   22   5.7   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.1 -61.8   260   47   24   8.8   4.9      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.8 -52.2   255   45   23   8.8   4.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -41.5 -42.7   255   43   22   8.7   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -36.3 -33.3   265   39   20   8.7   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -30.5 -22.9   275   36   19   8.1   4.4   52.6 126.7    16.8      M    M
 30000  -26.5 -15.7   285   27   14   6.7   3.7   50.0 122.0    15.2      M    M
 29000  -24.5 -12.1   290   23   12   6.7   3.7   48.9 120.1    14.5      M    M
 28000  -22.5  -8.5   295   20   10   6.8   3.7   47.8 118.1    13.8      M    M
 27000  -20.4  -4.7   295   18    9   6.9   3.8   46.6 115.9    13.1      M    M
 26000  -18.3  -0.9   295   15    8   6.9   3.8   45.6 114.0    12.4      M    M
 25000  -16.2   2.8   295   13    7   6.3   3.5   44.6 112.3    11.8      M    M
 24000  -14.4   6.1   295   11    6   6.1   3.4   43.2 109.7    10.8      M    M
 23000  -12.5   9.5   290    8    4   6.1   3.4   41.8 107.3     9.8      M    M
 22000  -10.7  12.7   290    6    3   5.4   3.0   40.6 105.1     8.9      M    M
 21000   -9.2  15.4   275    4    2   5.2   2.9   38.9 102.0     7.5      M    M
 20000   -7.6  18.3   225    2    1   5.3   2.9   37.3  99.2     6.2      M    M
 19500   -6.9  19.6   190    2    1   5.5   3.0   36.6  97.8     5.6      M    M
 19000   -6.0  21.2   155    2    1   6.1   3.4   35.9  96.6     5.0      M    M
 18500   -5.1  22.8   125    3    2   6.2   3.4   35.3  95.5     4.5      M    M
 18000   -4.2  24.4   110    4    2   5.6   3.1   34.6  94.3     3.9      M    M
 17500   -3.5  25.7   110    5    2   5.6   3.1   33.9  93.0     3.2      M    M
 17000   -2.7  27.1   110    6    3   5.7   3.1   33.2  91.8     2.6      M    M
 16500   -1.5  29.3   110    6    3   5.8   3.2   32.1  89.9     1.5      M    M
 16000   -0.8  30.6   105    6    3   6.6   3.6   31.5  88.7     0.8      M    M
 15500    0.3  32.5   110    5    3   7.6   4.2   31.1  88.0     0.4      M    M
 15000    1.3  34.3   115    4    2   7.7   4.2   30.8  87.4     0.0      M    M
 14500    2.4  36.3   115    4    2   7.7   4.2   30.4  86.7    -0.4    799  4.1
 14000    3.5  38.3   110    5    2   7.7   4.2   30.1  86.1    -0.7    751  3.8
 13500    4.7  40.5   105    6    3   8.2   4.5   29.8  85.6    -1.1    702  3.6
 13000    5.9  42.6   105    8    4   8.1   4.5   29.5  85.1    -1.3    650  3.3
 12500    7.1  44.8   105    9    5   8.5   4.6   29.3  84.7    -1.5    598  3.0
 12000    8.4  47.1   105   11    6   8.5   4.7   29.1  84.3    -1.7    545  2.8
 11500    9.7  49.5   105   12    6   8.4   4.6   28.9  84.0    -1.9    493  2.5
 11000   10.8  51.4   105   11    6   8.5   4.7   28.7  83.6    -2.2    443  2.3
 10500   11.9  53.4   100   11    6   6.3   3.5   28.4  83.1    -2.6    396  2.0
