Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 081348
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0748 MDT Tuesday, July 8, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, July 8, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 70.4 F/21.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 372 ft/min (1.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 13148 ft MSL (7863 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 81.0 F/27.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1000 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast thin middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11274 ft MSL (5989 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 07/09.... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Good
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... 13400 ft MSL (8115 ft AGL)
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 17088 ft MSL (11803 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 07/09....... Poor

Remarks... Strong high pres ridge aloft was stationary over the 4-corners region
           with northwest flow aloft over colorado.

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:39:14 / 20:29:58 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 50 min 44 sec (890 min 44 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:04:35 MDT... 72.61 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 07/08/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16029 ft MSL (10744 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 9701 ft MSL (4416 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 11976 ft MSL (6691 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -3.5
K index......................... +24.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -65.5 -85.9   320   29   15  -1.3  -0.7   84.9 184.9    33.5      M    M
 45000  -65.6 -86.1   305   32   17   7.2   3.9   60.3 140.5    20.6      M    M
 40000  -54.3 -65.7   295   20   11   8.4   4.6   53.9 129.0    17.9      M    M
 38000  -48.9 -56.0   285   19   10   9.4   5.2   53.4 128.1    18.0      M    M
 36000  -43.9 -47.0   295   22   11   7.2   4.0   52.1 125.8    17.6      M    M
 34000  -39.8 -39.6   310   23   12   6.7   3.7   49.5 121.2    16.2      M    M
 32000  -34.6 -30.3   315   25   13   9.5   5.2   48.7 119.6    15.9      M    M
 30000  -29.3 -20.7   315   23   12   8.8   4.8   48.1 118.6    15.9      M    M
 29000  -26.0 -14.8   325   22   12   8.8   4.8   47.6 117.7    15.7      M    M
 28000  -23.7 -10.7   335   23   12   6.1   3.4   46.8 116.2    15.3      M    M
 27000  -21.9  -7.4   340   23   12   6.1   3.3   45.4 113.8    14.4      M    M
 26000  -20.8  -5.4   335   22   12   2.6   1.4   43.1 109.6    12.7      M    M
 25000  -18.8  -1.8   330   22   11   7.7   4.2   41.9 107.4    11.9      M    M
 24000  -16.6   2.1   330   24   12   7.3   4.0   40.9 105.7    11.2      M    M
 23000  -14.4   6.1   335   26   13   7.2   4.0   40.0 104.1    10.6      M    M
 22000  -12.9   8.8   335   28   14   1.6   0.9   38.4 101.2     9.4      M    M
 21000  -12.3   9.9   310   25   13   3.2   1.8   35.7  96.3     7.1      M    M
 20000  -10.5  13.1   310   33   17   9.5   5.2   34.7  94.5     6.0      M    M
