Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary Off
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

000
UXUS97 KBOU 301355
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0755 MDT Wednesday, July 30, 2014

This forecast is for Wednesday, July 30, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 68.0 F/20.0 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 107 ft/min (0.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 9657 ft MSL (4372 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 69.0 F/21.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1400 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7892 ft MSL (2607 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Thursday 07/31..... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14613 ft MSL (9328 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Thursday 07/31........ Poor

Remarks... Showers and thunderstorms

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:56:41 / 20:15:25 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 18 min 44 sec (858 min 44 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:50 MDT... 68.59 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 07/30/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14344 ft MSL (9059 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 9782 ft MSL (4497 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 9708 ft MSL (4422 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +2.0
K index......................... +26.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -66.0 -86.8   305   19   10   6.6   3.6   82.8 181.1    36.3      M    M
 45000  -61.6 -78.9   290   30   15   5.1   2.8   66.0 150.7    28.3      M    M
 40000  -53.1 -63.6   285   35   18   7.4   4.1   55.6 132.0    23.4      M    M
 38000  -48.7 -55.7   275   29   15   6.8   3.8   53.4 128.1    22.6      M    M
 36000  -43.8 -46.8   280   28   14   7.8   4.3   52.0 125.6    22.2      M    M
 34000  -38.7 -37.7   290   27   14   8.8   4.8   51.0 123.8    22.0      M    M
 32000  -34.0 -29.2   290   22   11   7.4   4.0   49.5 121.1    21.4      M    M
 30000  -29.4 -20.9   300   15    8   8.0   4.4   47.8 118.1    20.6      M    M
 29000  -27.0 -16.6   305   15    8   9.1   5.0   47.2 117.0    20.4      M    M
 28000  -24.5 -12.1   285   14    7   7.3   4.0   46.8 116.3    20.3      M    M
 27000  -21.8  -7.2   295    6    3   7.4   4.0   45.7 114.3    19.6      M    M
 26000  -19.6  -3.3   295    9    5   7.4   4.0   44.7 112.5    19.0      M    M
 25000  -17.4   0.7   295   12    6   7.2   3.9   43.9 111.0    18.5      M    M
 24000  -15.6   3.9   290   15    8   5.8   3.2   42.6 108.6    17.6      M    M
 23000  -13.9   7.0   300   15    8   5.9   3.2   41.1 106.0    16.6      M    M
 22000  -12.2  10.0   305   16    8   5.9   3.2   39.8 103.6    15.6      M    M
 21000  -10.5  13.1   285   16    8   6.1   3.4   38.4 101.1    14.6      M    M
 20000   -8.7  16.3   295   17    9   4.2   2.3   37.2  98.9    13.7      M    M
 19500   -8.1  17.4   290   18    9   5.6   3.1   36.2  97.1    12.8      M    M
 19000   -7.3  18.9   285   18    9   6.8   3.7   35.5  95.9    12.3      M    M
