Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 220137
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1937 MDT Monday, July 21, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, July 22, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 89.1 F/31.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1201 ft/min (6.1 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 17661 ft MSL (12374 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 94.0 F/34.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1230 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8123 ft MSL (2836 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 07/23.... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 40982 ft MSL (35695 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 07/23....... Poor

Remarks... Isolated afternoon thunderstorms

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:49:42 / 20:22:22 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 32 min 40 sec (872 min 40 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:53 MDT... 70.38 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/22/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16615 ft MSL (11328 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 20565 ft MSL (15278 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 19664 ft MSL (14376 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +0.6
K index......................... +15.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -66.7 -88.1   265   29   15   2.4   1.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -60.4 -76.7   265   49   25   6.7   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -50.2 -58.4   265   67   35   7.3   4.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -45.8 -50.4   265   59   31   7.3   4.0      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -41.4 -42.5   265   52   27   7.1   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -37.3 -35.1   265   48   25   6.9   3.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -33.2 -27.8   260   44   23   6.9   3.8      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -29.3 -20.7   260   35   18   5.8   3.2   46.0 114.8     8.8      M    M
 29000  -27.5 -17.5   265   30   16   5.8   3.2   44.5 112.2     7.8      M    M
 28000  -25.6 -14.1   270   27   14   7.6   4.2   43.3 110.0     6.9      M    M
 27000  -23.3  -9.9   275   26   13   7.5   4.1   42.4 108.3     6.3      M    M
 26000  -21.1  -6.0   280   25   13   7.5   4.1   41.6 106.9     5.7      M    M
 25000  -18.8  -1.8   290   24   13   7.8   4.3   40.9 105.6     5.2      M    M
 24000  -16.4   2.5   290   22   12   7.9   4.3   40.1 104.2     4.6      M    M
 23000  -14.1   6.6   290   20   10   7.9   4.3   39.4 103.0     4.1      M    M
 22000  -11.8  10.8   290   18    9   6.9   3.8   38.8 101.8     3.6      M    M
 21000   -9.7  14.5   285   15    8   6.9   3.8   37.7  99.8     2.7      M    M
 20000   -7.7  18.1   285   12    6   7.0   3.8   36.7  98.1     1.9      M    M
 19500   -6.6  20.1   280   11    5   7.2   4.0   36.3  97.3     1.5      M    M
 19000   -5.5  22.1   280   10    5   7.5   4.1   35.9  96.6     1.1      M    M
 18500   -4.4  24.1   280    9    5   7.5   4.1   35.5  95.9     0.8      M    M
