Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 050018
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1818 MDT Saturday, July 4, 2015

This forecast is for Sunday, July 5, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 85.4 F/29.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 877 ft/min (4.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 13142 ft MSL (7835 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 89.0 F/32.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 6854 ft MSL (1547 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 07/06....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 18376 ft MSL (13069 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 07/06.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:37:17 / 20:30:50 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 53 min 34 sec (893 min 34 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:04:04 MDT... 72.96 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/05/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16776 ft MSL (11469 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16039 ft MSL (10732 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15263 ft MSL (9957 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.0
K index......................... +27.3

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -67.1 -88.8   285   32   16   0.4   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -63.3 -81.9   290   47   24   6.7   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.9 -63.2   280   42   22   8.6   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -47.7 -53.9   280   37   19   8.6   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -41.9 -43.4   285   31   16   8.8   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -36.6 -33.9   280   23   12   8.8   4.9      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -31.3 -24.3   275   15    8   9.4   5.2      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -26.6 -15.9   255   10    5   7.8   4.3   49.5 121.2    13.5      M    M
 29000  -24.2 -11.6   235    8    4   7.9   4.3   48.9 120.0    13.1      M    M
 28000  -22.0  -7.6   210    8    4   6.9   3.8   48.2 118.7    12.7      M    M
 27000  -19.9  -3.8   215    8    4   7.0   3.8   47.0 116.6    11.9      M    M
 26000  -17.9  -0.2   215    9    5   7.0   3.8   45.9 114.7    11.1      M    M
 25000  -15.8   3.6   220   10    5   6.7   3.7   45.0 113.0    10.5      M    M
 24000  -14.1   6.6   210   10    5   5.8   3.2   43.5 110.3     9.3      M    M
 23000  -12.4   9.7   195   11    6   5.8   3.2   42.0 107.7     8.1      M    M
 22000  -10.7  12.7   185   12    6   6.0   3.3   40.7 105.3     7.1      M    M
 21000   -8.8  16.2   180   11    6   6.6   3.6   39.5 103.1     6.1      M    M
 20000   -6.9  19.6   180   11    6   6.6   3.6   38.4 101.1     5.1      M    M
 19500   -5.9  21.4   180   10    5   6.6   3.6   37.9 100.2     4.7      M    M
 19000   -4.9  23.2   180   11    5   7.1   3.9   37.4  99.3     4.3      M    M
 18500   -3.9  25.0   185   11    6   7.1   3.9   36.9  98.5     3.9      M    M
 18000   -2.4  27.7   185   12    6   7.1   3.9   36.3  97.3     3.2      M    M