 19500   -9.2  15.4   310   30   16   9.0   4.9   34.6  94.3     5.9      M    M
 19000   -8.0  17.6   310   28   15   8.2   4.5   34.4  93.9     5.7      M    M
 18500   -6.8  19.8   305   27   14   8.4   4.6   34.1  93.4     5.5      M    M
 18000   -5.6  21.9   300   26   13   8.6   4.7   33.9  93.0     5.2      M    M
 17500   -4.3  24.3   295   25   13   9.2   5.1   33.8  92.8     5.1      M    M
 17000   -2.9  26.8   290   24   12   9.2   5.1   33.7  92.6     5.0      M    M
 16500   -1.6  29.1   285   24   12   9.2   5.1   33.6  92.5     5.0      M    M
 16000   -0.2  31.6   280   23   12   9.2   5.1   33.6  92.4     4.9      M    M
 15500    1.1  34.0   275   23   12   9.2   5.1   33.4  92.2     4.8      M    M
 15000    2.5  36.5   270   22   12   9.1   5.0   33.3  92.0     4.7      M    M
 14500    3.9  39.0   260   23   12   1.3   0.7   32.6  90.7     4.0      M    M
 14000    4.2  39.6   255   22   11   0.1   0.1   31.4  88.5     2.8      M    M
 13500    3.8  38.8   260   18    9  -3.5  -1.9   29.4  84.9     1.0      M    M
 13000    3.6  38.5   270   14    7   5.9   3.2   27.7  81.9    -0.6    562  2.9
 12500    4.5  40.1   280   10    5   5.9   3.2   27.3  81.1    -1.3    522  2.7
 12000    5.3  41.5   305    8    4   5.8   3.2   26.7  80.1    -1.9    483  2.5
 11500    6.2  43.2   330    6    3   2.8   1.6   26.1  79.0    -2.5    442  2.2
 11000    6.0  42.8   360    6    3   2.5   1.4   24.4  76.0    -4.1    431  2.2
 10500    6.8  44.2   020    8    4   6.4   3.5   23.8  74.8    -4.8    392  2.0
 10250    7.4  45.3   020    8    4   8.1   4.4   23.6  74.4    -4.9    368  1.9
 10000    7.9  46.2   015    8    4   7.6   4.2   23.4  74.1    -5.1    344  1.7
  9750    8.5  47.3   015    7    4   7.7   4.2   23.3  73.9    -5.3    320  1.6
  9500    9.1  48.4   015    7    4   7.8   4.3   23.1  73.6    -5.5    296  1.5
  9250    9.6  49.3   010    7    4   7.6   4.2   23.0  73.3    -5.7    272  1.4
  9000   10.2  50.4   010    7    4   8.1   4.4   22.8  73.1    -5.9    248  1.3
  8750   10.7  51.3   015    6    3   6.4   3.5   22.7  72.8    -6.0    224  1.1
  8500   11.1  52.0   020    5    3   4.5   2.4   22.3  72.1    -6.5    207  1.0
  8250   11.4  52.5   030    5    2   4.7   2.6   21.9  71.4    -6.9    190  1.0
  8000   11.6  52.9   040    4    2   4.6   2.5   21.5  70.7    -7.3    174  0.9
  7750   11.9  53.4   065    3    2   4.6   2.5   21.1  70.0    -7.8    158  0.8
  7500   12.2  54.0   095    4    2   4.8   2.6   20.7  69.3    -8.3    142  0.7
  7250   12.6  54.7   115    5    2   5.2   2.9   20.4  68.6    -8.6    124  0.6
  7000   13.0  55.4   125    6    3   5.3   2.9   20.0  68.0    -9.9    103  0.5
  6750   13.5  56.3   125    6    3   5.5   3.0   19.7  67.4    -9.3     83  0.4
  6500   13.8  56.8   120    5    3   3.0   1.6   19.3  66.8    -9.6     64  0.3
  6250   14.0  57.2   120    5    2   4.9   2.7   18.8  65.8   -10.3     53  0.3
  6000   14.6  58.3   115    4    2   9.6   5.3   18.7  65.6   -10.4     27  0.1
  5750   15.3  59.5   115    3    1   9.0   5.0   18.6  65.5   -10.4      M    M
  5500   16.0  60.8   115    1    1  10.1   5.6   18.6  65.5   -10.5      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/08/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/08/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +19.7  LI... -1.7               | K index... +22.3  LI... -2.8