 18500   -6.3  20.7   285   16    8   6.7   3.7   34.9  94.9    11.8      M    M
 18000   -5.4  22.3   285   15    7   6.9   3.8   34.4  94.0    11.4      M    M
 17500   -4.5  23.9   285   13    7   4.6   2.5   33.7  92.7    10.8      M    M
 17000   -3.9  25.0   285   11    6   4.8   2.6   32.9  91.2    10.1      M    M
 16500   -3.2  26.2   280    9    5   4.8   2.6   32.1  89.7     9.4      M    M
 16000   -2.5  27.5   280    7    4   4.8   2.7   31.3  88.3     8.7      M    M
 15500   -1.8  28.8   290    4    2   4.8   2.7   30.5  86.9     8.0      M    M
 15000   -1.1  30.0   345    2    1   4.8   2.7   29.7  85.4     7.3      M    M
 14500   -0.4  31.3   040    2    1   4.8   2.7   28.9  83.9     6.6      M    M
 14000    0.3  32.5   060    4    2   4.8   2.7   28.1  82.5     5.9      M    M
 13500    1.4  34.5   040    5    3   4.9   2.7   26.8  80.2     4.7      M    M
 13000    2.0  35.6   030    7    4   4.9   2.7   26.0  78.8     4.0      M    M
 12500    2.7  36.9   025    9    4   5.9   3.2   25.2  77.4     3.3      M    M
 12000    3.7  38.7   020   10    5   7.4   4.1   24.8  76.7     2.8      M    M
 11500    4.8  40.6   015    7    4   7.7   4.2   24.4  76.0     2.4      M    M
 11000    5.7  42.3   005    5    3   5.1   2.8   23.9  75.1     1.9      M    M
 10500    6.4  43.5   345    3    2   5.2   2.8   23.2  73.8     1.1      M    M
 10250    6.7  44.1   010    4    2   5.2   2.9   22.8  73.1     0.8      M    M
 10000    7.1  44.8   030    5    2   5.2   2.9   22.5  72.5     0.4      M    M
  9750    7.5  45.5   040    6    3   5.2   2.9   22.1  71.8     0.1      M    M
  9500    7.9  46.2   050    8    4   5.2   2.9   21.8  71.2    -0.3    292  1.5
  9250    8.3  46.9   050   10    5   5.3   2.9   21.4  70.6    -0.6    273  1.4
  9000    8.6  47.5   055   11    6   5.1   2.8   21.1  70.0    -0.9    254  1.3
  8750    9.0  48.2   065   11    6   5.6   3.1   20.8  69.4    -1.3    236  1.2
  8500    9.4  48.9   075   12    6   3.9   2.1   20.4  68.7    -1.6    217  1.1
  8250    9.6  49.3   085   13    7   2.1   1.2   19.8  67.7    -2.2    205  1.0
  8000    9.7  49.5   090   14    7   2.5   1.4   19.3  66.7    -2.8    192  1.0
  7750    9.9  49.8   085   14    7   2.3   1.3   18.7  65.7    -3.4    180  0.9
  7500   10.1  50.2   080   14    7   5.6   3.1   18.2  64.8    -3.9    166  0.8
  7250   10.6  51.1   080   15    8   8.2   4.5   18.1  64.6    -4.1    143  0.7
  7000   11.2  52.2   075   15    8   7.5   4.1   17.9  64.3    -4.2    119  0.6
  6750   11.7  53.1   075   14    7   7.7   4.2   17.8  64.0    -4.4     96  0.5
  6500   12.3  54.1   075   13    7   7.7   4.2   17.6  63.7    -4.6     72  0.4
  6250   12.8  55.0   075   12    6   7.7   4.2   17.5  63.5    -4.8     49  0.2
  6000   13.3  55.9   075   11    6   7.7   4.2   17.3  63.2    -5.0     25  0.1
  5750   13.9  57.0   075    9    5   7.7   4.2   17.2  62.9    -5.2      2  0.0
  5500   14.4  57.9   080    6    3   8.0   4.4   17.0  62.7    -5.4      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/30/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/30/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.8  LI... +0.2               | K index... +28.7  LI... -0.0