 10250   12.3  54.1   100   11    5   7.3   4.0   28.1  82.6    -2.9    377  1.9
 10000   12.9  55.2   105   10    5   9.7   5.3   28.0  82.5    -3.1    350  1.8
  9750   13.6  56.5   105    9    5   9.1   5.0   28.0  82.4    -3.1    323  1.6
  9500   14.2  57.6   105    8    4   8.2   4.5   27.9  82.3    -3.3    297  1.5
  9250   14.8  58.6   110    8    4   7.7   4.2   27.8  82.0    -3.4    273  1.4
  9000   15.4  59.7   115    8    4   8.9   4.9   27.7  81.8    -3.6    248  1.3
  8750   16.0  60.8   115    8    4   8.8   4.8   27.6  81.7    -3.7    221  1.1
  8500   16.6  61.9   120    7    4   7.5   4.1   27.5  81.5    -3.8    197  1.0
  8250   17.1  62.8   120    7    4   7.1   3.9   27.3  81.1    -4.1    174  0.9
  8000   17.6  63.7   125    7    4   8.2   4.5   27.1  80.8    -4.3    151  0.8
  7750   18.2  64.8   125    6    3   8.1   4.4   27.0  80.7    -4.4    126  0.6
  7500   18.7  65.7   130    6    3   6.7   3.7   26.8  80.3    -4.7    104  0.5
  7250   19.2  66.6   130    6    3   6.9   3.8   26.6  79.9    -4.9     82  0.4
  7000   19.6  67.3   130    6    3   7.0   3.8   26.4  79.5    -5.2     60  0.3
  6750   20.1  68.2   130    5    3   5.2   2.8   26.1  79.1    -5.5     39  0.2
  6500   20.3  68.5   130    5    3   3.1   1.7   25.7  78.2    -6.0     25  0.1
  6250   20.6  69.1   130    5    2   5.1   2.8   25.2  77.4    -6.5     10  0.1
  6000   20.8  69.4   125    4    2  -0.7  -0.4   24.8  76.6    -7.0      M    M
  5750   20.2  68.4   150    3    2 -10.8  -6.0   23.6  74.4    -8.3      7  0.0
  5500   19.1  66.4   170    3    2 -10.7  -5.9   22.0  71.5   -10.1     31  0.2

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/31/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       07/31/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +16.5  LI... -3.6               | K index... +14.2  LI... -1.9
CAPE... +280.9  CIN... -54.0               | CAPE... +190.7  CIN... -18.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.5 -89.5  265  32 16   0.8   0.4 | -67.2 -89.0  270  30 16   0.6   0.3
 45000 -62.3 -80.1  260  45 23   7.5   4.1 | -62.5 -80.5  265  42 21   7.1   3.9
 40000 -50.9 -59.6  265  45 23   7.9   4.3 | -51.5 -60.7  265  40 21   8.4   4.6
 38000 -46.2 -51.2  260  43 22   7.9   4.3 | -46.4 -51.5  265  41 21   8.4   4.6
 36000 -41.5 -42.7  260  40 21   8.4   4.6 | -41.3 -42.3  270  41 21   8.3   4.5
 34000 -36.3 -33.3  270  38 20   8.7   4.8 | -36.4 -33.5  270  38 20   8.2   4.5
 32000 -30.4 -22.7  275  36 18   8.1   4.4 | -30.9 -23.6  275  34 18   8.3   4.6
 30000 -26.3 -15.3  285  25 13   6.9   3.8 | -26.5 -15.7  275  24 13   7.4   4.0
 29000 -24.3 -11.7  290  20 10   6.9   3.8 | -24.3 -11.7  280  19 10   7.4   4.0
 28000 -22.2  -8.0  295  17  9   6.6   3.6 | -22.1  -7.8  280  16  8   7.0   3.8
 27000 -20.2  -4.4  295  15  8   6.6   3.6 | -20.0  -4.0  280  15  7   7.0   3.8
