Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 021257
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0657 MDT Sunday, August 2, 2015

This forecast is for Sunday, August 2, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 85.3 F/29.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1226 ft/min (6.2 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 19803 ft MSL (14518 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 92.0 F/33.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast opaque high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10249 ft MSL (4964 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 08/03....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 17612 ft MSL (12327 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 08/03.......... Poor

Remarks... None

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:59:11 / 20:12:37 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 13 min 25 sec (853 min 25 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:40 MDT... 67.90 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 08/02/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16047 ft MSL (10762 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 15669 ft MSL (10384 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 16223 ft MSL (10938 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -3.0
K index......................... +23.7

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -68.7 -91.7   290   32   17   7.5   4.1   77.3 171.2    25.7      M    M
 45000  -62.7 -80.9   275   52   27   6.5   3.6   63.1 145.6    18.7      M    M
 40000  -53.3 -63.9   270   72   37   9.0   5.0   54.9 130.9    14.5      M    M
 38000  -48.2 -54.8   275   62   32   8.5   4.6   53.9 128.9    14.1      M    M
 36000  -43.2 -45.8   280   53   27   7.7   4.2   52.7 126.8    13.6      M    M
 34000  -37.6 -35.7   280   45   23   8.4   4.6   51.2 124.1    13.0      M    M
 32000  -33.5 -28.3   285   37   19   5.4   3.0   48.9 120.0    11.5      M    M
 30000  -28.5 -19.3   290   28   14   9.1   5.0   47.7 117.9    10.9      M    M
 29000  -26.4 -15.5   295   24   12   6.5   3.5   46.6 116.0    10.2      M    M
 28000  -23.9 -11.0   300   21   11   7.1   3.9   46.1 115.0     9.9      M    M
 27000  -22.3  -8.1   295   18    9   4.5   2.5   44.4 112.0     8.6      M    M
 26000  -20.4  -4.7   285   16    8   5.9   3.2   43.1 109.7     7.7      M    M
 25000  -19.3  -2.7   275   14    7   5.6   3.1   40.9 105.6     5.9      M    M
 24000  -16.7   1.9   285   10    5   9.5   5.2   40.5 104.8     5.7      M    M
 23000  -14.1   6.6   290    7    4   5.6   3.1   40.1 104.1     5.5      M    M
 22000  -11.9  10.6   300    5    3   7.7   4.2   39.1 102.4     4.8      M    M
 21000   -9.9  14.2   320    3    2   7.0   3.8   38.0 100.4     3.9      M    M
 20000  -10.4  13.3   300    8    4  -1.0  -0.6   34.4  94.0     0.5      M    M
 19500   -9.5  14.9   325   10    5   9.1   5.0   33.8  92.8    -0.1   1403  7.1
 19000   -8.2  17.2   335   12    6   8.6   4.7   33.6  92.5    -0.2   1349  6.9
 18500   -6.9  19.6   340   11    6   8.8   4.9   33.4  92.1    -0.4   1296  6.6
 18000   -5.6  21.9   350   10    5   8.7   4.8   33.3  91.9    -0.6   1242  6.3