 18000   -3.3  26.1   275    8    4   7.3   4.0   35.1  95.2     0.4      M    M
 17500   -2.3  27.9   275    8    4   7.4   4.1   34.7  94.4    -0.1   1194  6.1
 17000   -1.3  29.7   270    8    4   8.2   4.5   34.3  93.7    -0.5   1149  5.8
 16500    0.0  32.0   270    8    4   9.0   4.9   34.1  93.5    -0.7   1095  5.6
 16000    1.3  34.3   270    8    4   9.1   5.0   34.0  93.3    -0.8   1042  5.3
 15500    3.3  37.9   270    8    4   9.4   5.1   33.9  93.0    -1.0    959  4.9
 15000    4.7  40.5   270    8    4   9.3   5.1   33.9  93.0    -1.1    904  4.6
 14500    6.0  42.8   270    8    4   8.9   4.9   33.7  92.7    -1.3    849  4.3
 14000    7.3  45.1   275    8    4   8.9   4.9   33.6  92.5    -1.4    795  4.0
 13500    8.7  47.7   280    8    4   9.3   5.1   33.5  92.3    -1.5    739  3.8
 13000   10.1  50.2   285    8    4   9.2   5.1   33.4  92.2    -1.6    683  3.5
 12500   11.5  52.7   290    8    4   9.6   5.3   33.4  92.1    -1.7    625  3.2
 12000   12.9  55.2   300    9    5   9.7   5.3   33.4  92.0    -1.7    567  2.9
 11500   14.4  57.9   305   10    5   8.9   4.9   33.3  91.9    -1.7    510  2.6
 11000   15.7  60.3   310   11    6   9.1   5.0   33.1  91.6    -1.9    455  2.3
 10500   16.8  62.2   310   12    6   4.1   2.2   32.7  90.9    -2.3    408  2.1
 10250   17.1  62.8   310   12    6   8.3   4.6   32.4  90.3    -2.6    389  2.0
 10000   18.0  64.4   315   12    6  12.4   6.8   32.5  90.5    -2.5    356  1.8
  9750   18.9  66.0   315   13    7  10.4   5.7   32.6  90.7    -2.4    323  1.6
  9500   19.5  67.1   315   13    7   7.4   4.1   32.6  90.6    -2.4    295  1.5
  9250   20.0  68.0   315   13    6   7.3   4.0   32.3  90.2    -2.7    273  1.4
  9000   20.7  69.3   320   12    6  10.0   5.5   32.3  90.1    -2.7    246  1.3
  8750   21.4  70.5   320   11    6   9.8   5.4   32.3  90.1    -2.7    216  1.1
  8500   22.1  71.8   325   10    5   8.5   4.7   32.2  90.0    -2.8    189  1.0
  8250   22.7  72.9   325    9    5   8.1   4.5   32.1  89.8    -2.9    164  0.8
  8000   23.3  73.9   330    9    4   8.7   4.8   32.0  89.6    -3.1    138  0.7
  7750   23.9  75.0   330    8    4   8.5   4.7   32.0  89.5    -3.2    111  0.6
  7500   24.5  76.1   335    8    4   7.6   4.2   31.8  89.3    -3.3     87  0.4
  7250   25.1  77.2   335    9    4   7.7   4.2   31.6  89.0    -3.5     62  0.3
  7000   25.7  78.3   340    9    5   7.6   4.2   31.5  88.7    -3.7     38  0.2
  6750   26.2  79.2   340    9    5   6.0   3.3   31.3  88.3    -3.9     14  0.1
  6500   26.5  79.7   335   10    5   3.1   1.7   30.9  87.6    -4.3      M    M
  6250   26.8  80.2   335   10    5   9.0   4.9   30.5  86.9    -4.7      M    M
  6000   27.1  80.8   330   11    5 -11.4  -6.3   30.1  86.2    -5.1      M    M
  5750   24.7  76.5   315    8    4 -43.0 -23.6   27.0  80.7    -8.3     31  0.2
  5500   21.3  70.3   280    5    2 -34.3 -18.8   23.2  73.8   -12.4    123  0.6

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/22/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/22/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +15.0  LI... +2.9               | K index... +11.7  LI... -0.3
