Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 100219
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
2019 MDT Tuesday, September 9, 2014

This forecast is for Wednesday, September 10, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 61.5 F/16.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 339 ft/min (1.7 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 12736 ft MSL (7449 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 71.0 F/22.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1015 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10617 ft MSL (5330 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Thursday 09/11..... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Improving
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 17615 ft MSL (12328 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Thursday 09/11........ Excellent

Remarks... Upper trough moving east of colorado with zonal flow aloft developing
           during the afternoon. Clouds decreasing through the day.

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:35:53 / 19:17:43 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 12 hr 41 min 49 sec (761 min 49 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:56:19 MDT... 54.98 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 09/10/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 12302 ft MSL (7015 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 8597 ft MSL (3310 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 11100 ft MSL (5813 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -2.7
K index......................... +27.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -63.2 -81.8   255   57   29   3.2   1.7      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -57.3 -71.1   250   84   43   6.1   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -48.1 -54.6   250   97   50   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -44.3 -47.7   250   92   47   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -40.6 -41.1   250   87   45   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -36.7 -34.1   250   81   42   5.4   3.0      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -33.5 -28.3   250   74   38   5.4   3.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -31.2 -24.2   255   63   32   2.7   1.5   46.3 115.3    18.7      M    M
 29000  -30.4 -22.7   255   56   29   2.7   1.5   43.5 110.3    16.8      M    M
 28000  -29.6 -21.3   260   49   25   2.7   1.5   40.9 105.6    14.9      M    M
 27000  -28.2 -18.8   260   45   23   6.0   3.3   38.9 102.0    13.5      M    M
 26000  -26.4 -15.5   260   42   22   6.1   3.4   37.4  99.4    12.5      M    M
 25000  -24.6 -12.3   260   40   20   6.2   3.4   36.1  97.0    11.6      M    M
 24000  -22.6  -8.7   260   37   19   7.7   4.2   35.0  95.0    10.8      M    M
 23000  -20.4  -4.7   260   34   17   7.6   4.2   34.2  93.5    10.1      M    M
 22000  -18.2  -0.8   260   31   16   7.7   4.2   33.4  92.2     9.6      M    M
 21000  -16.0   3.2   260   29   15   7.1   3.9   32.6  90.7     8.9      M    M
 20000  -13.9   7.0   265   27   14   7.1   3.9   31.6  88.9     8.1      M    M
 19500  -12.9   8.8   270   26   13   7.2   3.9   31.2  88.1     7.8      M    M