CAPE... +81.1  CIN... -0.8                 | CAPE... +81.1  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.1 -83.4  310  21 11   1.1   0.6 | -63.6 -82.5  300  21 11   1.6   0.9
 45000 -60.6 -77.1  305  29 15   5.3   2.9 | -60.0 -76.0  290  28 15   4.3   2.4
 40000 -52.0 -61.6  300  26 13   6.4   3.5 | -52.6 -62.7  305  28 14   6.7   3.7
 38000 -48.2 -54.8  300  21 11   6.4   3.5 | -48.6 -55.5  305  25 13   6.7   3.7
 36000 -44.3 -47.7  300  15  8   6.6   3.6 | -44.7 -48.5  305  23 12   6.8   3.7
 34000 -39.5 -39.1  295  13  7   8.1   4.5 | -39.5 -39.1  305  22 11   8.7   4.8
 32000 -34.7 -30.5  290  11  5   8.0   4.4 | -34.3 -29.7  300  21 11   8.6   4.7
 30000 -29.9 -21.8  290  13  7   8.0   4.4 | -29.5 -21.1  300  20 10   7.9   4.3
 29000 -27.5 -17.5  295  14  7   8.0   4.4 | -26.6 -15.9  300  20 10   7.9   4.3
 28000 -24.6 -12.3  295  16  8   7.3   4.0 | -24.4 -11.9  300  19 10   6.9   3.8
 27000 -22.5  -8.5  295  16  8   7.4   4.0 | -22.3  -8.1  300  19 10   7.0   3.8
 26000 -20.3  -4.5  290  16  8   7.4   4.1 | -20.3  -4.5  300  19 10   7.0   3.8
 25000 -18.1  -0.6  290  16  8   6.9   3.8 | -18.2  -0.8  305  19 10   6.8   3.7
 24000 -16.3   2.7  290  15  8   6.0   3.3 | -16.3   2.7  300  18  9   6.5   3.6
 23000 -14.6   5.7  290  15  8   6.1   3.3 | -14.4   6.1  300  17  9   6.6   3.6
 22000 -12.8   9.0  290  14  7   6.1   3.4 | -12.5   9.5  295  16  8   6.3   3.4
 21000 -11.0  12.2  295  13  7   6.2   3.4 | -10.8  12.6  300  14  7   5.9   3.2
 20000  -9.2  15.4  295  12  6   6.3   3.4 |  -9.1  15.6  300  12  6   5.9   3.2
 19500  -8.3  17.1  300  12  6   6.4   3.5 |  -8.2  17.2  300  11  6   5.8   3.2
 19000  -7.4  18.7  300  12  6   5.4   3.0 |  -7.3  18.9  300  10  5   6.7   3.7
 18500  -6.6  20.1  300  12  6   5.6   3.0 |  -6.3  20.7  300   9  5   6.6   3.6
 18000  -5.8  21.6  305  12  6   5.7   3.1 |  -5.4  22.3  300   9  4   6.1   3.3
 17500  -5.0  23.0  305  11  5   5.8   3.2 |  -4.6  23.7  300   8  4   5.5   3.0
 17000  -4.2  24.4  305  10  5   5.9   3.2 |  -3.8  25.2  300   6  3   5.5   3.0
 16500  -3.4  25.9  310   9  5   5.1   2.8 |  -3.1  26.4  305   6  3   4.7   2.6
 16000  -2.7  27.1  310   8  4   5.2   2.8 |  -2.4  27.7  310   5  2   4.8   2.6
 15500  -1.9  28.6  315   7  4   5.0   2.7 |  -1.7  28.9  320   4  2   4.9   2.7
 15000  -1.2  29.8  320   7  3   4.9   2.7 |  -1.0  30.2  330   3  2   5.0   2.7
 14500  -0.5  31.1  325   6  3   5.1   2.8 |   0.1  32.2  355   3  1   5.9   3.2
 14000   0.6  33.1  345   4  2   5.4   3.0 |   0.9  33.6  020   3  1   5.9   3.2
 13500   1.5  34.7  360   4  2   6.5   3.6 |   1.7  35.1  040   3  1   6.2   3.4
 13000   2.4  36.3  015   4  2   6.8   3.7 |   2.6  36.7  050   3  2   6.3   3.4
 12500   3.4  38.1  030   4  2   6.3   3.5 |   3.5  38.3  055   4  2   5.8   3.2
 12000   4.2  39.6  040   5  2   6.0   3.3 |   4.2  39.6  055   4  2   5.6   3.1
 11500   5.0  41.0  055   5  3   5.7   3.1 |   5.0  41.0  055   3  2   5.6   3.1
 11000   5.7  42.3  070   5  3   5.4   3.0 |   5.8  42.4  045   3  2   5.6   3.1
 10500   6.5  43.7  080   6  3   4.5   2.5 |   6.6  43.9  030   3  1   4.5   2.5
 10250   6.8  44.2  080   6  3   4.3   2.4 |   6.8  44.2  030   3  1   4.1   2.3
 10000   7.1  44.8  085   6  3   6.0   3.3 |   7.2  45.0  020   3  2   6.2   3.4