 17500   -1.3  29.7   190   12    6   7.2   3.9   35.8  96.5     2.8      M    M
 17000   -0.3  31.5   195   12    6   7.3   4.0   35.4  95.7     2.4      M    M
 16500    0.8  33.4   195   11    5   7.6   4.2   35.0  95.0     2.1      M    M
 16000    2.0  35.6   195    9    5   7.6   4.2   34.7  94.4     1.8      M    M
 15500    3.1  37.6   195    8    4   7.2   4.0   34.3  93.7     1.4      M    M
 15000    4.2  39.6   195    6    3   7.2   4.0   33.8  92.9     1.1      M    M
 14500    5.3  41.5   200    5    3   7.8   4.3   33.5  92.2     0.7      M    M
 14000    6.4  43.5   210    4    2   8.1   4.4   33.2  91.7     0.4      M    M
 13500    7.6  45.7   220    4    2   8.2   4.5   32.9  91.3     0.2      M    M
 13000    8.8  47.8   225    4    2   8.2   4.5   32.7  90.8    -0.1    658  3.3
 12500   10.0  50.0   230    4    2   8.3   4.5   32.4  90.4    -0.4    608  3.1
 12000   11.2  52.2   235    4    2   8.3   4.6   32.2  90.0    -0.7    557  2.8
 11500   12.4  54.3   235    4    2   8.3   4.5   32.0  89.5    -0.9    506  2.6
 11000   13.5  56.3   235    5    2   7.3   4.0   31.6  88.9    -1.3    458  2.3
 10500   14.6  58.3   230    5    3  10.7   5.9   31.2  88.2    -1.7    411  2.1
 10250   15.5  59.9   230    5    3  11.4   6.3   31.5  88.6    -1.5    376  1.9
 10000   16.1  61.0   225    5    3   7.4   4.1   31.3  88.4    -1.6    350  1.8
  9750   16.7  62.1   220    5    3   8.6   4.7   31.2  88.2    -1.7    324  1.6
  9500   17.3  63.1   220    5    3   8.0   4.4   31.1  88.0    -1.8    298  1.5
  9250   17.9  64.2   215    6    3   7.5   4.1   31.0  87.7    -2.0    274  1.4
  9000   18.5  65.3   215    6    3   8.3   4.6   30.8  87.4    -2.1    249  1.3
  8750   19.1  66.4   210    6    3   9.1   5.0   30.7  87.3    -2.2    222  1.1
  8500   19.8  67.6   210    6    3   8.9   4.9   30.7  87.2    -2.3    196  1.0
  8250   20.5  68.9   205    6    3   9.8   5.4   30.6  87.2    -2.4    168  0.9
  8000   21.2  70.2   205    6    3   9.2   5.1   30.7  87.2    -2.4    138  0.7
  7750   21.9  71.4   205    6    3   8.4   4.6   30.6  87.0    -2.5    111  0.6
  7500   22.5  72.5   205    6    3   8.2   4.5   30.5  86.8    -2.5     85  0.4
  7250   23.1  73.6   205    6    3   7.5   4.1   30.3  86.6    -2.7     60  0.3
  7000   23.7  74.7   205    5    3   6.8   3.7   30.1  86.2    -2.9     35  0.2
  6750   24.2  75.6   210    4    2   8.1   4.4   29.9  85.8    -3.1     12  0.1
  6500   24.7  76.5   215    3    2   2.6   1.4   29.7  85.4    -3.3      M    M
  6250   24.4  75.9   235    3    2  -3.7  -2.0   28.8  83.8    -4.3      M    M
  6000   24.1  75.4   260    3    2  -2.0  -1.1   27.8  82.1    -5.4      M    M
  5750   23.7  74.7   270    5    2  -5.5  -3.0   26.9  80.4    -6.5      M    M
  5500   22.7  72.9   260    6    3 -17.7  -9.7   25.3  77.6    -8.3     20  0.1

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/05/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       07/05/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +27.2  LI... -2.3               | K index... +27.2  LI... -1.2
CAPE... +342.5  CIN... -92.0               | CAPE... +126.0  CIN... -64.5
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.4 -87.5  295  32 16   0.7   0.4 | -67.1 -88.8  295  32 17   0.1   0.1
