Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 280118
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1918 MDT Saturday, June 27, 2015

This forecast is for Sunday, June 28, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 84.4 F/29.1 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 963 ft/min (4.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 15783 ft MSL (10476 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 90.0 F/32.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9316 ft MSL (4010 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 06/29....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 18320 ft MSL (13013 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 06/29.......... Poor

Remarks... Strong upper ridge over the western u. S. With northerly flow aloft
           across colorado. Dry airmass in place across the plains.

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:33:53 / 20:31:33 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 57 min 40 sec (897 min 40 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:02:46 MDT... 73.46 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 06/28/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16158 ft MSL (10851 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 15720 ft MSL (10413 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15817 ft MSL (10510 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -3.8
K index......................... +21.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -63.2 -81.8   350   26   14   1.2   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -60.6 -77.1   350   35   18   3.2   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -54.8 -66.6   355   37   19   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -50.8 -59.4   350   36   18   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -46.9 -52.4   345   34   18   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -41.8 -43.2   345   34   18   8.7   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -36.6 -33.9   345   34   17   8.6   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -31.5 -24.7   340   31   16   8.6   4.7   44.5 112.0     9.3      M    M
 29000  -28.3 -18.9   340   29   15   8.6   4.7   44.0 111.1     9.0      M    M
 28000  -25.9 -14.6   340   27   14   6.7   3.7   43.4 110.1     8.7      M    M
 27000  -23.8 -10.8   335   25   13   6.9   3.8   42.2 107.9     7.8      M    M
 26000  -21.7  -7.1   335   23   12   6.9   3.8   41.1 106.0     7.1      M    M
 25000  -19.7  -3.5   335   20   10   7.0   3.8   40.2 104.3     6.4      M    M
 24000  -17.6   0.3   335   20   10   7.1   3.9   39.1 102.4     5.6      M    M
 23000  -15.5   4.1   340   19   10   7.1   3.9   38.2 100.7     4.8      M    M
 22000  -13.3   8.1   340   18    9   7.1   3.9   37.3  99.2     4.1      M    M
 21000  -11.2  11.8   345   21   11   7.1   3.9   36.3  97.3     3.3      M    M
 20000   -9.1  15.6   345   23   12   7.2   3.9   35.4  95.7     2.5      M    M
 19500   -8.1  17.4   345   24   12   7.3   4.0   35.0  95.0     2.2      M    M
 19000   -7.0  19.4   345   25   13   7.8   4.3   34.6  94.3     1.8      M    M
 18500   -5.9  21.4   345   26   13   7.9   4.3   34.3  93.7     1.5      M    M
