Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 311326
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0726 MDT Friday, July 31, 2015

This forecast is for Friday, July 31, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 83.4 F/28.5 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 776 ft/min (3.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 15878 ft MSL (10593 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 89.0 F/32.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1145 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast thin middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9265 ft MSL (3980 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 08/01..... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Improving through the day
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14398 ft MSL (9113 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 08/01........ Fair

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:57:22 / 20:14:40 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 17 min 17 sec (857 min 17 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:48 MDT... 68.41 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 07/31/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15845 ft MSL (10560 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 14188 ft MSL (8903 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14806 ft MSL (9521 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.6
K index......................... +20.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -68.6 -91.5   270   32   16   7.6   4.2   78.3 172.9    27.2      M    M
 45000  -62.7 -80.9   265   51   26  -3.5  -1.9   62.7 144.9    19.5      M    M
 40000  -51.6 -60.9   255   56   29   9.8   5.4   57.2 134.9    17.1      M    M
 38000  -47.6 -53.7   260   52   27   9.6   5.3   54.4 130.0    15.7      M    M
 36000  -41.9 -43.4   265   49   25   8.3   4.6   54.3 129.8    16.0      M    M
 34000  -36.9 -34.4   270   43   22   7.9   4.4   53.1 127.6    15.5      M    M
 32000  -32.3 -26.1   275   37   19   5.2   2.9   50.4 122.8    13.9      M    M
 30000  -28.0 -18.4   285   31   16   7.2   4.0   48.4 119.1    12.7      M    M
 29000  -25.9 -14.6   285   29   15   7.2   4.0   47.3 117.2    12.0      M    M
 28000  -23.6 -10.5   285   27   14   8.9   4.9   46.5 115.7    11.5      M    M
 27000  -21.0  -5.8   285   25   13   9.1   5.0   46.1 115.0    11.3      M    M
 26000  -19.5  -3.1   295   20   10   4.9   2.7   44.3 111.8    10.0      M    M
 25000  -17.0   1.4   285   16    8   9.2   5.0   43.8 110.8     9.7      M    M
 24000  -14.4   6.1   275   15    8   8.7   4.8   43.4 110.1     9.5      M    M
 23000  -13.0   8.6   280    9    4   2.6   1.4   41.3 106.4     8.0      M    M
 22000  -12.3   9.9   295    2    1   1.7   1.0   38.7 101.7     5.9      M    M
 21000  -10.2  13.6   325    2    1   8.3   4.6   37.7  99.9     5.2      M    M
 20000   -8.9  16.0   345    3    2   6.5   3.6   35.8  96.5     3.5      M    M
 19500   -8.0  17.6   350    7    3   6.8   3.7   35.2  95.4     3.0      M    M
 19000   -6.9  19.6   330   10    5   7.5   4.1   34.8  94.6     2.6      M    M
 18500   -5.9  21.4   320   15    8   8.2   4.5   34.4  94.0     2.2      M    M