 45000 -62.8 -81.0  295  44 22   6.0   3.3 | -63.6 -82.5  290  42 21   6.8   3.8
 40000 -52.6 -62.7  275  42 22   9.0   4.9 | -52.2 -62.0  270  43 22   9.5   5.2
 38000 -47.2 -53.0  270  32 17   9.0   4.9 | -46.5 -51.7  270  39 20   9.5   5.2
 36000 -41.8 -43.2  265  22 11   9.0   4.9 | -40.8 -41.4  270  35 18   9.0   4.9
 34000 -36.5 -33.7  260  18  9   9.0   4.9 | -35.6 -32.1  265  29 15   8.6   4.7
 32000 -31.1 -24.0  245  14  7  10.0   5.5 | -30.5 -22.9  255  23 12   9.7   5.3
 30000 -26.6 -15.9  230  13  7   7.5   4.1 | -25.8 -14.4  250  21 11   7.9   4.3
 29000 -23.8 -10.8  225  13  7   7.5   4.1 | -22.8  -9.0  250  21 11   7.9   4.3
 28000 -21.6  -6.9  220  13  7   6.8   3.8 | -20.6  -5.1  245  20 10   6.9   3.8
 27000 -19.6  -3.3  215  13  7   6.9   3.8 | -18.5  -1.3  245  19 10   7.0   3.9
 26000 -17.6   0.3  210  14  7   6.9   3.8 | -16.5   2.3  245  19 10   7.0   3.9
 25000 -15.5   4.1  205  14  7   6.6   3.6 | -14.4   6.1  240  18  9   6.7   3.7
 24000 -13.7   7.3  205  15  8   6.2   3.4 | -12.6   9.3  240  18  9   6.2   3.4
 23000 -11.9  10.6  205  16  8   6.2   3.4 | -10.8  12.6  240  18  9   6.2   3.4
 22000 -10.1  13.8  205  17  9   6.1   3.3 |  -9.0  15.8  235  18  9   6.0   3.3
 21000  -8.4  16.9  205  17  9   5.8   3.2 |  -7.4  18.7  230  17  9   5.7   3.1
 20000  -6.8  19.8  205  16  8   5.8   3.2 |  -5.7  21.7  225  17  9   5.7   3.1
 19500  -5.9  21.4  205  16  8   5.8   3.2 |  -4.9  23.2  220  17  9   5.8   3.2
 19000  -5.0  23.0  205  15  8   6.5   3.6 |  -4.1  24.6  215  16  8   4.9   2.7
 18500  -4.1  24.6  205  13  7   6.4   3.5 |  -3.4  25.9  215  15  8   4.9   2.7
 18000  -3.2  26.2  205  12  6   6.3   3.5 |  -2.7  27.1  210  14  7   4.8   2.6
 17500  -2.3  27.9  205  10  5   6.1   3.4 |  -2.1  28.2  210  12  6   4.4   2.4
 17000  -1.4  29.5  210   7  4   6.0   3.3 |  -1.5  29.3  205  10  5   4.2   2.3
 16500  -0.4  31.3  210   6  3   7.1   3.9 |  -0.7  30.7  200   8  4   6.5   3.6
 16000   0.6  33.1  215   4  2   7.1   3.9 |   0.3  32.5  195   7  4   6.7   3.7
 15500   1.7  35.1  220   3  2   7.5   4.1 |   1.9  35.4  190   5  3   8.9   4.9
 15000   3.4  38.1  215   2  1   7.8   4.3 |   3.2  37.8  185   4  2   8.7   4.8
 14500   4.6  40.3  215   1  1   8.6   4.7 |   4.5  40.1  185   4  2   8.5   4.7
 14000   5.9  42.6  225   1  1   8.8   4.8 |   5.7  42.3  180   3  2   8.4   4.6
 13500   7.2  45.0  245   1  0   8.8   4.8 |   6.9  44.4  170   2  1   8.6   4.7
 13000   8.5  47.3  265   1  0   8.7   4.8 |   8.2  46.8  170   2  1   8.8   4.8
 12500   9.7  49.5  285   1  0   8.7   4.8 |   9.5  49.1  170   1  1   8.8   4.8
 12000  11.0  51.8  285   1  1   8.6   4.7 |  10.8  51.4  180   1  1   8.7   4.8
 11500  12.3  54.1  285   2  1   8.4   4.6 |  12.0  53.6  215   1  0   8.6   4.7
 11000  13.4  56.1  285   2  1   7.2   3.9 |  13.1  55.6  265   1  0   6.8   3.7
 10500  14.4  57.9  280   2  1   9.6   5.3 |  14.2  57.6  285   1  1   9.3   5.1
 10250  15.2  59.4  275   2  1  10.0   5.5 |  15.0  59.0  285   2  1  10.1   5.5
 10000  15.8  60.4  275   2  1   6.9   3.8 |  15.5  59.9  295   2  1   7.4   4.1
  9750  16.3  61.3  280   2  1   7.8   4.3 |  16.1  61.0  300   2  1   8.2   4.5
