Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 051352
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0752 MDT Saturday, July 5, 2014

This forecast is for Saturday, July 5, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 84.7 F/29.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1532 ft/min (7.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 21228 ft MSL (15943 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 96.0 F/36.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1030 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 17221 ft MSL (11935 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 07/06....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 20259 ft MSL (14974 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Sunday 07/06.......... Poor

Remarks... Scattered afternoon thunderstorms

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:37:25 / 20:30:47 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 53 min 22 sec (893 min 22 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:04:07 MDT... 72.93 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 07/05/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15764 ft MSL (10479 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 17286 ft MSL (12001 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 18697 ft MSL (13412 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.5
K index......................... +19.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -61.9 -79.4   285   18    9   1.1   0.6   89.8 193.7    31.6      M    M
 45000  -62.2 -80.0   285   53   27   1.6   0.9   65.0 149.0    18.4      M    M
 40000  -54.3 -65.7   290   54   28   6.5   3.6   53.5 128.3    12.0      M    M
 38000  -51.2 -60.2   295   50   26   8.8   4.8   49.4 120.9     9.5      M    M
 36000  -46.0 -50.8   290   46   24   8.8   4.8   48.6 119.4     9.2      M    M
 34000  -40.8 -41.4   290   44   23   8.7   4.8   47.4 117.4     8.6      M    M
 32000  -35.6 -32.1   290   41   21   8.7   4.8   46.8 116.3     8.3      M    M
 30000  -30.2 -22.4   280   31   16   9.0   4.9   46.3 115.3     8.1      M    M
 29000  -27.5 -17.5   285   29   15   8.2   4.5   45.9 114.7     8.0      M    M
 28000  -25.4 -13.7   285   27   14   7.3   4.0   44.9 112.9     7.3      M    M
 27000  -22.4  -8.3   290   24   12   8.8   4.8   44.1 111.3     6.7      M    M
 26000  -20.7  -5.3   300   22   11   6.4   3.5   42.6 108.6     5.6      M    M
 25000  -18.8  -1.8   320   19   10   8.8   4.8   41.3 106.4     4.6      M    M
 24000  -16.1   3.0   320   20   10   8.1   4.4   41.0 105.8     4.4      M    M
 23000  -14.4   6.1   320   20   10   2.7   1.5   39.5 103.2     3.2      M    M
 22000  -13.3   8.1   340   14    7   4.9   2.7   37.5  99.5     1.5      M    M
 21000  -12.4   9.7   015   16    8   3.1   1.7   35.3  95.5    -0.6   1521  7.7
 20000  -10.7  12.7   360   19   10   9.7   5.3   33.9  93.1    -1.8   1440  7.3
 19500   -9.3  15.3   355   17    9   9.5   5.2   33.9  93.0    -1.8   1383  7.0
 19000   -7.9  17.8   350   18    9   8.9   4.9   33.8  92.8    -1.9   1327  6.7
 18500   -6.6  20.1   350   17    9   8.3   4.6   33.6  92.6    -2.0   1272  6.5