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.9                   | CAPE... +239.6  CIN... -191.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.4 -87.5  275  31 16   1.7   1.0 | -65.5 -85.9  275  28 14   1.0   0.5
 45000 -60.8 -77.4  275  49 25   6.7   3.7 | -60.8 -77.4  275  48 25   6.5   3.6
 40000 -50.5 -58.9  270  64 33   7.3   4.0 | -50.9 -59.6  270  62 32   7.0   3.9
 38000 -46.1 -51.0  270  56 29   7.3   4.0 | -46.6 -51.9  270  53 27   7.0   3.9
 36000 -41.7 -43.1  270  48 25   7.0   3.8 | -42.4 -44.3  270  44 22   6.9   3.8
 34000 -37.6 -35.7  270  42 22   6.7   3.7 | -38.3 -36.9  275  36 19   6.8   3.7
 32000 -33.6 -28.5  265  36 19   6.7   3.7 | -33.7 -28.7  280  28 15   6.7   3.7
 30000 -29.7 -21.5  275  30 15   5.7   3.1 | -29.8 -21.6  285  25 13   6.6   3.6
 29000 -28.0 -18.4  275  27 14   5.7   3.2 | -27.8 -18.0  285  23 12   6.6   3.6
 28000 -26.0 -14.8  280  25 13   8.2   4.5 | -25.6 -14.1  290  22 11   8.0   4.4
 27000 -23.5 -10.3  285  23 12   8.3   4.5 | -23.2  -9.8  285  21 11   8.1   4.4
 26000 -21.0  -5.8  285  22 11   8.3   4.5 | -20.8  -5.4  285  20 10   8.1   4.4
 25000 -18.6  -1.5  285  20 10   7.9   4.3 | -18.4  -1.1  285  19 10   7.2   3.9
 24000 -16.2   2.8  290  18  9   7.9   4.3 | -16.3   2.7  280  17  9   7.2   4.0
 23000 -13.9   7.0  290  16  8   7.9   4.3 | -14.1   6.6  280  15  8   7.2   4.0
 22000 -11.6  11.1  290  14  7   7.3   4.0 | -11.9  10.6  280  14  7   8.2   4.5
 21000  -9.4  15.1  280  14  7   7.4   4.1 |  -9.5  14.9  275  13  7   8.1   4.4
 20000  -7.2  19.0  270  14  7   7.4   4.1 |  -7.1  19.2  270  12  6   8.1   4.4
 19500  -6.1  21.0  270  14  7   7.9   4.3 |  -5.9  21.4  270  12  6   8.0   4.4
 19000  -4.8  23.4  265  13  7   8.3   4.5 |  -4.7  23.5  275  12  6   8.0   4.4
 18500  -3.6  25.5  265  12  6   8.5   4.7 |  -3.5  25.7  280  12  6   8.0   4.4
 18000  -2.5  27.5  265  12  6   6.2   3.4 |  -2.3  27.9  280  12  6   8.1   4.4
 17500  -1.6  29.1  260  11  6   6.4   3.5 |  -1.1  30.0  280  12  6   8.0   4.4
 17000  -0.7  30.7  255  12  6   6.7   3.7 |   0.1  32.2  275  12  6   7.8   4.3
 16500   0.3  32.5  255  11  6   7.0   3.8 |   1.7  35.1  265  12  6   7.6   4.2
 16000   1.3  34.3  250  11  6   7.2   3.9 |   2.8  37.0  265  12  6   7.5   4.1
 15500   3.0  37.4  250  10  5   8.8   4.8 |   3.8  38.8  265  11  6   7.5   4.1
 15000   4.3  39.7  255  10  5   8.9   4.9 |   4.9  40.8  265  11  6   7.7   4.2
 14500   5.6  42.1  260   9  5   9.1   5.0 |   6.0  42.8  265   9  5   7.9   4.4
 14000   7.0  44.6  270   8  4   9.1   5.0 |   7.2  45.0  265   8  4   8.1   4.4
 13500   8.3  46.9  280   8  4   9.0   4.9 |   8.4  47.1  270   7  3   9.0   4.9
 13000   9.7  49.5  295   9  5   9.0   4.9 |   9.8  49.6  280   6  3   8.9   4.9
 12500  11.1  52.0  305  10  5   8.9   4.9 |  11.1  52.0  295   6  3   8.7   4.8
 12000  12.4  54.3  305  12  6   9.0   4.9 |  12.4  54.3  310   7  3   8.8   4.8
 11500  13.7  56.7  310  13  7   8.5   4.7 |  13.7  56.7  320   7  4   8.2   4.5
 11000  15.0  59.0  315  12  6   8.7   4.8 |  14.9  58.8  330   7  3   8.4   4.6
 10500  16.1  61.0  320  12  6   6.3   3.5 |  16.0  60.8  340   7  3   5.3   2.9
 10250  16.6  61.9  320  12  6   7.5   4.1 |  16.4  61.5  340   6  3   7.1   3.9
 10000  17.3  63.1  320  11  6   9.1   5.0 |  17.0  62.6  345   6  3   9.2   5.0