  9500  16.9  62.4  280   2  1   7.5   4.1 |  16.7  62.1  305   3  1   7.7   4.2
  9250  17.4  63.3  280   2  1   7.8   4.3 |  17.2  63.0  310   3  2   7.7   4.2
  9000  18.0  64.4  285   2  1   8.1   4.4 |  17.8  64.0  315   3  2   8.6   4.7
  8750  18.6  65.5  290   2  1   8.1   4.4 |  18.4  65.1  315   4  2   9.0   4.9
  8500  19.3  66.7  295   3  1   8.0   4.4 |  19.0  66.2  320   4  2   9.1   5.0
  8250  19.8  67.6  305   3  2   8.2   4.5 |  19.7  67.5  320   5  2  10.7   5.9
  8000  20.4  68.7  310   4  2   7.6   4.2 |  20.5  68.9  320   5  3  10.2   5.6
  7750  20.9  69.6  315   5  2   7.0   3.9 |  21.1  70.0  320   5  3   8.8   4.8
  7500  21.4  70.5  320   5  3   7.1   3.9 |  21.8  71.2  320   5  3   9.6   5.3
  7250  21.9  71.4  320   7  4   6.9   3.8 |  22.6  72.7  325   6  3  10.5   5.7
  7000  22.4  72.3  320   9  4   6.8   3.8 |  23.3  73.9  325   5  3  10.4   5.7
  6750  22.9  73.2  320  10  5   6.9   3.8 |  24.1  75.4  325   5  3   9.3   5.1
  6500  23.4  74.1  320  12  6   6.4   3.5 |  24.8  76.6  325   5  3  10.2   5.6
  6250  23.7  74.7  320  10  5   6.1   3.3 |  25.6  78.1  325   5  3  11.6   6.4
  6000  24.0  75.2  320   9  4   5.9   3.2 |  26.4  79.5  325   5  3  10.9   6.0
  5750  24.4  75.9  320   7  3   7.8   4.3 |  27.2  81.0  325   5  3  12.5   6.8
  5500  25.2  77.4  320   5  3  15.0   8.2 |  28.4  83.1  325   5  3  21.0  11.5

           07/05/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       07/05/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +29.0  LI... -1.4               | K index... +29.0  LI... -0.8
CAPE... +45.1  CIN... -9.9                 | CAPE... +3.7  CIN... -57.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -68.2 -90.8  280  34 17  -1.2  -0.6 | -68.2 -90.8  265  23 12  -1.0  -0.5
 45000 -64.0 -83.2  270  47 24   9.3   5.1 | -63.7 -82.7  260  37 19   9.2   5.1
 40000 -50.1 -58.2  270  39 20   9.0   4.9 | -49.9 -57.8  265  37 19   9.0   5.0
 38000 -44.8 -48.6  270  36 18   9.0   4.9 | -44.5 -48.1  265  34 18   9.0   5.0
 36000 -39.4 -38.9  275  32 17   8.6   4.7 | -39.1 -38.4  265  32 17   8.7   4.8
 34000 -34.4 -29.9  270  31 16   8.3   4.5 | -34.0 -29.2  265  29 15   8.4   4.6
 32000 -29.5 -21.1  265  29 15   9.5   5.2 | -29.0 -20.2  265  27 14   9.8   5.4
 30000 -24.3 -11.7  260  26 14   7.8   4.3 | -24.0 -11.2  270  26 13   7.3   4.0
 29000 -22.0  -7.6  260  25 13   7.8   4.3 | -21.9  -7.4  270  26 13   7.4   4.0
 28000 -19.8  -3.6  260  23 12   6.5   3.5 | -19.8  -3.6  275  25 13   6.6   3.6
 27000 -17.9  -0.2  255  21 11   6.6   3.6 | -17.8  -0.0  275  24 12   6.7   3.7
 26000 -15.9   3.4  255  19 10   6.6   3.6 | -15.8   3.6  275  23 12   6.7   3.7
 25000 -14.0   6.8  250  17  9   6.4   3.5 | -13.9   7.0  275  22 11   6.5   3.5
 24000 -12.3   9.9  250  17  9   5.9   3.2 | -12.2  10.0  275  22 11   5.9   3.3
 23000 -10.6  12.9  245  17  9   5.9   3.3 | -10.4  13.3  270  21 11   6.0   3.3
 22000  -8.9  16.0  240  17  9   5.7   3.1 |  -8.7  16.3  270  21 11   5.8   3.2
 21000  -7.4  18.7  235  17  9   5.1   2.8 |  -7.1  19.2  270  21 11   5.4   3.0
 20000  -5.9  21.4  230  17  9   5.1   2.8 |  -5.6  21.9  270  20 10   5.5   3.0
 19500  -5.1  22.8  230  17  9   5.1   2.8 |  -4.8  23.4  270  20 10   5.5   3.0