 18000   -5.4  22.3   350   16    8   7.9   4.4   33.3  91.9    -2.4   1223  6.2
 17500   -4.3  24.3   350   15    8   7.9   4.4   32.9  91.3    -2.8   1174  6.0
 17000   -3.2  26.2   355   13    7   8.0   4.4   32.6  90.7    -3.1   1125  5.7
 16500   -2.0  28.4   355   12    6   8.0   4.4   32.3  90.2    -3.4   1076  5.5
 16000   -0.9  30.4   355   11    6   8.4   4.6   32.1  89.8    -3.7   1027  5.2
 15500    0.5  32.9   355   11    5   9.3   5.1   32.0  89.5    -3.8    972  4.9
 15000    1.9  35.4   350   10    5   9.3   5.1   31.9  89.4    -3.9    915  4.7
 14500    3.3  37.9   350   10    5   9.3   5.1   31.8  89.3    -4.0    859  4.4
 14000    4.7  40.5   345    9    5   9.3   5.1   31.8  89.2    -4.1    802  4.1
 13500    6.7  44.1   350   10    5   9.3   5.1   31.7  89.0    -4.2    718  3.6
 13000    8.1  46.6   355   11    6   9.0   4.9   31.6  88.8    -4.3    663  3.4
 12500    9.4  48.9   345   13    7   9.0   4.9   31.4  88.6    -4.5    608  3.1
 12000   10.7  51.3   340   14    7   9.0   4.9   31.3  88.4    -4.6    554  2.8
 11500   12.1  53.8   335   13    7   9.0   4.9   31.2  88.1    -4.8    499  2.5
 11000   13.4  56.1   325   12    6   9.0   4.9   31.0  87.9    -5.0    445  2.3
 10500   14.7  58.5   320   11    6   7.8   4.3   30.9  87.6    -5.2    391  2.0
 10250   15.2  59.4   315   10    5   7.3   4.0   30.7  87.3    -5.4    368  1.9
 10000   15.8  60.4   315   10    5   7.8   4.3   30.6  87.0    -5.6    344  1.7
  9750   16.3  61.3   320    9    5   7.7   4.2   30.4  86.7    -5.7    320  1.6
  9500   16.9  62.4   325    9    4   7.7   4.2   30.2  86.4    -5.9    296  1.5
  9250   17.4  63.3   335    8    4   7.7   4.2   30.1  86.1    -6.1    271  1.4
  9000   18.0  64.4   340    8    4   7.7   4.2   29.9  85.9    -6.3    247  1.3
  8750   18.6  65.5   340    9    5   7.8   4.3   29.8  85.6    -6.5    223  1.1
  8500   19.1  66.4   345   10    5   7.5   4.1   29.6  85.3    -6.6    199  1.0
  8250   19.7  67.5   345   11    6   8.5   4.6   29.4  85.0    -6.8    175  0.9
  8000   20.3  68.5   345   12    6   5.0   2.8   29.3  84.7    -7.0    150  0.8
  7750   20.4  68.7   340   10    5  -0.2  -0.1   28.7  83.6    -7.7    140  0.7
  7500   20.3  68.5   330    8    4  -0.2  -0.1   27.9  82.2    -8.5    134  0.7
  7250   20.3  68.5   315    6    3  -1.2  -0.7   27.1  80.8    -9.3    128  0.7
  7000   20.2  68.4   290    5    3   2.9   1.6   26.4  79.4   -10.1    122  0.6
  6750   20.7  69.3   255    6    3   8.3   4.6   26.1  79.0   -10.4    102  0.5
  6500   21.2  70.2   230    8    4   5.5   3.0   25.9  78.7   -10.6     79  0.4
  6250   21.7  71.1   220   11    6  13.6   7.5   25.7  78.3   -10.9     57  0.3
  6000   22.1  71.8   215   15    8 -15.6  -8.6   25.6  78.0   -11.1     35  0.2
  5750   19.4  66.9   215   10    5 -34.8 -19.1   22.2  71.9   -14.6    108  0.6
  5500   18.6  65.5   215    5    3  16.6   9.1   20.6  69.1   -16.2    127  0.6

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/05/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/05/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +20.1  LI... -1.4               | K index... +18.0  LI... -2.0
CAPE... +48.3  CIN... -132.9               | CAPE... +195.1  CIN... -32.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.1 -83.4  295  40 21   0.7   0.4 | -63.8 -82.8  295  30 15   0.7   0.4