 19000  -11.8  10.8   270   25   13   7.2   4.0   30.8  87.4     7.4      M    M
 18500  -10.8  12.6   275   25   13   6.1   3.4   30.3  86.5     7.0      M    M
 18000   -9.9  14.2   280   24   12   6.2   3.4   29.6  85.4     6.5      M    M
 17500   -9.0  15.8   285   24   12   5.7   3.1   29.0  84.3     6.0      M    M
 17000   -8.3  17.1   290   23   12   5.3   2.9   28.3  82.9     5.3      M    M
 16500   -7.1  19.2   295   22   11   5.1   2.8   27.1  80.8     4.3      M    M
 16000   -6.4  20.5   300   21   11   5.1   2.8   26.3  79.4     3.5      M    M
 15500   -5.7  21.7   305   20   10   5.6   3.1   25.5  78.0     2.8      M    M
 15000   -4.8  23.4   310   19   10   6.9   3.8   25.0  77.0     2.3      M    M
 14500   -3.8  25.2   315   18    9   6.9   3.8   24.5  76.1     1.8      M    M
 14000   -2.8  27.0   315   17    9   6.8   3.8   24.0  75.3     1.3      M    M
 13500   -1.8  28.8   320   16    8   7.0   3.9   23.6  74.4     0.9      M    M
 13000   -1.0  30.2   320   16    8   5.1   2.8   23.0  73.3     0.3      M    M
 12500   -0.2  31.6   325   15    8   5.2   2.9   22.2  72.0    -0.4    516  2.6
 12000    0.6  33.1   325   15    8   5.6   3.1   21.5  70.8    -1.1    478  2.4
 11500    1.4  34.5   330   14    7   5.6   3.1   20.9  69.5    -1.8    440  2.2
 11000    2.1  35.8   335   13    7   5.2   2.9   20.2  68.3    -2.5    402  2.0
 10500    2.9  37.2   340   13    6   5.8   3.2   19.4  67.0    -3.2    365  1.9
 10250    3.2  37.8   340   12    6   2.6   1.4   19.1  66.3    -3.6    346  1.8
 10000    3.3  37.9   340   12    6   3.3   1.8   18.4  65.2    -4.2    336  1.7
  9750    3.8  38.8   340   12    6   7.0   3.8   18.1  64.6    -4.5    315  1.6
  9500    4.2  39.6   345   12    6   6.2   3.4   17.9  64.1    -4.8    295  1.5
  9250    4.7  40.5   345   12    6   5.5   3.0   17.6  63.7    -5.1    274  1.4
  9000    5.0  41.0   350   12    6   5.2   2.9   17.2  63.0    -5.5    256  1.3
  8750    5.4  41.7   350   12    6   6.2   3.4   16.9  62.4    -5.8    236  1.2
  8500    5.9  42.6   355   12    6   6.1   3.3   16.6  61.9    -6.1    215  1.1
  8250    6.3  43.3   355   13    7   6.2   3.4   16.4  61.4    -6.4    194  1.0
  8000    6.8  44.2   360   13    7   6.2   3.4   16.1  60.9    -6.7    174  0.9
  7750    7.2  45.0   360   14    7   6.2   3.4   15.8  60.5    -7.1    153  0.8
  7500    7.6  45.7   005   15    8   6.3   3.5   15.5  60.0    -7.4    133  0.7
  7250    8.1  46.6   005   15    8   6.5   3.6   15.3  59.5    -7.7    112  0.6
  7000    8.6  47.5   005   16    8   6.6   3.6   15.0  59.1    -7.9     91  0.5
  6750    9.0  48.2   005   17    9   7.1   3.9   14.8  58.7    -8.2     69  0.4
  6500    9.6  49.3   005   17    9   7.7   4.2   14.6  58.3    -8.5     46  0.2
  6250   10.1  50.2   360   15    8   7.9   4.3   14.5  58.1    -8.7     23  0.1
  6000   10.6  51.1   355   13    7   7.4   4.1   14.3  57.8    -8.9      M    M
  5750   11.1  52.0   350   11    6   8.4   4.6   14.2  57.5    -9.1      M    M
  5500   11.9  53.4   345    9    5  11.7   6.4   14.2  57.6    -9.1      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/10/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       09/10/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +25.7  LI... -1.5               | K index... +0.3  LI... -1.7