 18000   -5.1  22.8   315   19   10   5.5   3.0   33.8  92.8     1.5      M    M
 17500   -4.0  24.8   315   16    8   7.5   4.1   33.4  92.1     1.1      M    M
 17000   -2.9  26.8   320   11    6   7.6   4.2   33.0  91.4     0.8      M    M
 16500   -1.7  28.9   325    7    3   7.6   4.2   32.7  90.8     0.5      M    M
 16000   -0.6  30.9   005    2    1   7.5   4.1   32.3  90.2     0.2      M    M
 15500    1.0  33.8   065    2    1   7.7   4.2   31.8  89.2    -0.4    930  4.7
 15000    2.0  35.6   090    2    1   7.8   4.3   31.4  88.6    -0.8    883  4.5
 14500    3.2  37.8   105    3    1   7.8   4.3   31.1  88.0    -1.1    834  4.2
 14000    4.3  39.7   115    3    2   7.8   4.3   30.8  87.5    -1.5    785  4.0
 13500    5.5  41.9   125    4    2   7.7   4.2   30.5  86.9    -1.8    736  3.7
 13000    6.7  44.1   130    5    3   9.4   5.1   30.3  86.5    -2.1    685  3.5
 12500    8.1  46.6   135    6    3   9.5   5.2   30.2  86.4    -2.1    628  3.2
 12000    9.5  49.1   135    7    4   9.5   5.2   30.2  86.4    -2.2    572  2.9
 11500   10.8  51.4   145    8    4   9.5   5.2   30.2  86.3    -2.3    516  2.6
 11000   12.2  54.0   150    9    5   9.6   5.2   30.1  86.2    -2.4    459  2.3
 10500   13.6  56.5   155   10    5   8.9   4.9   30.1  86.1    -2.5    404  2.1
 10250   14.2  57.6   160    9    4   8.8   4.8   30.0  85.9    -2.6    378  1.9
 10000   14.8  58.6   160    8    4   8.9   4.9   29.9  85.8    -2.7    351  1.8
  9750   15.5  59.9   165    7    4   8.9   4.9   29.8  85.7    -2.8    325  1.7
  9500   16.1  61.0   165    6    3   8.9   4.9   29.8  85.6    -2.9    299  1.5
  9250   16.7  62.1   170    6    3   8.9   4.9   29.7  85.5    -3.0    272  1.4
  9000   17.4  63.3   175    5    3   8.8   4.8   29.7  85.4    -3.1    246  1.2
  8750   18.0  64.4   195    4    2   9.2   5.1   29.6  85.3    -3.2    219  1.1
  8500   18.6  65.5   230    3    2   7.8   4.3   29.5  85.1    -3.3    193  1.0
  8250   19.0  66.2   260    4    2   2.2   1.2   29.2  84.5    -3.7    176  0.9
  8000   18.9  66.0   280    5    3   0.1   0.0   28.4  83.2    -4.6    171  0.9
  7750   18.9  66.0   280    5    2   2.9   1.6   27.8  82.1    -5.3    163  0.8
  7500   19.2  66.6   280    4    2   4.6   2.5   27.4  81.2    -5.8    148  0.8
  7250   19.3  66.7   285    4    2  -5.1  -2.8   26.7  80.1    -6.4    138  0.7
  7000   18.6  65.5   285    4    2  -5.9  -3.2   25.3  77.6    -7.8    150  0.8
  6750   18.6  65.5   295    4    2   1.8   1.0   24.6  76.2    -8.6    142  0.7
  6500   18.5  65.3   305    5    2  -3.5  -1.9   23.8  74.8    -9.4    138  0.7
  6250   17.9  64.2   315    5    3  -4.3  -2.4   22.7  72.8   -10.8    149  0.8
  6000   17.8  64.0   320    6    3   3.5   1.9   21.9  71.4   -11.6    144  0.7
  5750   18.3  64.9   315    5    2   9.3   5.1   21.7  71.0   -11.9    122  0.6
  5500   18.8  65.8   310    3    2   1.7   0.9   21.5  70.6   -12.1    100  0.5

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/31/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       07/31/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +18.6  LI... -2.6               | K index... +18.1  LI... -3.4