 45000 -61.5 -78.7  290  53 27   4.2   2.3 | -61.3 -78.3  290  41 21   4.2   2.3
 40000 -54.8 -66.6  290  47 24   6.9   3.8 | -54.1 -65.4  295  37 19   7.0   3.8
 38000 -50.6 -59.1  290  42 21   7.0   3.8 | -49.9 -57.8  290  34 18   7.0   3.8
 36000 -46.4 -51.5  290  36 18   6.8   3.7 | -45.8 -50.4  290  31 16   7.1   3.9
 34000 -41.5 -42.7  290  34 17   8.3   4.6 | -41.1 -42.0  290  31 16   7.8   4.3
 32000 -35.9 -32.6  290  33 17   8.6   4.7 | -36.5 -33.7  290  31 16   7.7   4.2
 30000 -30.9 -23.6  295  29 15   8.3   4.6 | -31.9 -25.4  295  26 13   7.7   4.2
 29000 -28.4 -19.1  300  27 14   8.4   4.6 | -29.6 -21.3  295  22 12   7.7   4.2
 28000 -25.9 -14.6  300  26 13   7.8   4.3 | -26.7 -16.1  300  19 10   8.0   4.4
 27000 -23.6 -10.5  305  23 12   7.8   4.3 | -24.3 -11.7  300  17  9   8.0   4.4
 26000 -21.2  -6.2  310  21 11   7.8   4.3 | -21.9  -7.4  300  16  8   8.0   4.4
 25000 -18.8  -1.8  320  19 10   6.9   3.8 | -19.5  -3.1  305  14  7   7.5   4.1
 24000 -17.1   1.2  320  16  8   5.6   3.1 | -17.4   0.7  305  14  7   7.3   4.0
 23000 -15.5   4.1  325  13  7   5.6   3.1 | -15.2   4.6  305  14  7   7.3   4.0
 22000 -13.8   7.2  335  10  5   5.7   3.2 | -13.1   8.4  310  15  8   6.8   3.7
 21000 -12.1  10.2  345  10  5   5.9   3.2 | -11.1  12.0  310  15  7   6.7   3.7
 20000 -10.3  13.5  360  11  6   5.9   3.2 |  -9.2  15.4  315  15  7   6.7   3.7
 19500  -9.5  14.9  005  12  6   6.1   3.4 |  -8.2  17.2  315  15  7   6.8   3.7
 19000  -8.3  17.1  005  12  6   9.4   5.2 |  -7.2  19.0  315  14  7   6.8   3.7
 18500  -6.9  19.6  360  13  7   9.2   5.0 |  -6.2  20.8  320  14  7   6.7   3.7
 18000  -5.6  21.9  360  14  7   8.8   4.8 |  -5.2  22.6  325  14  7   7.3   4.0
 17500  -4.3  24.3  360  15  7   8.6   4.7 |  -4.1  24.6  325  13  7   7.4   4.1
 17000  -3.1  26.4  355  15  8   8.7   4.7 |  -3.0  26.6  330  12  6   7.8   4.3
 16500  -1.2  29.8  355  16  8   8.7   4.8 |  -1.8  28.8  335  11  6   8.7   4.8
 16000   0.0  32.0  355  16  8   8.8   4.8 |  -0.5  31.1  340  11  5   8.8   4.8
 15500   1.3  34.3  355  16  8   8.8   4.8 |   0.8  33.4  345  10  5   8.6   4.7
 15000   2.6  36.7  360  15  8   8.8   4.8 |   2.0  35.6  345  10  5   8.6   4.7
 14500   3.9  39.0  360  14  7   9.4   5.1 |   3.3  37.9  350  10  5   9.1   5.0
 14000   5.3  41.5  360  13  7   9.3   5.1 |   5.4  41.7  350  10  5   9.3   5.1
 13500   6.7  44.1  360  12  6   9.2   5.0 |   6.7  44.1  350  10  5   8.6   4.7
 13000   8.0  46.4  360  11  6   9.2   5.0 |   8.0  46.4  350  11  5   8.7   4.8
 12500   9.4  48.9  360  11  6   8.9   4.9 |   9.3  48.7  350  11  6   9.2   5.0
 12000  10.7  51.3  355  11  6   8.8   4.8 |  10.6  51.1  355  11  6   9.2   5.1
 11500  12.0  53.6  355  11  6   8.5   4.7 |  12.0  53.6  355  11  6   9.3   5.1
 11000  13.2  55.8  355  12  6   8.2   4.5 |  13.4  56.1  355  11  6   9.6   5.3
 10500  14.3  57.7  350  12  6   3.9   2.1 |  14.5  58.1  355  11  6   4.1   2.2
 10250  14.5  58.1  350  12  6   5.9   3.2 |  14.8  58.6  355  11  6   7.7   4.2
 10000  15.3  59.5  350  12  6  11.5   6.3 |  15.6  60.1  355  10  5  12.0   6.6
  9750  16.1  61.0  350  11  6  10.1   5.6 |  16.4  61.5  355  10  5  10.4   5.7