 19000  -4.4  24.1  225  17  9   5.5   3.0 |  -4.0  24.8  270  19 10   5.6   3.0
 18500  -3.6  25.5  220  16  8   5.6   3.1 |  -3.2  26.2  270  19 10   5.6   3.1
 18000  -2.8  27.0  215  16  8   5.7   3.1 |  -2.4  27.7  270  18  9   5.6   3.1
 17500  -1.9  28.6  210  15  8   6.1   3.4 |  -1.6  29.1  275  17  9   5.9   3.2
 17000  -1.0  30.2  205  15  8   6.1   3.4 |  -0.7  30.7  275  17  9   5.9   3.2
 16500  -0.1  31.8  200  14  7   6.3   3.4 |   0.1  32.2  280  16  8   5.9   3.2
 16000   1.3  34.3  195  13  7   6.2   3.4 |   1.4  34.5  280  15  8   5.7   3.1
 15500   2.2  36.0  195  12  6   6.9   3.8 |   2.3  36.1  285  14  7   7.6   4.2
 15000   3.2  37.8  195  11  6   6.9   3.8 |   3.4  38.1  285  14  7   7.6   4.2
 14500   4.2  39.6  190  10  5   6.5   3.6 |   4.5  40.1  285  13  7   7.5   4.1
 14000   5.1  41.2  200   8  4   6.4   3.5 |   5.6  42.1  285  12  6   7.5   4.1
 13500   6.0  42.8  205   6  3   7.0   3.9 |   6.7  44.1  285  11  6   7.5   4.1
 13000   7.2  45.0  220   5  2   8.4   4.6 |   7.8  46.0  285  11  5   7.4   4.1
 12500   8.4  47.1  245   4  2   8.6   4.7 |   8.9  48.0  280  10  5   7.5   4.1
 12000   9.8  49.6  260   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  10.0  50.0  275   9  4   7.6   4.2
 11500  11.3  52.3  270   4  2   9.9   5.4 |  11.1  52.0  265   8  4   7.6   4.2
 11000  12.6  54.7  280   4  2   8.1   4.5 |  12.1  53.8  260   7  4   6.9   3.8
 10500  13.8  56.8  285   4  2  11.4   6.3 |  13.1  55.6  255   6  3   8.2   4.5
 10250  14.7  58.5  290   4  2  12.4   6.8 |  13.8  56.8  255   6  3   9.2   5.1
 10000  15.4  59.7  295   5  2   8.8   4.9 |  14.5  58.1  250   6  3   8.2   4.5
  9750  16.1  61.0  300   5  3   9.8   5.4 |  15.1  59.2  250   5  3   8.5   4.7
  9500  16.8  62.2  300   5  3   9.4   5.2 |  15.7  60.3  250   5  3   8.3   4.5
  9250  17.5  63.5  305   6  3   9.5   5.2 |  16.3  61.3  250   5  3   8.1   4.5
  9000  18.2  64.8  305   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  16.9  62.4  245   5  3   9.0   4.9
  8750  19.0  66.2  305   6  3  10.2   5.6 |  17.6  63.7  245   5  3   9.6   5.3
  8500  19.7  67.5  305   6  3  10.2   5.6 |  18.2  64.8  245   5  3   9.4   5.2
  8250  20.5  68.9  305   7  3  10.7   5.9 |  18.9  66.0  245   5  3   9.8   5.4
  8000  21.3  70.3  305   7  4  10.1   5.5 |  19.7  67.5  245   5  3   9.5   5.2
  7750  22.0  71.6  305   7  4   9.2   5.1 |  20.3  68.5  245   5  3   8.9   4.9
  7500  22.7  72.9  310   7  4   9.6   5.3 |  21.0  69.8  245   5  3   9.2   5.0
  7250  23.4  74.1  310   8  4   9.9   5.4 |  21.7  71.1  245   5  3   9.6   5.3
  7000  24.2  75.6  310   8  4  10.0   5.5 |  22.4  72.3  240   6  3   9.7   5.3
  6750  24.9  76.8  310   8  4   9.6   5.3 |  23.1  73.6  240   6  3   9.0   4.9
  6500  25.6  78.1  310   8  4  10.1   5.5 |  23.8  74.8  240   6  3   9.7   5.3
  6250  26.4  79.5  310   8  4  10.9   6.0 |  24.5  76.1  240   6  3  10.8   5.9
  6000  27.2  81.0  310   8  4  10.7   5.9 |  25.3  77.5  240   6  3  10.7   5.9
  5750  28.0  82.4  310   8  4  10.7   5.9 |  26.1  79.0  240   6  3   9.6   5.3
  5500  28.9  84.0  310   8  4  15.8   8.7 |  26.8  80.2  240   6  3   9.7   5.3
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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