CAPE... +160.9  CIN... -100.0              | CAPE... +593.2  CIN... -81.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.5 -87.7  310  24 12   0.0   0.0 | -66.3 -87.3  315  22 11   0.6   0.3
 45000 -63.3 -81.9  300  32 17   6.5   3.6 | -62.8 -81.0  305  31 16   6.2   3.4
 40000 -53.3 -63.9  300  27 14   7.5   4.1 | -53.3 -63.9  300  29 15   7.3   4.0
 38000 -48.8 -55.8  300  26 13   7.5   4.1 | -48.9 -56.0  290  28 14   7.3   4.0
 36000 -44.4 -47.9  300  24 13   7.5   4.1 | -44.5 -48.1  280  27 14   7.3   4.0
 34000 -39.4 -38.9  300  23 12   8.4   4.6 | -39.2 -38.6  285  24 12   8.0   4.4
 32000 -33.7 -28.7  305  21 11   8.3   4.5 | -34.4 -29.9  290  21 11   8.0   4.4
 30000 -29.2 -20.6  310  21 11   7.5   4.1 | -29.8 -21.6  295  21 11   7.5   4.1
 29000 -26.9 -16.4  310  21 11   7.5   4.1 | -27.5 -17.5  300  20 11   7.5   4.1
 28000 -24.7 -12.5  310  21 11   7.0   3.8 | -25.3 -13.5  300  20 11   7.1   3.9
 27000 -22.6  -8.7  315  21 11   7.0   3.8 | -23.2  -9.8  305  21 11   7.1   3.9
 26000 -20.5  -4.9  320  22 11   7.0   3.8 | -21.0  -5.8  310  21 11   7.1   3.9
 25000 -18.4  -1.1  320  23 12   6.6   3.6 | -18.9  -2.0  315  21 11   6.9   3.8
 24000 -16.6   2.1  320  25 13   6.1   3.3 | -16.9   1.6  320  23 12   6.6   3.6
 23000 -14.8   5.4  325  27 14   6.1   3.3 | -14.9   5.2  320  25 13   6.6   3.6
 22000 -13.0   8.6  325  29 15   6.2   3.4 | -13.0   8.6  325  27 14   6.8   3.7
 21000 -11.1  12.0  320  30 15   6.4   3.5 | -10.9  12.4  320  29 15   7.1   3.9
 20000  -9.2  15.4  320  30 15   6.5   3.6 |  -8.8  16.2  320  31 16   7.2   4.0
 19500  -8.3  17.1  320  30 15   6.6   3.6 |  -7.8  18.0  315  32 17   7.3   4.0
 19000  -7.3  18.9  315  30 15   7.7   4.2 |  -6.8  19.8  315  33 17   7.1   3.9
 18500  -6.2  20.8  315  29 15   7.7   4.2 |  -5.8  21.6  315  34 17   7.3   4.0
 18000  -5.1  22.8  315  29 15   8.7   4.8 |  -4.8  23.4  310  34 18   8.1   4.5
 17500  -3.7  25.3  310  28 14   9.3   5.1 |  -3.5  25.7  310  32 17   8.5   4.7
 17000  -2.4  27.7  310  27 14   9.4   5.2 |  -2.2  28.0  305  31 16   8.6   4.7
 16500  -1.0  30.2  310  26 14   9.5   5.2 |  -0.3  31.5  305  28 14   8.6   4.7
 16000   1.2  34.2  310  26 13   9.2   5.0 |   1.0  33.8  305  25 13   8.5   4.7
 15500   2.4  36.3  310  24 12   7.8   4.3 |   2.2  36.0  310  23 12   8.3   4.6
 15000   3.5  38.3  305  22 11   8.2   4.5 |   3.4  38.1  310  21 11   8.3   4.6
 14500   4.5  40.1  300  20 11   5.8   3.2 |   4.6  40.3  310  19 10   8.2   4.5
 14000   5.3  41.5  295  19 10   6.1   3.4 |   5.8  42.4  310  18  9   8.4   4.6
 13500   6.1  43.0  285  18  9   3.2   1.7 |   6.9  44.4  310  17  9   6.0   3.3
 13000   6.3  43.3  275  17  9   2.6   1.4 |   7.7  45.9  310  16  8   5.6   3.1
 12500   6.6  43.9  260  17  9   1.2   0.6 |   8.5  47.3  305  15  8   4.4   2.4
 12000   6.5  43.7  250  18  9   0.5   0.2 |   8.9  48.0  290  13  7   3.7   2.0
 11500   6.5  43.7  235  19 10   2.5   1.4 |   9.4  48.9  280  13  7   3.0   1.7
 11000   7.1  44.8  230  19 10   4.2   2.3 |   9.6  49.3  260  12  6   2.5   1.4
 10500   7.6  45.7  225  19 10   3.4   1.9 |   9.9  49.8  240  12  6   1.4   0.8
 10250   7.9  46.2  225  19 10   3.6   2.0 |   9.9  49.8  235  12  6   1.8   1.0