  9500  16.8  62.2  350  11  6   8.0   4.4 |  17.1  62.8  360   9  5   8.5   4.7
  9250  17.3  63.1  350  11  5   6.8   3.7 |  17.7  63.9  360   8  4   8.3   4.6
  9000  17.9  64.2  350  10  5   9.7   5.3 |  18.3  64.9  360   7  4  10.3   5.7
  8750  18.6  65.5  355  10  5  10.2   5.6 |  19.1  66.4  360   6  3  10.3   5.7
  8500  19.3  66.7  355   9  5   7.7   4.2 |  19.8  67.6  360   6  3   9.7   5.3
  8250  19.8  67.6  350   8  4   6.4   3.5 |  20.5  68.9  360   6  3   9.4   5.2
  8000  20.3  68.5  350   7  4   6.8   3.7 |  21.2  70.2  360   6  3  10.1   5.6
  7750  20.8  69.4  335   6  3   6.5   3.5 |  22.0  71.6  360   6  3  10.6   5.8
  7500  21.2  70.2  325   6  3   6.3   3.5 |  22.8  73.0  360   6  3  10.3   5.7
  7250  21.7  71.1  315   7  3   5.9   3.3 |  23.5  74.3  360   5  3  10.4   5.7
  7000  22.2  72.0  305   8  4   7.0   3.9 |  24.3  75.7  355   5  3  10.2   5.6
  6750  22.7  72.9  305   8  4   7.0   3.8 |  25.0  77.0  355   5  3  10.3   5.6
  6500  23.1  73.6  300   8  4   6.1   3.3 |  25.8  78.4  355   5  3  10.7   5.9
  6250  23.5  74.3  295   7  4   5.1   2.8 |  26.6  79.9  355   5  3  10.3   5.6
  6000  23.9  75.0  290   6  3   9.1   5.0 |  27.4  81.3  355   5  3  11.7   6.4
  5750  24.8  76.6  290   6  3  14.8   8.1 |  28.5  83.3  355   5  3  17.9   9.8
  5500  25.8  78.4  285   5  3  12.5   6.9 |  30.0  86.0  355   5  3  24.0  13.2

           07/05/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/05/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +20.9  LI... -1.0               | K index... +17.6  LI... -0.9
CAPE... +86.9  CIN... -22.0                | CAPE... +44.8  CIN... -34.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.4 -83.9  305  28 14   0.9   0.5 | -65.0 -85.0  305  25 13   1.1   0.6
 45000 -61.8 -79.2  300  37 19   3.9   2.2 | -62.0 -79.6  310  31 16   3.9   2.2
 40000 -54.6 -66.3  305  23 12   8.2   4.5 | -54.8 -66.6  320  22 11   8.3   4.5
 38000 -49.7 -57.5  310  20 10   8.2   4.5 | -49.9 -57.8  330  19 10   8.2   4.5
 36000 -44.8 -48.6  315  18  9   8.0   4.4 | -45.0 -49.0  335  16  8   8.2   4.5
 34000 -40.2 -40.4  315  18  9   7.7   4.2 | -40.1 -40.2  345  15  8   8.1   4.5
 32000 -35.6 -32.1  315  19 10   8.0   4.4 | -35.2 -31.4  355  15  8   8.3   4.5
 30000 -31.0 -23.8  315  18  9   7.7   4.2 | -30.6 -23.1  350  14  7   7.6   4.2
 29000 -28.7 -19.7  315  18  9   7.7   4.2 | -28.4 -19.1  345  14  7   7.7   4.2
 28000 -25.9 -14.6  320  17  9   7.2   4.0 | -25.6 -14.1  340  15  8   7.1   3.9
 27000 -23.8 -10.8  320  16  8   7.3   4.0 | -23.5 -10.3  335  15  8   7.1   3.9
 26000 -21.6  -6.9  325  16  8   7.3   4.0 | -21.4  -6.5  330  16  8   7.1   3.9
 25000 -19.5  -3.1  325  15  8   7.2   4.0 | -19.3  -2.7  325  17  9   6.8   3.7
 24000 -17.3   0.9  330  14  7   7.2   4.0 | -17.3   0.9  330  17  9   6.7   3.7
 23000 -15.2   4.6  330  13  7   7.2   4.0 | -15.3   4.5  335  18  9   6.7   3.7
 22000 -13.1   8.4  330  12  6   6.7   3.7 | -13.4   7.9  335  18  9   6.8   3.8
 21000 -11.1  12.0  330  12  6   6.6   3.6 | -11.3  11.7  345  18  9   6.9   3.8
 20000  -9.2  15.4  335  11  6   6.6   3.6 |  -9.3  15.3  350  19 10   6.9   3.8
 19500  -8.2  17.2  335  11  6   6.9   3.8 |  -8.3  17.1  355  19 10   7.5   4.1