 17500   -4.3  24.3   360    8    4   8.5   4.7   33.0  91.4    -0.8   1189  6.0
 17000   -3.0  26.6   010    8    4   9.2   5.0   32.9  91.2    -0.9   1134  5.8
 16500   -1.0  30.2   035    8    4   9.6   5.3   32.8  91.0    -1.0   1050  5.3
 16000    0.5  32.9   045    8    4   9.6   5.3   32.8  91.0    -1.1    993  5.0
 15500    1.9  35.4   040    8    4   9.6   5.3   32.7  90.9    -1.2    936  4.8
 15000    3.3  37.9   035    7    4   9.6   5.3   32.7  90.8    -1.2    879  4.5
 14500    4.7  40.5   035    7    4   9.6   5.3   32.7  90.8    -1.3    821  4.2
 14000    6.1  43.0   030    7    3   9.7   5.3   32.7  90.8    -1.3    764  3.9
 13500    7.5  45.5   040    5    3   9.2   5.0   32.6  90.7    -1.4    708  3.6
 13000    8.8  47.8   050    4    2   9.2   5.1   32.5  90.5    -1.6    653  3.3
 12500   10.2  50.4   075    3    2   9.3   5.1   32.4  90.4    -1.7    599  3.0
 12000   11.5  52.7   105    3    1   9.3   5.1   32.4  90.3    -1.8    544  2.8
 11500   12.8  55.0   180    2    1   9.4   5.2   32.3  90.2    -1.9    489  2.5
 11000   13.9  57.0   215    5    2   6.3   3.5   32.0  89.6    -2.3    441  2.2
 10500   14.9  58.8   225    8    4   7.0   3.9   31.5  88.7    -2.8    398  2.0
 10250   15.4  59.7   230    8    4   8.0   4.4   31.3  88.4    -3.0    374  1.9
 10000   16.0  60.8   230    8    4   8.1   4.4   31.2  88.1    -3.2    349  1.8
  9750   16.6  61.9   235    8    4   8.0   4.4   31.0  87.9    -3.3    323  1.6
  9500   17.2  63.0   240    8    4   8.1   4.4   30.9  87.6    -3.5    298  1.5
  9250   17.8  64.0   240    8    4   8.0   4.4   30.8  87.4    -3.6    273  1.4
  9000   18.4  65.1   245    8    4   8.1   4.5   30.7  87.2    -3.7    248  1.3
  8750   19.0  66.2   240    8    4   7.7   4.2   30.5  87.0    -3.9    222  1.1
  8500   19.5  67.1   240    8    4   5.3   2.9   30.3  86.5    -4.1    200  1.0
  8250   19.8  67.6   235    9    4   4.0   2.2   29.9  85.8    -4.5    183  0.9
  8000   20.1  68.2   235    9    5   4.4   2.4   29.5  85.0    -5.0    167  0.8
  7750   20.4  68.7   235    9    4   4.2   2.3   29.0  84.2    -5.4    150  0.8
  7500   20.7  69.3   230    8    4   4.4   2.4   28.6  83.5    -5.9    134  0.7
  7250   21.0  69.8   230    8    4   3.3   1.8   28.2  82.7    -6.3    118  0.6
  7000   21.1  70.0   225    8    4   2.2   1.2   27.6  81.7    -7.0    107  0.5
  6750   21.2  70.2   230    6    3   2.8   1.5   27.1  80.7    -7.6     96  0.5
  6500   21.3  70.3   245    5    2   1.8   1.0   26.5  79.7    -8.2     86  0.4
  6250   21.3  70.3   270    3    2  -0.8  -0.4   25.8  78.5    -9.0     79  0.4
  6000   21.1  70.0   305    3    2  -2.1  -1.1   25.0  76.9   -10.0     78  0.4
  5750   20.9  69.6   285    3    1  -0.8  -0.4   24.1  75.4   -10.9     76  0.4
  5500   20.6  69.1   260    3    2  -6.6  -3.6   23.2  73.7   -12.0     78  0.4

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/02/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       08/02/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +29.1  LI... -2.1               | K index... +26.4  LI... -3.5
CAPE... +126.9  CIN... -46.2               | CAPE... +366.3  CIN... -45.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.6 -86.1  290  35 18   1.7   0.9 | -65.6 -86.1  285  34 18   1.7   0.9