  9750  17.9  64.2  325  10  5   7.9   4.3 |  17.6  63.7  345   6  3   7.1   3.9
  9500  18.4  65.1  330   9  5   6.6   3.6 |  18.1  64.6  345   6  3   5.0   2.8
  9250  18.9  66.0  335   9  4   6.5   3.5 |  18.4  65.1  345   6  3   5.1   2.8
  9000  19.4  66.9  340   8  4   7.7   4.2 |  18.8  65.8  350   7  3   6.8   3.7
  8750  19.9  67.8  350   8  4   6.9   3.8 |  19.3  66.7  355   7  4   4.9   2.7
  8500  20.3  68.5  355   9  5   5.4   2.9 |  19.4  66.9  360   8  4   2.2   1.2
  8250  20.7  69.3  360  11  5   5.0   2.7 |  19.5  67.1  005   8  4   2.6   1.4
  8000  21.0  69.8  005  12  6   6.7   3.7 |  19.6  67.3  010   9  4   3.2   1.8
  7750  21.5  70.7  010  14  7   3.2   1.8 |  19.9  67.8  015   8  4   7.5   4.1
  7500  21.4  70.5  015  15  8  -1.0  -0.5 |  20.5  68.9  015   8  4   9.9   5.4
  7250  21.4  70.5  015  17  9  -0.1  -0.1 |  21.1  70.0  010   8  4   9.4   5.1
  7000  21.3  70.3  020  19 10   0.8   0.4 |  21.8  71.2  010   8  4   9.3   5.1
  6750  21.4  70.5  020  20 10   2.5   1.4 |  22.4  72.3  005   7  4   9.9   5.4
  6500  21.6  70.9  020  18  9   3.0   1.6 |  23.2  73.8  005   7  4  10.8   5.9
  6250  21.7  71.1  020  15  8   1.6   0.9 |  24.0  75.2  360   7  4  10.3   5.7
  6000  21.9  71.4  020  13  7   6.7   3.7 |  24.8  76.6  360   7  4  11.4   6.3
  5750  22.8  73.0  020  12  6  15.9   8.7 |  25.8  78.4  360   7  4  18.3  10.0
  5500  24.0  75.2  020  10  5  16.0   8.8 |  27.5  81.5  360   7  4  26.4  14.5

           07/22/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/22/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +11.8  LI... -1.7               | K index... +22.9  LI... -1.3
CAPE... +449.5  CIN... -76.1               | CAPE... +284.8  CIN... -67.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.0 -86.8  270  25 13   2.1   1.2 | -66.9 -88.4  275  26 13   2.6   1.4
 45000 -60.3 -76.5  270  44 23   6.4   3.5 | -60.6 -77.1  275  44 22   6.6   3.6
 40000 -50.5 -58.9  270  60 31   7.3   4.0 | -50.4 -58.7  275  57 29   7.5   4.1
 38000 -46.1 -51.0  270  52 27   7.3   4.0 | -45.9 -50.6  275  51 26   7.5   4.1
 36000 -41.7 -43.1  270  44 23   6.8   3.8 | -41.4 -42.5  275  45 23   7.1   3.9
 34000 -37.3 -35.1  270  34 18   6.6   3.6 | -36.7 -34.1  275  36 19   7.0   3.8
 32000 -33.3 -27.9  275  26 13   6.7   3.7 | -32.5 -26.5  275  28 15   6.7   3.7
 30000 -29.4 -20.9  280  22 11   6.6   3.6 | -28.7 -19.7  280  22 11   6.4   3.5
 29000 -27.4 -17.3  285  20 10   6.6   3.6 | -26.8 -16.2  290  19 10   6.4   3.5
 28000 -25.3 -13.5  285  19 10   7.8   4.3 | -24.7 -12.5  295  18  9   7.5   4.1
 27000 -22.9  -9.2  285  19 10   7.8   4.3 | -22.4  -8.3  295  19 10   7.6   4.2
 26000 -20.6  -5.1  285  20 10   7.9   4.3 | -20.1  -4.2  300  19 10   7.6   4.2
 25000 -18.2  -0.8  285  20 10   7.2   3.9 | -17.9  -0.2  300  20 10   7.1   3.9
 24000 -16.1   3.0  285  18 10   7.2   4.0 | -15.8   3.6  300  19 10   7.1   3.9
 23000 -13.9   7.0  285  17  9   7.2   4.0 | -13.6   7.5  305  18  9   7.2   3.9
 22000 -11.7  10.9  285  16  8   7.7   4.2 | -11.5  11.3  305  18  9   7.5   4.1
 21000  -9.4  15.1  290  16  8   7.7   4.2 |  -9.3  15.3  305  16  8   7.5   4.1
 20000  -7.2  19.0  290  15  8   7.7   4.2 |  -7.1  19.2  305  15  8   7.6   4.1