 26000 -18.2  -0.8  295  14  7   6.6   3.6 | -17.8  -0.0  280  13  7   7.0   3.9
 25000 -16.2   2.8  295  13  7   6.5   3.6 | -15.7   3.7  275  12  6   6.6   3.6
 24000 -14.3   6.3  295  12  6   6.4   3.5 | -13.8   7.2  280  12  6   6.5   3.6
 23000 -12.3   9.9  295  11  5   6.4   3.5 | -11.8  10.8  285  11  6   6.5   3.6
 22000 -10.5  13.1  290   9  5   4.9   2.7 |  -9.9  14.2  290  11  6   5.1   2.8
 21000  -9.2  15.4  290   6  3   4.3   2.4 |  -8.6  16.5  285   8  4   4.7   2.6
 20000  -7.9  17.8  285   3  2   4.5   2.4 |  -7.2  19.0  280   6  3   4.7   2.6
 19500  -7.3  18.9  275   2  1   4.7   2.6 |  -6.5  20.3  280   5  2   4.8   2.6
 19000  -6.5  20.3  000   0  0   5.4   3.0 |  -5.8  21.6  270   3  2   5.1   2.8
 18500  -5.7  21.7  080   1  1   5.4   3.0 |  -5.0  23.0  260   2  1   5.1   2.8
 18000  -4.9  23.2  085   3  1   5.8   3.2 |  -4.3  24.3  235   1  1   5.9   3.2
 17500  -4.1  24.6  085   3  2   5.9   3.3 |  -3.3  26.1  000   0  0   6.1   3.3
 17000  -3.2  26.2  085   4  2   5.9   3.2 |  -2.0  28.4  035   1  0   5.4   3.0
 16500  -2.0  28.4  080   4  2   5.7   3.1 |  -1.2  29.8  045   1  1   5.3   2.9
 16000  -1.2  29.8  080   5  3   6.4   3.5 |  -0.5  31.1  050   2  1   5.5   3.0
 15500  -0.2  31.6  080   5  3   7.6   4.2 |   0.3  32.5  065   2  1   6.1   3.3
 15000   0.8  33.4  080   6  3   7.9   4.3 |   1.1  34.0  075   3  2   6.5   3.5
 14500   2.0  35.6  085   7  4   8.6   4.7 |   2.2  36.0  085   4  2   8.9   4.9
 14000   3.3  37.9  090   8  4   8.6   4.7 |   3.5  38.3  095   6  3   8.7   4.8
 13500   4.5  40.1  095  10  5   8.1   4.4 |   4.9  40.8  100   7  4   8.9   4.9
 13000   5.7  42.3  095  11  6   8.1   4.4 |   6.3  43.3  105   8  4   9.0   4.9
 12500   6.9  44.4  095  13  7   8.3   4.6 |   7.5  45.5  110  10  5   7.6   4.2
 12000   8.3  46.9  100  14  7   8.5   4.6 |   8.6  47.5  115  10  5   7.5   4.1
 11500   9.6  49.3  100  15  8   8.1   4.4 |   9.6  49.3  120  11  5   7.7   4.2
 11000  10.7  51.3  100  15  8   8.1   4.4 |  10.6  51.1  125  11  6   8.0   4.4
 10500  11.7  53.1  100  14  7   5.3   2.9 |  11.5  52.7  130  11  6   4.3   2.4
 10250  12.0  53.6  100  14  7   6.2   3.4 |  11.8  53.2  135  11  6   6.0   3.3
 10000  12.5  54.5  100  13  7   9.0   4.9 |  12.3  54.1  135  10  5   9.8   5.4
  9750  13.0  55.4  105  13  7   8.6   4.7 |  12.9  55.2  140   8  4   8.8   4.8
  9500  13.5  56.3  105  12  6   7.7   4.2 |  13.4  56.1  140   7  4   7.5   4.1
  9250  13.9  57.0  105  11  6   7.3   4.0 |  13.8  56.8  140   6  3   7.1   3.9
  9000  14.5  58.1  110  10  5   9.1   5.0 |  14.3  57.7  145   5  3  10.1   5.5
  8750  15.1  59.2  120   8  4   9.3   5.1 |  15.1  59.2  145   5  2  11.0   6.1
  8500  15.7  60.3  125   8  4   7.7   4.2 |  15.8  60.4  145   4  2   9.6   5.2
  8250  16.2  61.2  135   7  4   7.3   4.0 |  16.5  61.7  145   4  2   9.3   5.1
  8000  16.8  62.2  140   7  4   8.4   4.6 |  17.2  63.0  145   4  2  10.2   5.6