 10000   8.2  46.8  225  17  9   5.9   3.3 |  10.1  50.2  225  11  5   4.0   2.2
  9750   8.6  47.5  220  15  8   6.3   3.5 |  10.2  50.4  210   9  5   3.8   2.1
  9500   9.0  48.2  215  13  7   5.3   2.9 |  10.4  50.7  195   8  4   5.1   2.8
  9250   9.4  48.9  215  12  6   4.1   2.2 |  10.8  51.4  190   7  4   6.1   3.3
  9000   9.7  49.5  210  11  6   6.1   3.3 |  11.3  52.3  180   6  3   9.1   5.0
  8750  10.2  50.4  205  11  6   7.3   4.0 |  12.1  53.8  175   6  3  11.2   6.2
  8500  10.6  51.1  200  10  5   5.8   3.2 |  12.9  55.2  170   6  3   9.5   5.2
  8250  11.0  51.8  195  10  5   5.1   2.8 |  13.5  56.3  170   5  3   8.6   4.7
  8000  11.4  52.5  190  10  5   6.2   3.4 |  14.2  57.6  170   5  3  10.0   5.5
  7750  11.9  53.4  185  10  5   7.7   4.2 |  15.0  59.0  170   5  3  11.0   6.1
  7500  12.4  54.3  175  10  5   7.7   4.2 |  15.8  60.4  170   5  3  10.4   5.7
  7250  12.9  55.2  170   9  4   7.4   4.1 |  16.6  61.9  170   5  2  10.3   5.6
  7000  13.4  56.1  165   8  4   8.2   4.5 |  17.3  63.1  170   5  2  10.3   5.7
  6750  14.1  57.4  155   8  4   9.7   5.3 |  18.1  64.6  170   4  2  10.3   5.6
  6500  14.8  58.6  155   7  4  10.2   5.6 |  18.9  66.0  170   4  2  10.4   5.7
  6250  15.6  60.1  155   7  4   9.8   5.4 |  19.6  67.3  170   4  2   9.9   5.4
  6000  16.3  61.3  155   7  4  11.0   6.1 |  20.4  68.7  175   4  2  11.8   6.5
  5750  17.3  63.1  155   7  3  15.0   8.2 |  21.5  70.7  170   3  2  19.1  10.5
  5500  18.5  65.3  150   7  3  17.7   9.7 |  23.2  73.8  170   3  2  25.1  13.8

           07/08/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/08/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +29.6  LI... -3.5               | K index... +32.6  LI... -3.8
CAPE... +1054.2  CIN... -65.9              | CAPE... +1022.9  CIN... -5.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.9 -86.6  315  23 12   0.8   0.5 | -65.3 -85.5  325  25 13   0.6   0.3
 45000 -62.0 -79.6  305  29 15   6.2   3.4 | -61.8 -79.2  310  29 15   6.0   3.3
 40000 -52.6 -62.7  290  31 16   7.0   3.8 | -52.1 -61.8  285  33 17   7.3   4.0
 38000 -48.4 -55.1  285  32 16   7.0   3.8 | -47.8 -54.0  285  34 18   7.2   4.0
 36000 -44.2 -47.6  275  33 17   7.0   3.8 | -43.4 -46.1  285  35 18   7.3   4.0
 34000 -39.3 -38.7  280  30 15   7.3   4.0 | -39.0 -38.2  285  35 18   7.5   4.1
 32000 -34.9 -30.8  280  27 14   7.4   4.1 | -34.5 -30.1  280  35 18   7.4   4.1
 30000 -30.4 -22.7  290  25 13   7.6   4.2 | -30.1 -22.2  290  32 16   7.3   4.0
 29000 -28.1 -18.6  295  24 12   7.6   4.2 | -27.9 -18.2  295  30 15   7.3   4.0
 28000 -25.8 -14.4  300  24 12   7.5   4.1 | -25.2 -13.4  300  29 15   7.5   4.1
 27000 -23.5 -10.3  300  23 12   7.5   4.1 | -22.9  -9.2  305  28 14   7.5   4.1
 26000 -21.3  -6.3  305  23 12   7.5   4.1 | -20.7  -5.3  310  27 14   7.5   4.1
 25000 -19.0  -2.2  305  23 12   7.3   4.0 | -18.4  -1.1  315  27 14   7.1   3.9
 24000 -16.9   1.6  310  24 12   7.0   3.9 | -16.4   2.5  320  29 15   6.8   3.7
 23000 -14.8   5.4  315  26 13   7.0   3.9 | -14.4   6.1  325  31 16   6.8   3.7
 22000 -12.7   9.1  320  28 14   7.3   4.0 | -12.4   9.7  330  33 17   7.0   3.8
 21000 -10.5  13.1  315  29 15   7.5   4.1 | -10.3  13.5  325  32 17   7.2   4.0
 20000  -8.2  17.2  315  30 16   7.5   4.1 |  -8.2  17.2  325  32 17   7.4   4.0