CAPE... +125.8  CIN... -141.7              | CAPE... +520.4  CIN... -33.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.8 -86.4  280  28 14   1.6   0.9 | -66.6 -87.9  275  28 15   1.7   0.9
 45000 -61.0 -77.8  280  41 21   5.5   3.0 | -61.4 -78.5  280  40 21   6.1   3.4
 40000 -52.1 -61.8  280  41 21   8.0   4.4 | -51.8 -61.2  280  41 21   7.7   4.2
 38000 -47.3 -53.1  275  42 22   7.9   4.4 | -47.2 -53.0  275  41 21   7.7   4.2
 36000 -42.6 -44.7  275  43 22   8.0   4.4 | -42.6 -44.7  270  40 21   8.1   4.5
 34000 -37.7 -35.9  275  38 19   8.1   4.5 | -37.5 -35.5  270  38 19   8.4   4.6
 32000 -32.2 -26.0  280  32 17   8.5   4.7 | -31.9 -25.4  275  34 18   8.5   4.6
 30000 -27.5 -17.5  285  27 14   7.8   4.3 | -27.3 -17.1  275  28 14   7.6   4.2
 29000 -25.2 -13.4  285  24 13   7.8   4.3 | -25.0 -13.0  275  24 12   7.6   4.2
 28000 -23.0  -9.4  285  23 12   6.5   3.6 | -22.8  -9.0  280  22 11   7.2   4.0
 27000 -21.0  -5.8  285  22 11   6.6   3.6 | -20.7  -5.3  285  21 11   7.3   4.0
 26000 -19.1  -2.4  290  22 11   6.6   3.6 | -18.5  -1.3  285  20 11   7.3   4.0
 25000 -17.1   1.2  290  21 11   6.3   3.5 | -16.4   2.5  290  20 10   6.6   3.6
 24000 -15.2   4.6  285  20 10   6.3   3.4 | -14.5   5.9  290  19 10   6.3   3.5
 23000 -13.2   8.2  285  18  9   6.4   3.5 | -12.6   9.3  290  18  9   6.3   3.5
 22000 -11.4  11.5  280  17  9   4.2   2.3 | -10.7  12.7  290  17  9   5.1   2.8
 21000 -10.4  13.3  285  15  8   3.7   2.0 |  -9.4  15.1  290  17  9   4.9   2.7
 20000  -9.3  15.3  295  14  7   4.0   2.2 |  -8.0  17.6  295  16  8   5.0   2.7
 19500  -8.8  16.2  295  13  7   5.0   2.7 |  -7.3  18.9  295  16  8   4.8   2.6
 19000  -7.8  18.0  300  14  7   8.0   4.4 |  -6.7  19.9  300  16  8   4.0   2.2
 18500  -6.7  19.9  305  14  7   8.0   4.4 |  -6.1  21.0  310  16  8   4.0   2.2
 18000  -5.6  21.9  310  14  7   7.0   3.8 |  -5.4  22.3  315  15  8   6.0   3.3
 17500  -4.6  23.7  315  11  6   6.8   3.7 |  -4.4  24.1  315  13  7   6.4   3.5
 17000  -3.6  25.5  320   9  5   6.9   3.8 |  -3.5  25.7  320  11  5   6.5   3.6
 16500  -2.0  28.4  300   3  2   7.1   3.9 |  -2.0  28.4  300   7  4   6.8   3.7
 16000  -1.0  30.2  195   3  1   7.6   4.1 |  -1.0  30.2  275   5  3   7.3   4.0
 15500   0.2  32.4  180   3  1   8.1   4.4 |   0.3  32.5  270   4  2   8.1   4.4
 15000   1.4  34.5  170   3  1   8.2   4.5 |   1.5  34.7  255   2  1   8.2   4.5
 14500   2.7  36.9  150   3  1   8.9   4.9 |   2.8  37.0  225   1  1   8.5   4.7
 14000   4.0  39.2  125   3  2   8.9   4.9 |   4.1  39.4  140   1  1   8.5   4.7
 13500   5.3  41.5  115   4  2   8.9   4.9 |   5.4  41.7  120   2  1   8.7   4.8
 13000   6.6  43.9  115   4  2   8.9   4.9 |   6.7  44.1  120   3  1   8.7   4.8
 12500   7.9  46.2  115   4  2   8.8   4.8 |   8.0  46.4  125   3  2   8.8   4.8
 12000   9.2  48.6  120   5  3   8.8   4.8 |   9.3  48.7  130   4  2   8.8   4.8
 11500  10.5  50.9  125   5  3   9.3   5.1 |  10.5  50.9  135   4  2   8.9   4.9
 11000  11.9  53.4  125   6  3   9.5   5.2 |  11.8  53.2  130   5  3   9.1   5.0
 10500  13.2  55.8  125   6  3   6.2   3.4 |  12.9  55.2  125   6  3   4.8   2.6
 10250  13.6  56.5  125   7  3   7.8   4.3 |  13.2  55.8  125   6  3   6.9   3.8
 10000  14.3  57.7  120   7  3  11.6   6.3 |  13.8  56.8  125   6  3  11.1   6.1