 45000 -61.3 -78.3  285  54 28   5.3   2.9 | -61.2 -78.2  280  51 26   5.4   3.0
 40000 -52.9 -63.2  275  66 34   7.3   4.0 | -52.7 -62.9  275  65 33   7.3   4.0
 38000 -48.5 -55.3  280  57 29   7.3   4.0 | -48.3 -54.9  275  56 29   7.4   4.0
 36000 -44.1 -47.4  285  47 24   7.2   4.0 | -43.3 -45.9  280  47 24   8.2   4.5
 34000 -38.4 -37.1  285  37 19   8.6   4.7 | -38.0 -36.4  280  38 19   8.7   4.8
 32000 -33.3 -27.9  280  27 14   9.2   5.1 | -32.8 -27.0  280  28 15   9.4   5.1
 30000 -28.6 -19.5  280  23 12   7.8   4.3 | -28.2 -18.8  280  23 12   7.7   4.2
 29000 -26.3 -15.3  280  21 11   7.8   4.3 | -25.9 -14.6  280  21 11   7.7   4.2
 28000 -24.0 -11.2  280  19 10   6.4   3.5 | -23.6 -10.5  280  18  9   6.1   3.4
 27000 -22.1  -7.8  285  18  9   6.3   3.5 | -21.8  -7.2  285  16  8   6.0   3.3
 26000 -20.3  -4.5  295  16  8   6.3   3.5 | -20.0  -4.0  295  14  7   6.0   3.3
 25000 -18.4  -1.1  305  15  8   6.2   3.4 | -18.2  -0.8  310  13  7   6.1   3.4
 24000 -16.7   1.9  310  13  7   5.7   3.1 | -16.3   2.7  315  12  6   6.6   3.6
 23000 -15.0   5.0  320  11  6   5.7   3.1 | -14.3   6.3  320  10  5   6.6   3.6
 22000 -13.4   7.9  330  10  5   6.0   3.3 | -12.4   9.7  325   9  5   6.2   3.4
 21000 -11.5  11.3  355   8  4   6.6   3.6 | -10.8  12.6  345   8  4   5.3   2.9
 20000  -9.6  14.7  025   8  4   6.6   3.6 |  -9.3  15.3  010   8  4   5.3   2.9
 19500  -8.6  16.5  040   9  4   6.6   3.6 |  -8.5  16.7  020   9  4   5.3   2.9
 19000  -7.7  18.1  050   9  5   6.6   3.6 |  -7.7  18.1  030   9  5   6.4   3.5
 18500  -6.7  19.9  055  10  5   6.6   3.6 |  -6.2  20.8  040  10  5   6.1   3.4
 18000  -5.7  21.7  060  11  5   7.2   3.9 |  -5.1  22.8  050  10  5   8.6   4.7
 17500  -3.9  25.0  075   9  4   8.0   4.4 |  -3.9  25.0  055  10  5   8.6   4.7
 17000  -2.8  27.0  090   7  4   8.3   4.5 |  -2.6  27.3  060   9  5   8.8   4.8
 16500  -1.6  29.1  090   6  3   8.5   4.7 |  -1.3  29.7  060   7  4   9.0   4.9
 16000  -0.4  31.3  090   4  2   8.6   4.7 |  -0.0  32.0  065   6  3   9.0   5.0
 15500   1.0  33.8  085   3  1  10.6   5.8 |   1.3  34.3  060   5  3   9.8   5.4
 15000   2.5  36.5  065   2  1  10.6   5.8 |   2.7  36.9  055   5  2   9.8   5.4
 14500   4.0  39.2  030   2  1   8.7   4.8 |   4.0  39.2  050   5  2   9.2   5.0
 14000   5.3  41.5  005   2  1   8.6   4.7 |   5.4  41.7  040   5  2   9.1   5.0
 13500   6.6  43.9  355   3  1   8.8   4.8 |   6.7  44.1  035   5  2   9.0   4.9
 13000   7.9  46.2  345   3  2   8.9   4.9 |   8.0  46.4  030   5  3   8.9   4.9
 12500   9.2  48.6  340   4  2   9.0   4.9 |   9.3  48.7  030   6  3   8.9   4.9
 12000  10.6  51.1  330   5  2   9.2   5.0 |  10.7  51.3  025   6  3   8.9   4.9
 11500  11.9  53.4  325   5  3   9.0   5.0 |  12.0  53.6  025   7  3   8.8   4.8
 11000  13.2  55.8  320   5  3   8.5   4.6 |  13.3  55.9  020   7  4   8.4   4.6
 10500  14.5  58.1  320   5  3   4.9   2.7 |  14.6  58.3  020   7  4   5.4   2.9
 10250  14.8  58.6  315   5  3   6.3   3.5 |  14.8  58.6  015   7  4   6.6   3.6
 10000  15.6  60.1  315   5  3  12.1   6.6 |  15.6  60.1  015   7  4  11.4   6.2
  9750  16.3  61.3  315   5  3  11.0   6.0 |  16.4  61.5  015   7  4  10.5   5.8