CAPE... +120.1  CIN... -5.4                | CAPE... +206.0  CIN... -30.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.4 -82.1  255  63 32   2.8   1.5 | -63.1 -81.6  260  56 29   2.4   1.3
 45000 -57.7 -71.9  255  86 44   6.3   3.4 | -58.2 -72.8  260  71 37   5.3   2.9
 40000 -48.3 -54.9  250  83 43   6.2   3.4 | -50.2 -58.4  260  76 39   5.9   3.2
 38000 -44.5 -48.1  250  80 41   6.2   3.4 | -46.7 -52.1  265  66 34   6.0   3.3
 36000 -40.8 -41.4  250  78 40   6.3   3.4 | -43.1 -45.6  270  55 29   6.0   3.3
 34000 -37.6 -35.7  250  74 38   4.7   2.6 | -39.8 -39.6  275  48 25   5.0   2.7
 32000 -34.4 -29.9  255  67 35   4.7   2.6 | -36.9 -34.4  290  43 22   5.0   2.7
 30000 -32.3 -26.1  260  56 29   2.6   1.4 | -33.1 -27.6  305  40 20   6.1   3.3
 29000 -31.6 -24.9  260  49 25   2.6   1.4 | -31.2 -24.2  310  38 20   6.1   3.3
 28000 -30.8 -23.4  265  42 21   2.5   1.4 | -29.4 -20.9  315  37 19   6.1   3.4
 27000 -29.3 -20.7  270  37 19   6.6   3.6 | -27.7 -17.9  315  35 18   5.6   3.1
 26000 -27.3 -17.1  270  35 18   6.7   3.7 | -26.0 -14.8  310  34 17   5.6   3.1
 25000 -25.3 -13.5  270  32 17   6.7   3.7 | -24.3 -11.7  300  32 17   5.7   3.1
 24000 -23.3  -9.9  275  30 16   7.1   3.9 | -22.5  -8.5  295  31 16   6.5   3.6
 23000 -21.2  -6.2  275  28 15   7.1   3.9 | -20.5  -4.9  295  30 15   6.5   3.6
 22000 -19.1  -2.4  275  27 14   7.2   4.0 | -18.6  -1.5  290  29 15   6.5   3.6
 21000 -17.1   1.2  275  25 13   6.8   3.7 | -16.7   1.9  290  28 14   6.5   3.6
 20000 -15.1   4.8  280  22 11   6.8   3.7 | -14.8   5.4  290  27 14   6.5   3.6
 19500 -14.2   6.4  285  21 11   6.8   3.7 | -13.8   7.2  290  26 14   6.6   3.6
 19000 -13.2   8.2  290  20 10   6.8   3.8 | -12.8   9.0  290  26 13   6.7   3.7
 18500 -12.1  10.2  295  20 10   7.5   4.1 | -11.8  10.8  290  25 13   7.3   4.0
 18000 -11.0  12.2  305  20 10   7.5   4.1 | -10.7  12.7  290  25 13   7.3   4.0
 17500 -10.0  14.0  310  20 11   6.6   3.6 |  -9.6  14.7  290  25 13   6.9   3.8
 17000  -9.0  15.8  320  20 10   6.3   3.4 |  -8.5  16.7  290  24 13   6.8   3.7
 16500  -8.1  17.4  325  20 11   6.2   3.4 |  -7.5  18.5  295  24 12   6.5   3.5
 16000  -6.8  19.8  330  23 12   5.8   3.2 |  -6.6  20.1  300  24 12   5.7   3.1
 15500  -6.0  21.2  335  24 12   6.0   3.3 |  -5.4  22.3  305  23 12   6.4   3.5
 15000  -5.1  22.8  330  25 13   6.2   3.4 |  -4.3  24.3  310  22 12   6.8   3.8
 14500  -4.2  24.4  330  27 14   6.3   3.4 |  -3.3  26.1  310  22 12   7.1   3.9
 14000  -3.2  26.2  330  27 14   6.7   3.7 |  -2.2  28.0  315  23 12   7.6   4.1
 13500  -2.2  28.0  330  26 13   6.7   3.7 |  -1.1  30.0  315  23 12   7.6   4.2
 13000  -1.3  29.7  330  25 13   6.3   3.4 |   0.0  32.0  315  23 12   8.0   4.4
 12500  -0.4  31.3  330  23 12   6.2   3.4 |   1.2  34.2  315  24 12   8.0   4.4
 12000   0.6  33.1  330  21 11   7.5   4.1 |   2.3  36.1  315  24 12   8.1   4.5
 11500   1.6  34.9  330  19 10   7.5   4.1 |   3.5  38.3  315  23 12   8.2   4.5
 11000   2.7  36.9  330  16  8   6.9   3.8 |   4.6  40.3  315  22 11   7.2   4.0
 10500   3.6  38.5  330  14  7   7.8   4.3 |   5.7  42.3  315  21 11   7.1   3.9
 10250   4.1  39.4  330  13  6   3.0   1.7 |   6.1  43.0  315  20 10   4.2   2.3