 18000   -4.7  23.5   350   27   14   8.3   4.6   34.0  93.2     1.2      M    M
 17500   -3.5  25.7   350   26   14   8.4   4.6   33.8  92.8     1.0      M    M
 17000   -2.2  28.0   350   26   13   8.4   4.6   33.6  92.4     0.8      M    M
 16500   -1.1  30.0   350   24   13   7.9   4.3   33.3  91.9     0.5      M    M
 16000    0.1  32.2   355   22   12   8.0   4.4   33.0  91.3     0.2      M    M
 15500    1.2  34.2   355   20   10   7.4   4.0   32.6  90.7    -0.1    947  4.8
 15000    2.8  37.0   360   16    8   7.3   4.0   32.0  89.7    -0.7    877  4.5
 14500    4.0  39.2   360   14    7   8.5   4.7   31.7  89.1    -1.1    828  4.2
 14000    5.2  41.4   360   13    7   8.4   4.6   31.5  88.7    -1.3    777  3.9
 13500    6.4  43.5   005   11    6   8.8   4.8   31.3  88.4    -1.5    726  3.7
 13000    7.7  45.9   005   10    5   8.8   4.8   31.2  88.1    -1.7    673  3.4
 12500    8.9  48.0   010    9    5   9.1   5.0   31.0  87.8    -1.9    620  3.1
 12000   10.2  50.4   010    8    4   9.2   5.0   30.9  87.7    -2.1    566  2.9
 11500   11.6  52.9   015    8    4   9.3   5.1   30.9  87.5    -2.3    512  2.6
 11000   13.0  55.4   015    7    4   9.3   5.1   30.8  87.4    -2.3    454  2.3
 10500   14.4  57.9   015    7    4   4.2   2.3   30.7  87.2    -2.4    399  2.0
 10250   14.5  58.1   015    7    4   6.0   3.3   30.1  86.2    -2.9    386  2.0
 10000   15.3  59.5   010    7    3  12.2   6.7   30.2  86.4    -2.9    355  1.8
  9750   16.1  61.0   005    6    3  10.8   5.9   30.3  86.5    -2.8    324  1.6
  9500   16.8  62.2   360    6    3   8.4   4.6   30.3  86.6    -2.8    294  1.5
  9250   17.3  63.1   350    5    2   6.8   3.7   30.1  86.2    -3.1    273  1.4
  9000   17.9  64.2   345    3    2   9.8   5.4   30.0  86.0    -3.2    248  1.3
  8750   18.7  65.7   325    2    1  10.5   5.8   30.1  86.1    -3.2    218  1.1
  8500   19.3  66.7   290    2    1   7.5   4.1   30.0  86.0    -3.3    191  1.0
  8250   19.7  67.5   260    2    1   5.9   3.2   29.7  85.5    -3.6    171  0.9
  8000   20.1  68.2   230    2    1   6.1   3.3   29.5  85.1    -3.9    151  0.8
  7750   20.5  68.9   210    3    1   5.5   3.0   29.2  84.5    -4.3    133  0.7
  7500   20.9  69.6   200    3    2   5.4   2.9   28.8  83.9    -4.7    114  0.6
  7250   21.3  70.3   190    3    2   4.9   2.7   28.5  83.3    -5.0     95  0.5
  7000   21.7  71.1   185    4    2   6.2   3.4   28.1  82.7    -5.4     76  0.4
  6750   22.1  71.8   180    4    2   4.7   2.6   27.9  82.2    -5.7     56  0.3
  6500   22.2  72.0   185    3    2   0.2   0.1   27.3  81.1    -6.3     44  0.2
  6250   22.3  72.1   190    3    2   3.1   1.7   26.6  79.9    -7.0     35  0.2
  6000   22.3  72.1   200    3    2  -7.9  -4.4   26.0  78.7    -7.7     26  0.1
  5750   20.7  69.3   210    4    2 -29.9 -16.4   23.7  74.7   -10.1     69  0.4
  5500   17.9  64.2   205    4    2 -32.9 -18.0   20.5  68.9   -13.6    144  0.7

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           06/28/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       06/28/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +23.2  LI... -2.0               | K index... +26.4  LI... -4.1