  9500  17.1  62.8  310   5  3   9.6   5.3 |  17.2  63.0  010   7  4   9.3   5.1
  9250  17.7  63.9  315   5  3   7.3   4.0 |  17.7  63.9  010   7  3   7.5   4.1
  9000  18.3  64.9  315   5  3   8.7   4.8 |  18.3  64.9  010   7  3   8.7   4.8
  8750  19.0  66.2  320   5  3   9.8   5.4 |  19.0  66.2  010   7  3   9.5   5.2
  8500  19.7  67.5  325   5  3   8.3   4.5 |  19.7  67.5  005   7  3   8.6   4.7
  8250  20.2  68.4  330   5  3   6.9   3.8 |  20.2  68.4  005   6  3   7.7   4.2
  8000  20.7  69.3  335   6  3   6.4   3.5 |  20.8  69.4  005   6  3   7.7   4.2
  7750  21.1  70.0  340   6  3   5.9   3.2 |  21.4  70.5  005   6  3   7.4   4.1
  7500  21.6  70.9  340   6  3   5.2   2.8 |  21.9  71.4  005   6  3   8.5   4.6
  7250  21.9  71.4  340   6  3   4.4   2.4 |  22.5  72.5  005   5  3   9.4   5.1
  7000  22.2  72.0  340   6  3   4.6   2.6 |  23.2  73.8  010   5  3   9.2   5.1
  6750  22.5  72.5  340   7  3   3.7   2.1 |  23.8  74.8  010   5  2   9.8   5.4
  6500  22.7  72.9  335   7  3   1.2   0.7 |  24.6  76.3  010   4  2  10.5   5.8
  6250  22.7  72.9  335   6  3   0.6   0.3 |  25.4  77.7  010   4  2  11.1   6.1
  6000  22.6  72.7  330   6  3  -0.9  -0.5 |  26.2  79.2  010   4  2   9.9   5.4
  5750  22.6  72.7  325   5  3   4.2   2.3 |  27.0  80.6  010   4  2  14.8   8.1
  5500  23.4  74.1  325   4  2  19.0  10.4 |  28.5  83.3  010   4  2  27.1  14.9

           08/02/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       08/02/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.2  LI... -3.6               | K index... +34.9  LI... -3.9
CAPE... +577.2  CIN... -5.1                | CAPE... +383.0  CIN... -5.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.3 -87.3  290  38 20   1.7   1.0 | -65.5 -85.9  295  37 19   2.0   1.1
 45000 -61.8 -79.2  275  53 27   5.6   3.0 | -61.1 -78.0  280  49 25   5.0   2.7
 40000 -52.5 -62.5  265  64 33   8.1   4.5 | -52.3 -62.1  255  57 29   8.7   4.8
 38000 -47.6 -53.7  265  53 27   8.1   4.4 | -47.1 -52.8  255  46 24   8.7   4.8
 36000 -42.8 -45.0  270  41 21   8.2   4.5 | -41.9 -43.4  260  36 19   8.4   4.6
 34000 -37.8 -36.0  275  34 17   8.3   4.6 | -37.2 -35.0  265  30 15   7.9   4.3
 32000 -32.8 -27.0  280  27 14   9.1   5.0 | -32.4 -26.3  280  24 13   7.7   4.2
 30000 -28.1 -18.6  280  22 11   8.0   4.4 | -27.8 -18.0  285  21 11   7.8   4.3
 29000 -25.7 -14.3  280  19 10   8.0   4.4 | -25.0 -13.0  290  18  9   7.8   4.3
 28000 -22.9  -9.2  285  16  8   5.5   3.0 | -22.8  -9.0  295  16  8   5.0   2.7
 27000 -21.2  -6.2  290  13  7   5.7   3.1 | -21.2  -6.2  305  11  6   5.3   2.9
 26000 -19.5  -3.1  300  10  5   5.7   3.1 | -19.6  -3.3  330   8  4   5.3   2.9
 25000 -17.8  -0.0  315   8  4   6.6   3.6 | -18.0  -0.4  010   7  4   5.9   3.2
 24000 -15.5   4.1  330   8  4   7.5   4.1 | -16.0   3.2  015   8  4   6.8   3.7
 23000 -13.2   8.2  340   8  4   7.5   4.1 | -14.0   6.8  020   8  4   6.7   3.7
 22000 -11.0  12.2  350   9  4   6.1   3.3 | -12.0  10.4  025   9  5   6.0   3.3
 21000  -9.6  14.7  355   8  4   5.0   2.7 | -10.5  13.1  035  10  5   5.3   2.9
 20000  -8.2  17.2  005   7  4   5.1   2.8 |  -9.0  15.8  040  11  6   5.4   2.9
 19500  -7.5  18.5  010   7  4   5.3   2.9 |  -8.2  17.2  045  11  6   5.2   2.9