  7750  17.4  63.3  150   7  3   7.3   4.0 |  18.0  64.4  145   4  2  10.6   5.8
  7500  17.8  64.0  155   6  3   5.3   2.9 |  18.8  65.8  145   4  2  10.0   5.5
  7250  18.2  64.8  160   6  3   6.2   3.4 |  19.5  67.1  145   4  2  10.1   5.6
  7000  18.6  65.5  170   6  3   4.6   2.5 |  20.3  68.5  145   4  2  10.0   5.5
  6750  18.9  66.0  180   6  3   4.7   2.6 |  21.0  69.8  145   4  2  10.1   5.6
  6500  19.2  66.6  185   5  3   6.5   3.5 |  21.8  71.2  145   4  2  10.5   5.8
  6250  19.6  67.3  195   4  2   5.5   3.0 |  22.6  72.7  145   3  2   9.9   5.5
  6000  20.0  68.0  210   4  2   7.9   4.3 |  23.4  74.1  150   3  2  11.8   6.4
  5750  20.8  69.4  215   3  2  14.3   7.9 |  24.4  75.9  150   3  2  18.6  10.2
  5500  22.0  71.6  215   3  2  18.3  10.0 |  26.0  78.8  150   3  2  24.4  13.4

           07/31/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       07/31/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +11.0  LI... -1.8               | K index... +11.9  LI... -0.8
CAPE... +202.3  CIN... M                   | CAPE... +22.6  CIN... -4.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.5 -89.5  270  32 16   1.3   0.7 | -67.4 -89.3  270  32 17   1.2   0.6
 45000 -62.3 -80.1  265  41 21   6.9   3.8 | -62.0 -79.6  265  45 23   7.2   4.0
 40000 -51.5 -60.7  265  41 21   8.5   4.7 | -51.0 -59.8  265  45 23   8.0   4.4
 38000 -46.4 -51.5  265  39 20   8.5   4.7 | -46.2 -51.2  270  42 21   8.0   4.4
 36000 -41.3 -42.3  270  37 19   8.3   4.5 | -41.4 -42.5  275  38 20   8.1   4.5
 34000 -36.4 -33.5  265  35 18   8.2   4.5 | -36.4 -33.5  275  36 19   8.2   4.5
 32000 -30.9 -23.6  265  32 16   8.5   4.7 | -30.9 -23.6  275  34 17   8.4   4.6
 30000 -26.3 -15.3  270  26 13   7.6   4.2 | -26.4 -15.5  280  28 14   7.5   4.1
 29000 -24.0 -11.2  270  22 11   7.6   4.2 | -24.2 -11.6  280  25 13   7.5   4.1
 28000 -21.9  -7.4  270  20 10   6.8   3.7 | -22.0  -7.6  285  23 12   6.9   3.8
 27000 -19.8  -3.6  275  18  9   6.8   3.7 | -19.9  -3.8  285  21 11   6.9   3.8
 26000 -17.7   0.1  275  17  9   6.8   3.7 | -17.8  -0.0  290  20 10   6.9   3.8
 25000 -15.7   3.7  275  15  8   6.6   3.6 | -15.8   3.6  295  18  9   6.6   3.6
 24000 -13.7   7.3  280  14  7   6.6   3.6 | -13.8   7.2  300  18  9   6.5   3.6
 23000 -11.7  10.9  285  14  7   6.6   3.6 | -11.8  10.8  305  17  9   6.6   3.6
 22000  -9.8  14.4  290  13  7   5.4   3.0 |  -9.8  14.4  315  17  9   5.6   3.1
 21000  -8.3  17.1  295  11  6   5.0   2.8 |  -8.3  17.1  320  14  7   5.2   2.9
 20000  -6.8  19.8  300   9  4   5.0   2.8 |  -6.7  19.9  325  12  6   5.2   2.9
 19500  -6.0  21.2  300   7  4   5.1   2.8 |  -5.9  21.4  330  11  6   5.3   2.9
 19000  -5.2  22.6  295   7  3   5.4   2.9 |  -5.1  22.8  335  11  6   5.8   3.2
 18500  -4.5  23.9  285   6  3   5.5   3.0 |  -4.2  24.4  335  11  6   5.8   3.2
 18000  -3.7  25.3  280   6  3   6.0   3.3 |  -3.3  26.1  335  11  6   6.8   3.7