CAPE... +373.1  CIN... -136.1              | CAPE... +1114.7  CIN... -28.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.7 -82.7  355  28 14   1.3   0.7 | -63.7 -82.7  005  29 15   1.1   0.6
 45000 -60.9 -77.6  355  36 19   3.3   1.8 | -60.8 -77.4  355  36 18   3.9   2.1
 40000 -54.9 -66.8  355  40 21   7.6   4.2 | -54.1 -65.4  350  41 21   6.7   3.7
 38000 -50.3 -58.5  355  41 21   7.6   4.2 | -50.1 -58.2  350  44 23   6.7   3.7
 36000 -45.8 -50.4  355  42 22   7.6   4.2 | -46.1 -51.0  355  47 24   6.9   3.8
 34000 -41.1 -42.0  355  38 20   7.8   4.3 | -41.4 -42.5  360  46 24   8.0   4.4
 32000 -36.5 -33.7  350  33 17   7.7   4.2 | -36.6 -33.9  360  45 23   7.9   4.3
 30000 -31.6 -24.9  350  31 16   8.2   4.5 | -31.5 -24.7  360  39 20   8.5   4.7
 29000 -29.2 -20.6  350  30 16   8.2   4.5 | -28.3 -18.9  355  35 18   8.5   4.7
 28000 -26.2 -15.2  345  29 15   7.1   3.9 | -25.9 -14.6  355  32 16   7.4   4.1
 27000 -24.1 -11.4  340  26 14   7.2   3.9 | -23.7 -10.7  355  29 15   7.5   4.1
 26000 -22.0  -7.6  340  24 12   7.2   3.9 | -21.4  -6.5  350  26 13   7.6   4.2
 25000 -19.9  -3.8  335  22 11   7.1   3.9 | -19.2  -2.6  350  23 12   7.1   3.9
 24000 -17.8  -0.0  335  22 11   7.1   3.9 | -17.2   1.0  350  23 12   6.9   3.8
 23000 -15.7   3.7  335  22 11   7.1   3.9 | -15.2   4.6  350  23 12   6.9   3.8
 22000 -13.6   7.5  335  22 12   7.1   3.9 | -13.2   8.2  345  23 12   6.8   3.7
 21000 -11.5  11.3  340  25 13   7.2   3.9 | -11.3  11.7  350  25 13   6.8   3.7
 20000  -9.5  14.9  345  28 14   7.3   4.0 |  -9.3  15.3  350  26 14   6.9   3.8
 19500  -8.4  16.9  345  29 15   7.4   4.1 |  -8.3  17.1  350  27 14   7.0   3.8
 19000  -7.3  18.9  345  29 15   7.9   4.4 |  -7.3  18.9  350  26 14   7.4   4.1
 18500  -6.2  20.8  345  29 15   7.9   4.3 |  -6.2  20.8  350  25 13   7.4   4.1
 18000  -5.0  23.0  345  28 15   8.2   4.5 |  -5.1  22.8  350  24 12   7.7   4.2
 17500  -3.7  25.3  345  27 14   8.2   4.5 |  -4.0  24.8  345  22 11   7.8   4.3
 17000  -2.5  27.5  345  25 13   8.2   4.5 |  -2.8  27.0  345  21 11   8.0   4.4
 16500  -1.3  29.7  345  23 12   8.2   4.5 |  -1.6  29.1  340  19 10   8.5   4.7
 16000  -0.0  32.0  345  21 11   8.2   4.5 |  -0.3  31.5  340  18  9   8.5   4.7
 15500   1.2  34.2  345  19 10   7.6   4.2 |   1.5  34.7  330  15  8   8.5   4.7
 15000   2.8  37.0  345  16  8   7.7   4.2 |   2.7  36.9  325  13  7   8.6   4.7
 14500   3.9  39.0  345  13  7   7.8   4.3 |   3.9  39.0  320  12  6   7.9   4.3
 14000   5.0  41.0  345  11  6   7.7   4.2 |   5.1  41.2  320  10  5   8.0   4.4
 13500   6.2  43.2  345   9  5   8.6   4.7 |   6.3  43.3  315   8  4   7.7   4.2
 13000   7.5  45.5  350   8  4   8.6   4.7 |   7.4  45.3  305   7  4   7.6   4.2
 12500   8.8  47.8  355   6  3   8.9   4.9 |   8.6  47.5  300   6  3   8.7   4.8
 12000  10.1  50.2  355   5  3   9.0   4.9 |  10.0  50.0  290   5  2   8.9   4.9
 11500  11.4  52.5  005   5  2   9.1   5.0 |  11.2  52.2  280   4  2   8.6   4.7
 11000  12.7  54.9  015   4  2   9.1   5.0 |  12.5  54.5  270   3  1   8.5   4.7
 10500  13.9  57.0  030   4  2   3.9   2.2 |  13.6  56.5  250   2  1   4.2   2.3
 10250  14.1  57.4  030   4  2   6.5   3.6 |  13.9  57.0  240   2  1   7.3   4.0
 10000  15.0  59.0  030   4  2  12.7   7.0 |  14.7  58.5  225   1  1  12.4   6.8