 19000  -6.6  20.1  025   7  4   6.0   3.3 |  -7.2  19.0  055  11  6   9.3   5.1
 18500  -5.7  21.7  035   8  4   6.0   3.3 |  -6.0  21.2  070  11  6   9.2   5.0
 18000  -4.8  23.4  050   9  5   6.8   3.7 |  -4.8  23.4  085  12  6   8.9   4.9
 17500  -3.7  25.3  055  10  5   7.4   4.1 |  -3.6  25.5  090  13  6   8.5   4.6
 17000  -2.6  27.3  060  11  6   7.4   4.1 |  -2.4  27.7  100  13  7   8.6   4.7
 16500  -1.4  29.5  065  11  6   8.9   4.9 |  -1.4  29.5  105  14  7   6.5   3.6
 16000  -0.1  31.8  070  11  5   9.0   4.9 |  -0.4  31.3  110  13  7   6.7   3.7
 15500   1.1  34.0  070  10  5   9.0   4.9 |   0.6  33.1  115  13  7   8.0   4.4
 15000   2.9  37.2  075   9  5   9.2   5.0 |   2.4  36.3  120  12  6   8.4   4.6
 14500   4.2  39.6  080   9  5   9.3   5.1 |   3.7  38.7  125  12  6   9.2   5.1
 14000   5.4  41.7  085   9  4   9.4   5.2 |   5.0  41.0  125  11  6   9.2   5.1
 13500   6.7  44.1  085   8  4   9.3   5.1 |   6.4  43.5  130  11  5   9.8   5.4
 13000   8.0  46.4  085   8  4   9.3   5.1 |   7.9  46.2  130  11  5  10.1   5.5
 12500   9.3  48.7  085   7  4   9.4   5.2 |   9.4  48.9  130  10  5   9.9   5.4
 12000  10.7  51.3  085   7  4   9.6   5.3 |  10.9  51.6  130  10  5   9.7   5.3
 11500  12.1  53.8  085   7  3   9.6   5.2 |  12.3  54.1  135  10  5   9.7   5.3
 11000  13.5  56.3  085   6  3   9.3   5.1 |  13.8  56.8  135  10  5   9.6   5.2
 10500  15.0  59.0  085   6  3   5.5   3.0 |  15.2  59.4  135  10  5   6.0   3.3
 10250  15.2  59.4  085   6  3   7.0   3.8 |  15.5  59.9  135  10  5   7.2   4.0
 10000  16.1  61.0  080   6  3  12.9   7.1 |  16.4  61.5  135  10  5  12.7   7.0
  9750  17.0  62.6  080   5  3  12.0   6.6 |  17.3  63.1  140  10  5  11.6   6.4
  9500  17.8  64.0  080   5  3   9.6   5.3 |  18.1  64.6  140  10  5  10.4   5.7
  9250  18.4  65.1  080   5  3   8.0   4.4 |  18.8  65.8  140  10  5   8.9   4.9
  9000  19.1  66.4  080   5  3  10.7   5.9 |  19.5  67.1  140  10  5  10.0   5.5
  8750  20.0  68.0  080   5  2  11.0   6.1 |  20.3  68.5  140  10  5  10.2   5.6
  8500  20.8  69.4  080   5  2  10.7   5.9 |  21.0  69.8  145  10  5  10.4   5.7
  8250  21.5  70.7  080   5  2  10.4   5.7 |  21.8  71.2  145  10  5  10.9   6.0
  8000  22.3  72.1  080   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  22.6  72.7  145   9  5  10.1   5.6
  7750  23.0  73.4  080   4  2   9.6   5.3 |  23.3  73.9  145   9  5   9.3   5.1
  7500  23.8  74.8  080   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  24.0  75.2  150   9  5   9.8   5.4
  7250  24.5  76.1  075   4  2  10.3   5.6 |  24.8  76.6  150   9  5  10.2   5.6
  7000  25.3  77.5  075   4  2   9.9   5.4 |  25.5  77.9  150   9  5   9.9   5.4
  6750  26.0  78.8  075   4  2   9.7   5.3 |  26.2  79.2  155   9  5   9.3   5.1
  6500  26.7  80.1  075   4  2  10.5   5.8 |  26.9  80.4  155   9  5   9.9   5.4
  6250  27.6  81.7  075   4  2  11.6   6.4 |  27.7  81.9  155   9  5  10.7   5.9
  6000  28.4  83.1  075   3  2   9.7   5.3 |  28.5  83.3  155   9  4  10.1   5.5
  5750  29.1  84.4  070   3  2  13.2   7.3 |  29.2  84.6  160   9  4  10.5   5.8
  5500  30.6  87.1  075   3  2  26.5  14.6 |  30.1  86.2  160   8  4  13.4   7.3
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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