 10000   4.2  39.6  330  12  6   3.2   1.8 |   6.4  43.5  310  19 10   5.8   3.2
  9750   4.6  40.3  330  11  6   7.9   4.3 |   6.9  44.4  310  18  9   9.0   4.9
  9500   5.1  41.2  330  10  5   6.7   3.7 |   7.5  45.5  305  17  9   8.0   4.4
  9250   5.6  42.1  330   9  5   6.0   3.3 |   8.0  46.4  305  15  8   5.9   3.2
  9000   6.0  42.8  330   8  4   5.6   3.1 |   8.3  46.9  300  13  7   5.0   2.7
  8750   6.4  43.5  330   8  4   6.2   3.4 |   8.6  47.5  295  11  6   6.3   3.4
  8500   6.9  44.4  330   7  4   6.1   3.3 |   9.0  48.2  290   9  5   5.5   3.0
  8250   7.3  45.1  330   6  3   6.0   3.3 |   9.3  48.7  275   7  3   3.9   2.1
  8000   7.7  45.9  330   6  3   5.6   3.1 |   9.4  48.9  250   5  2   4.3   2.4
  7750   8.0  46.4  335   5  3   4.3   2.4 |   9.7  49.5  215   4  2   5.3   2.9
  7500   8.3  46.9  340   5  3   4.4   2.4 |  10.0  50.0  190   5  2   7.9   4.4
  7250   8.7  47.7  350   4  2   5.1   2.8 |  10.7  51.3  185   5  3  10.5   5.8
  7000   9.0  48.2  355   4  2   4.9   2.7 |  11.5  52.7  185   5  2   9.9   5.4
  6750   9.3  48.7  005   4  2   5.7   3.1 |  12.2  54.0  185   5  3   9.6   5.2
  6500   9.8  49.6  005   4  2   7.6   4.1 |  12.9  55.2  185   5  3  10.4   5.7
  6250  10.4  50.7  360   3  2   8.9   4.9 |  13.8  56.8  185   5  2  11.9   6.5
  6000  10.9  51.6  355   3  1   6.9   3.8 |  14.6  58.3  185   5  2   9.8   5.4
  5750  11.4  52.5  340   2  1   9.0   5.0 |  15.4  59.7  185   5  2  14.2   7.8
  5500  12.4  54.3  340   2  1  18.0   9.9 |  16.9  62.4  185   4  2  27.2  14.9

           09/10/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       09/10/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +8.4  LI... -1.3                | K index... +24.1  LI... -1.6
CAPE... +105.6  CIN... -39.8               | CAPE... +64.8  CIN... -46.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.2 -83.6  260  58 30   2.6   1.4 | -65.4 -85.7  270  55 28   1.8   1.0
 45000 -59.2 -74.6  265  70 36   5.1   2.8 | -60.9 -77.6  270  64 33   5.8   3.2
 40000 -51.5 -60.7  265  58 30   5.9   3.2 | -52.1 -61.8  280  55 28   6.8   3.8
 38000 -48.0 -54.4  275  54 28   5.9   3.2 | -48.1 -54.6  285  55 29   6.7   3.7
 36000 -44.4 -47.9  280  51 27   5.9   3.3 | -44.1 -47.4  290  56 29   6.7   3.7
 34000 -41.0 -41.8  285  49 25   5.5   3.0 | -40.1 -40.2  295  57 30   6.5   3.6
 32000 -37.7 -35.9  290  47 24   5.5   3.0 | -36.2 -33.2  300  59 30   6.5   3.6
 30000 -33.3 -27.9  295  44 23   7.2   3.9 | -32.0 -25.6  300  57 29   6.2   3.4
 29000 -31.1 -24.0  300  42 22   7.2   4.0 | -30.2 -22.4  300  55 28   6.2   3.4
 28000 -29.0 -20.2  300  40 21   7.2   4.0 | -28.3 -18.9  300  52 27   6.2   3.4
 27000 -26.8 -16.2  305  38 20   7.1   3.9 | -26.2 -15.2  300  49 25   7.3   4.0
 26000 -24.7 -12.5  305  36 18   7.1   3.9 | -24.0 -11.2  295  46 24   7.3   4.0
 25000 -22.6  -8.7  310  34 17   7.1   3.9 | -21.8  -7.2  295  43 22   7.3   4.0
 24000 -20.6  -5.1  310  32 16   6.4   3.5 | -19.8  -3.6  290  41 21   6.5   3.5
 23000 -18.6  -1.5  310  31 16   6.4   3.5 | -17.8  -0.0  290  40 20   6.4   3.5
 22000 -16.7   1.9  310  30 15   6.4   3.5 | -15.9   3.4  290  38 20   6.5   3.6
 21000 -14.9   5.2  305  29 15   5.9   3.3 | -14.2   6.4  290  37 19   5.0   2.7
 20000 -13.1   8.4  300  28 14   5.9   3.2 | -12.7   9.1  290  36 18   5.0   2.7