  9750  15.8  60.4  035   4  2  11.0   6.1 |  15.6  60.1  195   1  1  10.8   5.9
  9500  16.5  61.7  035   4  2   8.5   4.6 |  16.3  61.3  160   1  1   8.4   4.6
  9250  17.1  62.8  035   4  2   6.8   3.7 |  16.8  62.2  145   1  1   7.4   4.0
  9000  17.7  63.9  040   3  2   9.5   5.2 |  17.4  63.3  135   2  1   9.9   5.4
  8750  18.4  65.1  040   3  1  10.0   5.5 |  18.2  64.8  120   2  1  10.2   5.6
  8500  19.0  66.2  045   2  1   7.9   4.3 |  18.8  65.8  110   2  1   8.9   4.9
  8250  19.5  67.1  055   2  1   6.8   3.7 |  19.4  66.9  100   2  1   8.5   4.7
  8000  20.0  68.0  070   2  1   7.4   4.0 |  19.9  67.8  095   2  1   8.5   4.7
  7750  20.5  68.9  090   1  1   6.8   3.7 |  20.5  68.9  085   3  1   9.2   5.0
  7500  20.8  69.4  100   2  1   5.4   2.9 |  21.2  70.2  085   3  1  10.2   5.6
  7250  21.2  70.2  100   2  1   5.0   2.7 |  21.9  71.4  080   3  1  10.6   5.8
  7000  21.5  70.7  100   2  1   5.2   2.8 |  22.7  72.9  080   3  1  10.0   5.5
  6750  21.9  71.4  100   2  1   1.9   1.1 |  23.4  74.1  080   2  1  10.1   5.5
  6500  21.8  71.2  090   2  1  -0.3  -0.2 |  24.2  75.6  075   2  1  10.8   5.9
  6250  21.8  71.2  075   1  1  -1.0  -0.5 |  25.0  77.0  070   2  1  10.5   5.7
  6000  21.7  71.1  040   1  0   3.4   1.9 |  25.7  78.3  070   2  1  11.1   6.1
  5750  22.3  72.1  005   1  0  12.0   6.6 |  26.7  80.1  065   2  1  16.6   9.1
  5500  23.1  73.6  350   1  0  12.6   6.9 |  28.2  82.8  065   2  1  23.7  13.0

           06/28/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       06/28/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +27.0  LI... -2.8               | K index... +28.4  LI... -2.1
CAPE... +581.1  CIN... -22.8               | CAPE... +276.4  CIN... -21.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.5 -82.3  010  26 14   1.5   0.8 | -63.4 -82.1  010  27 14   2.0   1.1
 45000 -60.0 -76.0  355  37 19   3.7   2.0 | -59.8 -75.6  360  42 21   2.8   1.5
 40000 -53.8 -64.8  345  48 25   6.6   3.6 | -54.5 -66.1  340  59 30   8.1   4.5
 38000 -49.8 -57.6  345  49 25   6.6   3.6 | -49.6 -57.3  340  55 28   8.1   4.4
 36000 -45.9 -50.6  345  50 26   6.9   3.8 | -44.8 -48.6  335  51 26   8.2   4.5
 34000 -40.9 -41.6  350  46 24   8.6   4.7 | -39.7 -39.5  335  49 25   8.4   4.6
 32000 -35.7 -32.3  350  43 22   8.5   4.7 | -34.7 -30.5  340  46 24   8.3   4.6
 30000 -29.9 -21.8  350  39 20   8.6   4.7 | -29.4 -20.9  345  40 21   8.0   4.4
 29000 -27.4 -17.3  350  37 19   8.6   4.7 | -27.0 -16.6  345  38 19   8.0   4.4
 28000 -24.9 -12.8  350  35 18   7.2   4.0 | -24.7 -12.5  345  35 18   7.3   4.0
 27000 -22.7  -8.9  350  31 16   7.4   4.0 | -22.5  -8.5  350  33 17   7.4   4.1
 26000 -20.5  -4.9  350  28 14   7.4   4.0 | -20.3  -4.5  350  30 16   7.4   4.1
 25000 -18.3  -0.9  350  25 13   6.8   3.7 | -18.1  -0.6  350  28 14   6.8   3.7
 24000 -16.4   2.5  350  22 11   6.5   3.6 | -16.2   2.8  350  25 13   6.2   3.4
 23000 -14.5   5.9  350  19 10   6.6   3.6 | -14.4   6.1  350  21 11   6.3   3.4
 22000 -12.6   9.3  350  17  9   6.4   3.5 | -12.6   9.3  350  18  9   6.3   3.5
 21000 -10.8  12.6  350  19 10   6.3   3.4 | -10.7  12.7  355  18  9   6.3   3.5
 20000  -9.0  15.8  350  21 11   6.3   3.5 |  -8.9  16.0  360  17  9   6.4   3.5