  9750   7.6  45.7  090   7  4   6.4   3.5 |   7.7  45.9  005   3  2   6.7   3.6
  9500   8.0  46.4  090   7  4   5.6   3.1 |   8.1  46.6  360   4  2   5.3   2.9
  9250   8.3  46.9  095   7  4   5.1   2.8 |   8.4  47.1  005   4  2   4.4   2.4
  9000   8.7  47.7  095   7  4   5.3   2.9 |   8.7  47.7  015   4  2   5.1   2.8
  8750   9.1  48.4  095   7  4   5.3   2.9 |   9.1  48.4  025   5  2   5.3   2.9
  8500   9.4  48.9  095   7  4   5.1   2.8 |   9.5  49.1  035   5  3   4.7   2.6
  8250   9.8  49.6  090   6  3   4.9   2.7 |   9.8  49.6  045   7  3   4.6   2.5
  8000  10.1  50.2  085   6  3   5.4   3.0 |  10.1  50.2  050   8  4   4.6   2.5
  7750  10.5  50.9  080   5  3   5.4   3.0 |  10.4  50.7  055  10  5   4.5   2.5
  7500  10.9  51.6  065   5  2   4.9   2.7 |  10.7  51.3  050  11  6   4.5   2.4
  7250  11.2  52.2  050   4  2   4.6   2.5 |  11.0  51.8  045  13  7   4.3   2.4
  7000  11.5  52.7  035   5  2   5.4   3.0 |  11.4  52.5  040  14  7   5.0   2.7
  6750  12.0  53.6  020   5  3   5.8   3.2 |  11.8  53.2  035  14  7   6.9   3.8
  6500  12.3  54.1  005   5  3   5.5   3.0 |  12.3  54.1  030  13  7   7.8   4.3
  6250  12.7  54.9  350   6  3   4.9   2.7 |  12.8  55.0  025  13  7   7.1   3.9
  6000  13.1  55.6  340   7  4   7.8   4.3 |  13.3  55.9  015  12  6   9.2   5.0
  5750  13.9  57.0  330   7  3  13.0   7.1 |  14.1  57.4  010  11  6  12.8   7.0
  5500  14.8  58.6  330   6  3  12.6   6.9 |  15.1  59.2  010  10  5  12.7   7.0

           07/30/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/30/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.3  LI... -0.2               | K index... +27.8  LI... +0.4
CAPE... +78.6  CIN... M                    | CAPE... +81.1  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.0 -81.4  300  23 12   1.8   1.0 | -63.1 -81.6  305  26 13   1.7   0.9
 45000 -59.6 -75.3  285  36 19   3.4   1.9 | -59.8 -75.6  295  45 23   3.3   1.8
 40000 -53.3 -63.9  290  47 24   7.6   4.2 | -53.6 -64.5  290  64 33   7.9   4.3
 38000 -48.7 -55.7  295  43 22   7.6   4.2 | -48.9 -56.0  290  58 30   7.9   4.3
 36000 -44.2 -47.6  295  40 21   7.7   4.2 | -44.1 -47.4  295  52 27   7.9   4.3
 34000 -39.1 -38.4  295  37 19   8.5   4.7 | -39.2 -38.6  295  46 24   8.2   4.5
 32000 -34.0 -29.2  295  35 18   8.4   4.6 | -34.4 -29.9  300  40 21   8.1   4.4
 30000 -29.3 -20.7  295  32 16   7.8   4.3 | -29.5 -21.1  295  36 18   8.2   4.5
 29000 -26.4 -15.5  290  29 15   7.8   4.3 | -27.1 -16.8  290  34 17   8.2   4.5
 28000 -24.1 -11.4  290  28 14   7.2   4.0 | -24.1 -11.4  290  31 16   7.7   4.2
 27000 -21.9  -7.4  290  27 14   7.3   4.0 | -21.8  -7.2  290  30 16   7.8   4.3
 26000 -19.8  -3.6  290  26 13   7.3   4.0 | -19.6  -3.3  290  29 15   7.8   4.3
 25000 -17.7   0.1  290  25 13   7.0   3.8 | -17.3   0.9  290  28 14   7.3   4.0
 24000 -15.8   3.6  285  24 12   6.4   3.5 | -15.4   4.3  290  27 14   6.5   3.6
 23000 -13.9   7.0  285  23 12   6.4   3.5 | -13.5   7.7  290  26 13   6.6   3.6
 22000 -12.1  10.2  285  21 11   6.1   3.4 | -11.6  11.1  290  25 13   6.1   3.4
 21000 -10.4  13.3  290  18 10   5.7   3.2 |  -9.9  14.2  285  23 12   5.6   3.1
 20000  -8.7  16.3  290  16  8   5.8   3.2 |  -8.3  17.1  285  22 11   5.6   3.1