 19500 -12.2  10.0  300  27 14   5.9   3.3 | -12.0  10.4  290  35 18   5.0   2.7
 19000 -11.3  11.7  300  27 14   5.9   3.2 | -11.2  11.8  290  35 18   5.3   2.9
 18500 -10.5  13.1  295  27 14   5.9   3.2 | -10.4  13.3  290  34 18   5.9   3.3
 18000  -9.6  14.7  295  27 14   5.9   3.3 |  -9.6  14.7  290  34 17   6.1   3.3
 17500  -8.7  16.3  295  27 14   6.1   3.3 |  -8.6  16.5  290  33 17   7.4   4.1
 17000  -7.8  18.0  295  27 14   6.1   3.4 |  -7.6  18.3  285  33 17   7.6   4.2
 16500  -6.9  19.6  295  27 14   6.4   3.5 |  -6.6  20.1  280  33 17   7.7   4.3
 16000  -5.9  21.4  290  28 14   6.7   3.7 |  -5.5  22.1  275  32 16   7.8   4.3
 15500  -4.5  23.9  290  29 15   7.4   4.0 |  -4.4  24.1  275  30 16   7.9   4.3
 15000  -3.3  26.1  290  30 15   7.7   4.2 |  -2.6  27.3  275  28 14   8.5   4.6
 14500  -2.2  28.0  290  30 16   8.0   4.4 |  -1.4  29.5  275  26 13   8.2   4.5
 14000  -1.0  30.2  290  30 16   8.6   4.7 |  -0.2  31.6  275  23 12   7.7   4.3
 13500   0.3  32.5  290  30 15   8.6   4.7 |   0.9  33.6  275  21 11   7.8   4.3
 13000   1.5  34.7  295  29 15   8.4   4.6 |   2.1  35.8  270  19 10   7.9   4.3
 12500   2.7  36.9  295  27 14   8.5   4.6 |   3.2  37.8  270  17  9   7.9   4.3
 12000   3.9  39.0  295  25 13   8.6   4.7 |   4.4  39.9  265  15  8   8.0   4.4
 11500   5.1  41.2  290  23 12   8.6   4.7 |   5.6  42.1  255  13  7   8.0   4.4
 11000   6.3  43.3  290  21 11   8.1   4.4 |   6.8  44.2  245  12  6   7.5   4.1
 10500   7.5  45.5  290  19 10   7.1   3.9 |   7.9  46.2  230  11  5   5.4   3.0
 10250   7.9  46.2  285  18  9   5.4   3.0 |   8.2  46.8  225  10  5   5.4   3.0
 10000   8.4  47.1  285  16  8   7.4   4.1 |   8.8  47.8  220  10  5   9.2   5.1
  9750   9.0  48.2  285  14  7   8.9   4.9 |   9.5  49.1  210   9  5   9.2   5.1
  9500   9.6  49.3  280  12  6   8.3   4.5 |  10.1  50.2  200   8  4   9.0   4.9
  9250  10.1  50.2  275   9  5   5.5   3.0 |  10.7  51.3  190   8  4   7.4   4.0
  9000  10.4  50.7  265   6  3   5.1   2.8 |  11.2  52.2  180   7  4   7.9   4.3
  8750  10.7  51.3  245   4  2   6.6   3.6 |  11.8  53.2  175   7  3   9.3   5.1
  8500  11.1  52.0  210   3  2   7.0   3.8 |  12.4  54.3  165   6  3   9.0   4.9
  8250  11.6  52.9  180   4  2   8.7   4.8 |  13.1  55.6  160   6  3   8.9   4.9
  8000  12.3  54.1  175   4  2   9.8   5.4 |  13.7  56.7  155   6  3   9.4   5.1
  7750  13.1  55.6  170   4  2  10.4   5.7 |  14.5  58.1  155   5  3   9.9   5.4
  7500  13.8  56.8  165   4  2  10.2   5.6 |  15.2  59.4  155   5  3  10.1   5.5
  7250  14.6  58.3  165   4  2   9.8   5.4 |  16.0  60.8  150   5  3  10.3   5.7
  7000  15.3  59.5  165   4  2   9.9   5.4 |  16.7  62.1  150   5  3  10.0   5.5
  6750  16.0  60.8  165   4  2   9.9   5.4 |  17.4  63.3  150   5  2   9.1   5.0
  6500  16.8  62.2  165   4  2  10.4   5.7 |  18.1  64.6  150   5  2   9.6   5.3
  6250  17.6  63.7  165   4  2  11.2   6.1 |  18.9  66.0  145   4  2  10.6   5.8
  6000  18.4  65.1  165   4  2   9.6   5.3 |  19.7  67.5  145   4  2   9.8   5.4
  5750  19.1  66.4  165   4  2  13.2   7.3 |  20.4  68.7  145   4  2  10.1   5.5
  5500  20.5  68.9  160   4  2  24.6  13.5 |  21.2  70.2  140   4  2  13.1   7.2
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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