 19500  -8.1  17.4  350  22 11   6.6   3.6 |  -8.0  17.6  360  17  9   6.5   3.6
 19000  -7.1  19.2  350  22 12   7.8   4.3 |  -6.9  19.6  360  16  8   7.4   4.1
 18500  -5.9  21.4  350  23 12   7.8   4.3 |  -5.9  21.4  005  15  8   7.4   4.1
 18000  -4.8  23.4  350  23 12   8.0   4.4 |  -4.8  23.4  005  14  7   7.3   4.0
 17500  -3.6  25.5  350  22 11   8.1   4.4 |  -3.8  25.2  010  12  6   7.3   4.0
 17000  -2.5  27.5  350  21 11   8.1   4.5 |  -2.7  27.1  015  10  5   7.3   4.0
 16500  -1.3  29.7  350  20 10   8.2   4.5 |  -1.6  29.1  020   7  4   7.8   4.3
 16000   0.5  32.9  350  17  9   8.3   4.6 |   0.1  32.2  040   3  2   7.9   4.3
 15500   1.8  35.2  345  15  8   8.6   4.7 |   1.2  34.2  075   2  1   8.0   4.4
 15000   3.1  37.6  345  13  7   8.6   4.7 |   2.4  36.3  130   2  1   8.0   4.4
 14500   4.3  39.7  340  11  5   8.1   4.4 |   3.6  38.5  155   2  1   8.8   4.9
 14000   5.5  41.9  335   8  4   8.1   4.4 |   4.9  40.8  165   2  1   8.8   4.8
 13500   6.7  44.1  330   6  3   8.5   4.7 |   6.2  43.2  180   2  1   8.7   4.8
 13000   7.9  46.2  325   4  2   8.5   4.7 |   7.5  45.5  210   1  1   8.7   4.8
 12500   9.2  48.6  315   3  1   8.4   4.6 |   8.8  47.8  245   2  1   8.9   4.9
 12000  10.4  50.7  300   2  1   8.4   4.6 |  10.0  50.0  265   3  1   9.0   4.9
 11500  11.6  52.9  275   1  1   8.9   4.9 |  11.3  52.3  275   4  2   9.1   5.0
 11000  12.9  55.2  250   1  1   9.1   5.0 |  12.7  54.9  280   5  2   9.1   5.0
 10500  14.1  57.4  225   1  1   4.3   2.4 |  14.0  57.2  285   6  3   4.4   2.4
 10250  14.4  57.9  225   1  1   7.3   4.0 |  14.2  57.6  285   6  3   7.0   3.8
 10000  15.2  59.4  225   1  1  13.4   7.3 |  15.1  59.2  285   6  3  13.4   7.3
  9750  16.1  61.0  225   1  1  11.9   6.5 |  16.0  60.8  285   6  3  11.9   6.5
  9500  16.9  62.4  225   1  1   9.6   5.2 |  16.8  62.2  285   6  3  10.0   5.5
  9250  17.5  63.5  230   1  1   8.3   4.6 |  17.5  63.5  285   7  3   8.8   4.8
  9000  18.3  64.9  230   1  1  10.9   6.0 |  18.2  64.8  285   7  4  10.9   6.0
  8750  19.1  66.4  230   1  1  11.1   6.1 |  19.0  66.2  290   7  4  11.1   6.1
  8500  19.9  67.8  235   1  1  10.1   5.5 |  19.8  67.6  290   8  4   9.9   5.4
  8250  20.6  69.1  235   1  1   9.5   5.2 |  20.5  68.9  290   8  4   8.8   4.8
  8000  21.3  70.3  235   1  1   9.9   5.4 |  21.2  70.2  290   8  4  10.3   5.6
  7750  22.1  71.8  240   1  1  10.1   5.6 |  22.0  71.6  290   8  4  11.0   6.0
  7500  22.8  73.0  240   1  1  10.0   5.5 |  22.8  73.0  290   8  4   9.8   5.4
  7250  23.6  74.5  240   1  1   9.9   5.4 |  23.5  74.3  290   9  4   9.4   5.1
  7000  24.3  75.7  240   1  1  10.4   5.7 |  24.2  75.6  290   9  4   9.8   5.4
  6750  25.1  77.2  245   1  1  10.8   5.9 |  25.0  77.0  290   9  5  10.2   5.6
  6500  25.9  78.6  245   1  1  10.4   5.7 |  25.7  78.3  290   9  5  10.1   5.5
  6250  26.7  80.1  245   1  1  10.2   5.6 |  26.5  79.7  290   9  5   9.9   5.4
  6000  27.4  81.3  250   1  1  11.0   6.1 |  27.2  81.0  290   9  5  10.5   5.8
  5750  28.4  83.1  250   1  1  17.0   9.3 |  28.1  82.6  290   9  5  13.3   7.3
  5500  29.9  85.8  255   1  1  24.2  13.3 |  29.1  84.4  290   8  4  16.0   8.8
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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