 19500  -7.9  17.8  290  14  7   5.9   3.2 |  -7.5  18.5  280  21 11   5.7   3.1
 19000  -7.1  19.2  290  13  6   4.9   2.7 |  -6.8  19.8  280  20 10   4.2   2.3
 18500  -6.4  20.5  285  11  6   5.0   2.7 |  -6.2  20.8  280  19 10   4.4   2.4
 18000  -5.7  21.7  285   9  5   5.1   2.8 |  -5.6  21.9  280  17  9   4.8   2.6
 17500  -5.0  23.0  280   8  4   5.2   2.9 |  -4.8  23.4  275  16  8   5.3   2.9
 17000  -4.2  24.4  270   7  3   5.2   2.8 |  -4.1  24.6  275  14  7   5.4   3.0
 16500  -3.4  25.9  265   5  3   5.7   3.1 |  -3.4  25.9  270  13  6   4.4   2.4
 16000  -2.6  27.3  260   4  2   5.7   3.1 |  -2.7  27.1  270  11  6   4.5   2.5
 15500  -1.8  28.8  255   4  2   5.3   2.9 |  -2.1  28.2  265  10  5   4.5   2.5
 15000  -1.1  30.0  250   3  2   5.2   2.9 |  -1.4  29.5  265  10  5   4.6   2.5
 14500   0.1  32.2  245   2  1   6.1   3.3 |  -0.4  31.3  265   9  5   6.0   3.3
 14000   0.9  33.6  260   1  1   6.1   3.4 |   0.5  32.9  270   9  5   6.0   3.3
 13500   1.8  35.2  300   1  0   5.8   3.2 |   1.4  34.5  275   8  4   6.2   3.4
 13000   2.6  36.7  330   1  1   5.7   3.1 |   2.2  36.0  280   7  4   6.3   3.4
 12500   3.4  38.1  340   2  1   5.6   3.1 |   3.1  37.6  290   5  3   5.7   3.1
 12000   4.1  39.4  345   3  1   5.5   3.0 |   3.9  39.0  295   4  2   5.4   3.0
 11500   4.9  40.8  350   3  2   5.4   3.0 |   4.6  40.3  320   2  1   5.3   2.9
 11000   5.6  42.1  355   3  2   5.3   2.9 |   5.4  41.7  080   1  1   5.2   2.9
 10500   6.4  43.5  005   4  2   4.0   2.2 |   6.1  43.0  105   4  2   4.4   2.4
 10250   6.6  43.9  010   3  2   3.6   2.0 |   6.4  43.5  110   5  2   4.1   2.3
 10000   7.0  44.6  025   3  2   6.0   3.3 |   6.7  44.1  110   6  3   5.7   3.2
  9750   7.4  45.3  045   4  2   6.7   3.7 |   7.1  44.8  115   8  4   6.1   3.4
  9500   7.8  46.0  060   5  2   5.1   2.8 |   7.5  45.5  115   9  5   4.7   2.6
  9250   8.1  46.6  065   5  3   3.9   2.1 |   7.8  46.0  115  10  5   3.5   1.9
  9000   8.4  47.1  070   6  3   5.1   2.8 |   8.1  46.6  115  10  5   4.8   2.7
  8750   8.8  47.8  070   7  4   5.6   3.1 |   8.5  47.3  115  11  6   5.6   3.1
  8500   9.2  48.6  070   8  4   4.5   2.5 |   8.8  47.8  110  12  6   4.8   2.6
  8250   9.5  49.1  065   9  5   3.9   2.1 |   9.1  48.4  105  11  6   4.5   2.4
  8000   9.8  49.6  065  10  5   4.9   2.7 |   9.5  49.1  105  11  6   5.0   2.7
  7750  10.1  50.2  065  11  6   5.3   2.9 |   9.8  49.6  095  11  6   5.0   2.7
  7500  10.5  50.9  055  11  6   4.5   2.4 |  10.1  50.2  090  10  5   4.5   2.5
  7250  10.8  51.4  050  11  6   4.2   2.3 |  10.4  50.7  075  10  5   4.3   2.3
  7000  11.1  52.0  040  11  6   5.0   2.7 |  10.8  51.4  065  10  5   5.2   2.9
  6750  11.5  52.7  035  11  6   7.3   4.0 |  11.2  52.2  055  10  5   7.2   4.0
  6500  12.1  53.8  025  10  5   8.4   4.6 |  11.7  53.1  050  10  5   8.0   4.4
  6250  12.6  54.7  015   9  5   7.7   4.2 |  12.2  54.0  040   9  5   7.3   4.0
  6000  13.2  55.8  005   9  5   9.5   5.2 |  12.8  55.0  030  10  5   9.4   5.2
  5750  14.0  57.2  005   8  4  12.9   7.1 |  13.6  56.5  030   9  5  12.6   6.9
  5500  15.0  59.0  005   8  4  13.5   7.4 |  14.5  58.1  025   8  4  11.6   6.4
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.