 19500  -7.1  19.2  315  31 16   7.6   4.1 |  -7.2  19.0  320  32 17   7.4   4.1
 19000  -6.1  21.0  310  31 16   7.4   4.0 |  -6.2  20.8  320  31 16   7.2   4.0
 18500  -5.0  23.0  310  32 16   7.5   4.1 |  -5.2  22.6  315  29 15   7.4   4.1
 18000  -4.0  24.8  305  32 16   7.6   4.2 |  -4.2  24.4  310  27 14   7.8   4.3
 17500  -2.9  26.8  305  30 16   7.8   4.3 |  -3.1  26.4  310  25 13   7.9   4.3
 17000  -1.3  29.7  300  28 15   8.2   4.5 |  -2.0  28.4  305  24 12   7.9   4.3
 16500  -0.1  31.8  300  27 14   8.4   4.6 |  -0.9  30.4  305  21 11   7.6   4.2
 16000   1.1  34.0  300  25 13   8.4   4.6 |   0.2  32.4  310  19 10   7.7   4.2
 15500   2.3  36.1  305  23 12   8.2   4.5 |   1.3  34.3  310  16  8   6.5   3.6
 15000   3.5  38.3  305  21 11   8.2   4.5 |   2.2  36.0  320  12  6   6.4   3.5
 14500   4.7  40.5  305  19 10   8.7   4.8 |   3.2  37.8  335   9  5   6.3   3.4
 14000   5.9  42.6  310  17  9   8.7   4.8 |   4.6  40.3  355   6  3   6.1   3.3
 13500   7.2  45.0  315  15  8   7.8   4.3 |   5.5  41.9  015   5  2   6.8   3.7
 13000   8.3  46.9  320  14  7   7.6   4.2 |   6.4  43.5  055   2  1   6.9   3.8
 12500   9.4  48.9  325  12  6   6.1   3.4 |   7.4  45.3  120   3  2   8.2   4.5
 12000  10.1  50.2  325  10  5   5.3   2.9 |   8.5  47.3  140   4  2   8.8   4.8
 11500  10.9  51.6  330   8  4   4.4   2.4 |   9.7  49.5  150   6  3   9.1   5.0
 11000  11.3  52.3  340   3  1   3.7   2.0 |  11.1  52.0  150   6  3   9.1   5.0
 10500  11.7  53.1  135   3  2   1.5   0.8 |  12.4  54.3  150   6  3   5.1   2.8
 10250  11.7  53.1  135   4  2   4.3   2.3 |  12.7  54.9  150   6  3   7.0   3.8
 10000  12.3  54.1  135   4  2   9.2   5.1 |  13.5  56.3  150   6  3  12.7   7.0
  9750  12.8  55.0  130   4  2   8.2   4.5 |  14.3  57.7  150   6  3  11.6   6.3
  9500  13.3  55.9  130   4  2   7.5   4.1 |  15.2  59.4  150   5  3   9.3   5.1
  9250  13.9  57.0  130   4  2   7.4   4.1 |  15.7  60.3  150   5  3   8.3   4.5
  9000  14.5  58.1  130   4  2  10.6   5.8 |  16.5  61.7  150   5  3  11.3   6.2
  8750  15.4  59.7  130   4  2  11.8   6.5 |  17.4  63.3  150   5  3  11.6   6.4
  8500  16.2  61.2  130   4  2  10.6   5.8 |  18.2  64.8  150   5  3  10.2   5.6
  8250  17.0  62.6  125   4  2   9.9   5.4 |  18.9  66.0  150   5  3   9.3   5.1
  8000  17.7  63.9  125   4  2  10.4   5.7 |  19.6  67.3  155   5  2  10.0   5.5
  7750  18.5  65.3  125   4  2  10.6   5.8 |  20.3  68.5  155   5  2  10.3   5.7
  7500  19.3  66.7  125   3  2  10.1   5.6 |  21.1  70.0  155   5  2  10.0   5.5
  7250  20.0  68.0  125   3  2  10.3   5.6 |  21.8  71.2  155   5  2   9.9   5.5
  7000  20.8  69.4  120   3  2   9.3   5.1 |  22.6  72.7  155   4  2   9.8   5.4
  6750  21.5  70.7  120   3  2   9.4   5.2 |  23.3  73.9  155   4  2  10.0   5.5
  6500  22.2  72.0  120   3  2  11.1   6.1 |  24.1  75.4  155   4  2  10.4   5.7
  6250  23.0  73.4  120   3  1  10.6   5.8 |  24.8  76.6  155   4  2  10.6   5.8
  6000  23.9  75.0  120   3  1  12.2   6.7 |  25.6  78.1  160   4  2  10.0   5.5
  5750  25.0  77.0  115   3  1  19.1  10.5 |  26.4  79.5  160   4  2  14.2   7.8
  5500  26.7  80.1  110   2  1  25.7  14.1 |  27.8  82.0  155   3  2  22.5  12.3
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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