 19000  -7.1  19.2  335  10  5   7.5   4.1 |  -7.0  19.4  360  18  9   8.7   4.8
 18500  -6.0  21.2  330   9  5   7.5   4.1 |  -5.7  21.7  360  17  9   8.7   4.8
 18000  -4.8  23.4  330   8  4   8.3   4.6 |  -4.4  24.1  005  17  9   8.7   4.8
 17500  -3.6  25.5  335   8  4   8.4   4.6 |  -3.1  26.4  010  15  8   8.7   4.8
 17000  -2.4  27.7  340   8  4   8.4   4.6 |  -1.8  28.8  015  14  7   8.8   4.8
 16500  -1.1  30.0  345   8  4   8.4   4.6 |  -0.4  31.3  015  13  7   9.2   5.0
 16000   0.1  32.2  350   9  5   8.4   4.6 |   0.9  33.6  015  11  6   9.2   5.0
 15500   1.3  34.3  350   9  5   8.5   4.7 |   2.2  36.0  020  10  5   8.9   4.9
 15000   2.5  36.5  355   9  5   8.5   4.6 |   3.5  38.3  020   9  4   9.0   4.9
 14500   3.8  38.8  355   9  5   9.1   5.0 |   4.8  40.6  015   7  4   9.0   4.9
 14000   5.8  42.4  360   9  5   9.3   5.1 |   6.7  44.1  010   6  3   9.0   4.9
 13500   7.1  44.8  355   8  4   8.8   4.8 |   8.0  46.4  005   5  3   8.9   4.9
 13000   8.4  47.1  355   8  4   8.9   4.9 |   9.3  48.7  005   5  3   8.9   4.9
 12500   9.7  49.5  350   7  4   9.3   5.1 |  10.6  51.1  005   4  2   9.0   4.9
 12000  11.1  52.0  350   7  4   9.4   5.1 |  11.9  53.4  360   4  2   9.0   4.9
 11500  12.5  54.5  350   7  3   9.5   5.2 |  13.2  55.8  355   3  2   9.2   5.1
 11000  13.9  57.0  345   6  3   9.9   5.4 |  14.6  58.3  350   3  2   9.6   5.3
 10500  15.0  59.0  345   6  3   4.9   2.7 |  15.8  60.4  340   3  2   4.8   2.6
 10250  15.5  59.9  345   6  3   9.1   5.0 |  16.2  61.2  335   3  2   8.7   4.8
 10000  16.4  61.5  345   6  3  13.3   7.3 |  17.0  62.6  335   3  2  12.5   6.9
  9750  17.3  63.1  345   6  3  11.7   6.4 |  17.9  64.2  330   3  2  11.2   6.2
  9500  18.1  64.6  340   6  3   8.6   4.7 |  18.7  65.7  325   3  2   8.6   4.7
  9250  18.7  65.7  340   6  3   8.6   4.7 |  19.2  66.6  325   4  2   8.5   4.7
  9000  19.5  67.1  340   6  3  11.8   6.5 |  20.0  68.0  320   4  2  11.2   6.1
  8750  20.3  68.5  340   6  3  11.4   6.3 |  20.8  69.4  320   4  2  11.0   6.0
  8500  21.1  70.0  340   6  3   9.9   5.5 |  21.6  70.9  320   4  2  10.0   5.5
  8250  21.8  71.2  340   6  3   9.2   5.1 |  22.3  72.1  320   4  2   9.6   5.2
  8000  22.5  72.5  335   6  3  10.3   5.6 |  23.0  73.4  315   4  2  10.1   5.5
  7750  23.3  73.9  335   6  3  10.6   5.8 |  23.8  74.8  315   4  2  10.2   5.6
  7500  24.1  75.4  335   6  3   9.9   5.5 |  24.6  76.3  315   4  2   9.9   5.4
  7250  24.8  76.6  335   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  25.3  77.5  315   5  2   9.7   5.3
  7000  25.6  78.1  335   6  3   9.9   5.4 |  26.0  78.8  315   5  2  10.2   5.6
  6750  26.3  79.3  335   6  3  10.1   5.5 |  26.8  80.2  310   5  2  10.4   5.7
  6500  27.1  80.8  335   6  3  10.6   5.8 |  27.6  81.7  310   5  2  10.2   5.6
  6250  27.8  82.0  330   6  3   9.9   5.5 |  28.3  82.9  310   5  3  10.0   5.5
  6000  28.6  83.5  330   6  3  12.1   6.6 |  29.1  84.4  310   5  3  10.8   5.9
  5750  29.8  85.6  330   6  3  19.2  10.5 |  30.0  86.0  310   5  3  14.6   8.0
  5500  31.4  88.5  330   6  3  24.5  13.4 |  31.2  88.2  310   5  3  18.4  10.1
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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