 19500  -6.0  21.2  290  15  8   8.3   4.5 |  -6.0  21.2  305  15  8   8.2   4.5
 19000  -4.7  23.5  290  15  8   8.6   4.7 |  -4.7  23.5  310  14  7   8.5   4.7
 18500  -3.5  25.7  290  15  8   8.7   4.7 |  -3.4  25.9  310  13  7   8.5   4.7
 18000  -2.2  28.0  295  15  8   8.2   4.5 |  -2.2  28.0  310  13  7   8.6   4.7
 17500  -1.0  30.2  295  15  8   8.3   4.5 |  -1.0  30.2  310  13  7   8.7   4.7
 17000   0.8  33.4  300  14  7   8.5   4.7 |   0.9  33.6  305  12  6   8.6   4.7
 16500   2.1  35.8  300  13  7   8.5   4.7 |   2.2  36.0  305  11  6   8.7   4.8
 16000   3.3  37.9  300  13  6   8.4   4.6 |   3.4  38.1  305  10  5   8.0   4.4
 15500   4.5  40.1  300  11  6   8.4   4.6 |   4.6  40.3  305   8  4   7.8   4.3
 15000   5.8  42.4  295  10  5   8.1   4.4 |   5.7  42.3  305   6  3   7.7   4.2
 14500   6.9  44.4  290   9  4   7.6   4.2 |   6.8  44.2  295   4  2   7.6   4.2
 14000   7.9  46.2  285   7  3   7.6   4.2 |   7.9  46.2  255   1  1   7.6   4.2
 13500   9.1  48.4  280   5  3   7.7   4.2 |   9.1  48.4  155   2  1   8.0   4.4
 13000  10.2  50.4  270   3  2   7.6   4.2 |  10.2  50.4  125   4  2   8.0   4.4
 12500  11.4  52.5  265   2  1   9.0   4.9 |  11.4  52.5  115   5  2   8.6   4.7
 12000  12.7  54.9  270   1  1   8.8   4.9 |  12.6  54.7  100   5  3   8.5   4.7
 11500  14.0  57.2  000   0  0   8.8   4.8 |  13.8  56.8  090   6  3   9.6   5.3
 11000  15.4  59.7  070   1  1   9.4   5.1 |  15.2  59.4  085   6  3  10.3   5.6
 10500  16.3  61.3  080   2  1   2.7   1.5 |  16.2  61.2  085   6  3   3.7   2.0
 10250  16.6  61.9  080   3  1   7.7   4.2 |  16.7  62.1  085   6  3  10.1   5.5
 10000  17.4  63.3  075   4  2  11.6   6.4 |  17.7  63.9  080   6  3  14.3   7.8
  9750  18.1  64.6  070   5  2   9.0   4.9 |  18.6  65.5  080   6  3  11.0   6.0
  9500  18.6  65.5  065   5  3   6.5   3.6 |  19.3  66.7  080   6  3   7.5   4.1
  9250  19.0  66.2  060   5  3   7.6   4.1 |  19.9  67.8  080   6  3   8.9   4.9
  9000  19.6  67.3  055   6  3  10.6   5.8 |  20.6  69.1  080   6  3  12.2   6.7
  8750  20.3  68.5  050   6  3  10.1   5.5 |  21.5  70.7  075   6  3  11.1   6.1
  8500  20.9  69.6  050   6  3   8.7   4.8 |  22.3  72.1  075   6  3   9.3   5.1
  8250  21.5  70.7  050   6  3   8.2   4.5 |  23.0  73.4  075   6  3   9.3   5.1
  8000  22.1  71.8  045   6  3  11.1   6.1 |  23.7  74.7  075   6  3  10.8   5.9
  7750  23.0  73.4  045   6  3  11.5   6.3 |  24.6  76.3  070   6  3  10.8   5.9
  7500  23.7  74.7  045   6  3   9.0   4.9 |  25.3  77.5  070   6  3   9.2   5.1
  7250  24.5  76.1  045   6  3   9.4   5.1 |  26.0  78.8  070   6  3   9.5   5.2
  7000  25.2  77.4  045   6  3  10.3   5.7 |  26.7  80.1  070   5  3  10.0   5.5
  6750  26.0  78.8  040   6  3  11.2   6.2 |  27.5  81.5  065   5  3  10.4   5.7
  6500  26.8  80.2  040   6  3  10.7   5.9 |  28.3  82.9  065   5  3  10.2   5.6
  6250  27.6  81.7  040   5  3  10.8   5.9 |  29.0  84.2  065   5  3  10.1   5.5
  6000  28.4  83.1  040   5  3  10.8   5.9 |  29.8  85.6  065   5  3  10.8   5.9
  5750  29.4  84.9  035   5  3  17.3   9.5 |  30.7  87.3  060   5  3  14.4   7.9
  5500  31.1  88.0  035   5  3  27.7  15.2 |  31.9  89.4  060   5  3  17.7   9.7
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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