 17500  -2.8  27.0  290   5  3   6.1   3.4 |  -2.3  27.9  335  11  6   7.1   3.9
 17000  -1.9  28.6  305   5  2   6.2   3.4 |  -1.2  29.8  335  11  6   7.0   3.9
 16500  -0.4  31.3  330   4  2   6.4   3.5 |   0.1  32.2  340  10  5   5.9   3.2
 16000   0.6  33.1  350   5  2   5.9   3.2 |   1.0  33.8  350  10  5   5.9   3.2
 15500   1.3  34.3  360   4  2   4.9   2.7 |   1.8  35.2  355   9  4   5.8   3.2
 15000   2.0  35.6  015   3  1   5.0   2.7 |   2.7  36.9  005   8  4   5.8   3.2
 14500   2.9  37.2  055   2  1   7.5   4.1 |   3.5  38.3  015   5  3   6.8   3.7
 14000   3.9  39.0  100   3  1   7.3   4.0 |   4.4  39.9  065   2  1   7.0   3.8
 13500   4.9  40.8  125   4  2   8.3   4.6 |   5.3  41.5  130   3  2   7.6   4.2
 13000   6.0  42.8  135   5  3   8.6   4.7 |   6.3  43.3  145   5  3   8.0   4.4
 12500   7.1  44.8  140   7  3   8.9   4.9 |   7.3  45.1  150   7  4   8.9   4.9
 12000   8.3  46.9  140   7  3   9.1   5.0 |   8.6  47.5  150   8  4   9.1   5.0
 11500   9.5  49.1  145   7  3   9.2   5.0 |   9.9  49.8  150   8  4   9.6   5.3
 11000  10.8  51.4  145   7  3   9.3   5.1 |  11.3  52.3  150   8  4   9.8   5.4
 10500  11.8  53.2  145   6  3   2.8   1.6 |  12.6  54.7  150   8  4   4.7   2.6
 10250  12.1  53.8  145   6  3   7.6   4.2 |  12.9  55.2  150   8  4   7.5   4.1
 10000  13.0  55.4  145   6  3  15.4   8.5 |  13.8  56.8  150   8  4  13.9   7.6
  9750  14.0  57.2  145   6  3  12.6   6.9 |  14.8  58.6  150   8  4  12.2   6.7
  9500  14.9  58.8  145   6  3   9.1   5.0 |  15.6  60.1  150   8  4   9.4   5.1
  9250  15.4  59.7  145   6  3   7.7   4.2 |  16.2  61.2  150   8  4   7.8   4.3
  9000  16.1  61.0  145   6  3  11.2   6.2 |  16.9  62.4  150   8  4  11.1   6.1
  8750  17.0  62.6  145   6  3  11.7   6.4 |  17.8  64.0  150   8  4  11.6   6.4
  8500  17.8  64.0  145   6  3   9.8   5.4 |  18.6  65.5  150   8  4   9.8   5.4
  8250  18.5  65.3  150   6  3   9.1   5.0 |  19.3  66.7  150   8  4   8.7   4.8
  8000  19.2  66.6  150   6  3  10.2   5.6 |  20.0  68.0  155   8  4  10.1   5.5
  7750  20.0  68.0  150   6  3  10.9   6.0 |  20.8  69.4  155   8  4  10.8   5.9
  7500  20.8  69.4  150   6  3  10.3   5.6 |  21.5  70.7  155   8  4   9.7   5.3
  7250  21.6  70.9  150   6  3  10.4   5.7 |  22.2  72.0  155   8  4   9.4   5.2
  7000  22.3  72.1  150   5  3  10.1   5.5 |  23.0  73.4  155   8  4  10.1   5.5
  6750  23.1  73.6  150   5  3  10.3   5.6 |  23.7  74.7  155   8  4  10.4   5.7
  6500  23.8  74.8  150   5  3  10.7   5.9 |  24.5  76.1  155   8  4  10.0   5.5
  6250  24.6  76.3  155   5  3  10.7   5.9 |  25.2  77.4  155   7  4   9.8   5.4
  6000  25.4  77.7  155   5  3  10.2   5.6 |  26.0  78.8  155   7  4  10.7   5.8
  5750  26.3  79.3  150   5  2  16.6   9.1 |  26.9  80.4  155   7  4  14.5   7.9
  5500  28.0  82.4  150   5  2  28.3  15.5 |  28.1  82.6  155   7  4  18.2  10.0
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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