  9750  15.0  59.0  115   6  3   9.8   5.4 |  14.4  57.9  120   7  3   9.4   5.1
  9500  15.6  60.1  110   6  3   6.5   3.6 |  14.9  58.8  120   7  3   7.0   3.9
  9250  15.9  60.6  100   6  3   5.5   3.0 |  15.3  59.5  115   7  3   6.2   3.4
  9000  16.2  61.2  095   5  3   6.2   3.4 |  15.8  60.4  110   6  3   7.8   4.3
  8750  16.6  61.9  080   5  3   6.3   3.4 |  16.3  61.3  110   6  3   7.9   4.3
  8500  17.0  62.6  070   5  3   6.1   3.3 |  16.8  62.2  105   6  3   6.8   3.7
  8250  17.4  63.3  065   5  3   5.7   3.1 |  17.2  63.0  105   5  3   6.7   3.7
  8000  17.9  64.2  060   6  3   7.2   3.9 |  17.7  63.9  100   4  2   7.0   3.8
  7750  18.4  65.1  060   6  3   4.9   2.7 |  18.2  64.8  095   4  2   8.6   4.7
  7500  18.5  65.3  060   6  3   1.5   0.8 |  18.9  66.0  090   3  2   9.6   5.3
  7250  18.7  65.7  055   6  3   2.6   1.4 |  19.6  67.3  080   3  1   9.4   5.2
  7000  18.8  65.8  055   6  3   1.2   0.7 |  20.2  68.4  065   3  1   9.5   5.2
  6750  18.7  65.7  050   5  2  -1.3  -0.7 |  20.9  69.6  060   2  1  10.3   5.6
  6500  18.6  65.5  035   3  2  -1.5  -0.8 |  21.7  71.1  055   2  1  10.8   5.9
  6250  18.4  65.1  005   2  1  -3.1  -1.7 |  22.5  72.5  050   2  1  10.5   5.8
  6000  18.2  64.8  325   3  1   3.6   2.0 |  23.3  73.9  045   2  1  11.2   6.1
  5750  18.9  66.0  320   3  1  15.8   8.7 |  24.3  75.7  040   2  1  17.3   9.5
  5500  20.1  68.2  315   3  1  15.6   8.6 |  25.9  78.6  040   2  1  25.3  13.9

           07/31/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       07/31/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +24.4  LI... -2.0               | K index... +33.3  LI... -2.0
CAPE... +188.3  CIN... -0.6                | CAPE... +235.6  CIN... -6.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.1 -88.8  270  31 16   1.4   0.8 | -67.5 -89.5  280  36 18   0.4   0.2
 45000 -61.9 -79.4  270  44 23   6.5   3.6 | -62.8 -81.0  275  54 28   7.4   4.1
 40000 -51.7 -61.1  270  48 25   8.0   4.4 | -51.4 -60.5  275  57 29   8.5   4.6
 38000 -46.9 -52.4  270  47 24   8.0   4.4 | -46.3 -51.3  270  57 29   8.5   4.6
 36000 -42.1 -43.8  270  46 24   8.2   4.5 | -41.2 -42.2  265  57 29   8.1   4.4
 34000 -37.2 -35.0  270  45 23   8.2   4.5 | -36.5 -33.7  270  51 26   7.8   4.3
 32000 -32.2 -26.0  270  43 22   8.8   4.8 | -31.3 -24.3  275  45 23   8.1   4.5
 30000 -27.0 -16.6  275  33 17   7.8   4.3 | -26.8 -16.2  280  37 19   7.5   4.1
 29000 -24.7 -12.5  275  29 15   7.8   4.3 | -24.6 -12.3  285  33 17   7.5   4.1
 28000 -22.5  -8.5  280  26 13   7.1   3.9 | -22.5  -8.5  290  30 15   6.7   3.7
 27000 -20.4  -4.7  280  24 12   7.2   3.9 | -20.5  -4.9  290  27 14   6.7   3.7
 26000 -18.2  -0.8  285  22 11   7.2   3.9 | -18.5  -1.3  295  24 12   6.7   3.7
 25000 -16.2   2.8  290  20 10   6.5   3.6 | -16.5   2.3  300  21 11   6.6   3.6
 24000 -14.2   6.4  290  19 10   6.3   3.5 | -14.5   5.9  305  21 11   6.6   3.6
 23000 -12.3   9.9  290  19 10   6.4   3.5 | -12.5   9.5  310  20 10   6.6   3.6
 22000 -10.4  13.3  295  18  9   5.4   3.0 | -10.6  12.9  310  19 10   5.7   3.1
 21000  -8.9  16.0  295  18  9   5.3   2.9 |  -9.0  15.8  315  18  9   5.5   3.0
 20000  -7.4  18.7  295  18  9   5.5   3.0 |  -7.3  18.9  315  18  9   5.5   3.0
 19500  -6.7  19.9  295  18  9   5.4   2.9 |  -6.5  20.3  315  18  9   5.5   3.0
 19000  -6.0  21.2  295  17  9   4.7   2.6 |  -5.7  21.7  315  17  9   5.8   3.2
 18500  -5.3  22.5  295  15  8   4.6   2.5 |  -4.9  23.2  315  17  9   6.0   3.3
 18000  -4.6  23.7  295  14  7   6.4   3.5 |  -4.2  24.4  310  16  8   5.5   3.0
 17500  -3.5  25.7  300  13  7   6.7   3.7 |  -3.5  25.7  310  14  7   5.6   3.1
 17000  -2.5  27.5  305  13  7   6.7   3.7 |  -2.8  27.0  315  11  6   6.0   3.3
 16500  -1.1  30.0  305  10  5   6.8   3.7 |  -1.5  29.3  315   5  3   6.4   3.5
 16000  -0.1  31.8  305   7  4   7.1   3.9 |  -0.6  30.9  340   1  0   7.1   3.9
 15500   1.0  33.8  305   5  3   7.4   4.0 |   0.5  32.9  125   2  1   8.1   4.5
 15000   2.1  35.8  295   3  2   7.4   4.1 |   1.7  35.1  130   6  3   8.2   4.5
 14500   3.3  37.9  260   1  0   7.6   4.2 |   2.8  37.0  130   7  4   8.6   4.7
 14000   4.4  39.9  140   2  1   7.6   4.2 |   4.0  39.2  125   8  4   8.6   4.7
 13500   5.6  42.1  125   4  2   8.1   4.5 |   5.3  41.5  120   9  4   9.0   4.9
 13000   6.7  44.1  120   5  3   8.2   4.5 |   6.6  43.9  120   8  4   9.0   4.9
 12500   7.8  46.0  115   6  3   9.2   5.1 |   8.0  46.4  120   8  4   9.7   5.3
 12000   9.1  48.4  115   6  3   9.4   5.1 |   9.5  49.1  120   8  4   9.9   5.4
 11500  10.4  50.7  110   7  3   9.6   5.3 |  10.9  51.6  115   8  4   9.7   5.3
 11000  11.8  53.2  110   6  3   9.8   5.4 |  12.4  54.3  120   8  4   9.7   5.3
 10500  13.0  55.4  110   6  3   3.8   2.1 |  13.6  56.5  120   8  4   4.5   2.5
 10250  13.2  55.8  110   6  3   7.9   4.4 |  14.0  57.2  115   7  4   8.3   4.6
 10000  14.1  57.4  110   6  3  14.0   7.7 |  14.9  58.8  115   7  4  14.2   7.8
  9750  15.0  59.0  110   6  3  11.8   6.4 |  15.9  60.6  115   7  4  12.3   6.8
  9500  15.8  60.4  110   6  3   9.1   5.0 |  16.7  62.1  115   7  4   9.4   5.2
  9250  16.4  61.5  110   6  3   8.4   4.6 |  17.3  63.1  115   7  4   8.2   4.5
  9000  17.2  63.0  110   6  3  11.7   6.4 |  18.1  64.6  115   7  4  10.8   5.9
  8750  18.1  64.6  110   5  3  11.9   6.5 |  18.9  66.0  115   7  3  11.0   6.0
  8500  18.9  66.0  110   5  3   9.9   5.4 |  19.7  67.5  115   7  3  10.0   5.5
  8250  19.6  67.3  105   5  3   9.2   5.1 |  20.4  68.7  115   7  3   9.3   5.1
  8000  20.3  68.5  105   5  3  10.2   5.6 |  21.1  70.0  115   6  3  10.5   5.8
  7750  21.1  70.0  105   5  3  10.6   5.8 |  21.9  71.4  115   6  3  10.8   5.9
  7500  21.8  71.2  105   5  3   9.9   5.4 |  22.7  72.9  110   6  3   9.7   5.3
  7250  22.6  72.7  105   5  3   9.7   5.3 |  23.4  74.1  110   6  3   9.2   5.0
  7000  23.3  73.9  105   5  2  10.7   5.9 |  24.1  75.4  110   6  3  10.6   5.8
  6750  24.1  75.4  105   5  2  10.9   6.0 |  24.9  76.8  110   6  3  10.6   5.8
  6500  24.9  76.8  105   5  2  10.0   5.5 |  25.6  78.1  110   6  3   9.4   5.1
  6250  25.6  78.1  105   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  26.3  79.3  110   5  3   9.3   5.1
  6000  26.4  79.5  105   4  2  11.0   6.1 |  27.1  80.8  110   5  3  10.6   5.8
  5750  27.4  81.3  105   4  2  17.9   9.8 |  28.0  82.4  105   5  3  14.3   7.9
  5500  29.0  84.2  105   4  2  25.5  14.0 |  29.1  84.4  110   5  2  16.3   9.0
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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