Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 210121
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1921 MDT Monday, October 20, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, October 21, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 73.1 F/22.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 372 ft/min (1.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10191 ft MSL (4904 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 74.0 F/23.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1345 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 6971 ft MSL (1683 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/22.... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No cahnge
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 27721 ft MSL (22434 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/22....... Fair

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:16:11 / 18:12:56 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 56 min 46 sec (656 min 46 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:44:09 MDT... 39.39 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 10/21/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 13676 ft MSL (8389 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 15579 ft MSL (10292 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14520 ft MSL (9233 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +0.4
K index......................... +20.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -65.9 -86.6   230   36   18   4.5   2.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.6 -73.5   230   40   21   6.0   3.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -49.6 -57.3   235   30   15   5.8   3.2      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.2 -51.2   235   26   13   5.7   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -42.8 -45.0   245   21   11   5.7   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -40.1 -40.2   250   19   10   2.8   1.5      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -38.4 -37.1   255   18    9   2.8   1.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -36.0 -32.8   245   17    9   4.9   2.7   39.8 103.7    12.5      M    M
 29000  -34.5 -30.1   230   18    9   4.9   2.7   37.9 100.2    11.1      M    M
 28000  -33.1 -27.6   220   19   10   4.8   2.6   36.1  97.0     9.9      M    M
 27000  -30.9 -23.6   215   20   10   8.6   4.7   35.1  95.2     9.2      M    M
 26000  -28.3 -18.9   220   20   10   8.7   4.8   34.7  94.4     8.9      M    M
 25000  -25.7 -14.3   220   19   10   8.7   4.8   34.3  93.8     8.7      M    M
 24000  -23.3  -9.9   225   19   10   7.7   4.2   33.8  92.8     8.4      M    M
 23000  -21.0  -5.8   225   18    9   7.7   4.2   33.0  91.4     7.8      M    M
 22000  -18.7  -1.7   225   17    9   7.7   4.2   32.3  90.1     7.3      M    M
 21000  -16.6   2.1   225   17    9   6.8   3.8   31.4  88.5     6.6      M    M
 20000  -14.6   5.7   225   16    8   6.8   3.7   30.3  86.6     5.7      M    M
 19500  -13.5   7.7   225   16    8   6.8   3.7   29.8  85.7     5.3      M    M
 19000  -12.5   9.5   225   16    8   6.8   3.8   29.4  84.9     4.9      M    M
 18500  -11.5  11.3   225   16    8   6.9   3.8   28.9  84.0     4.5      M    M
 18000  -10.5  13.1   225   16    8   6.8   3.8   28.4  83.1     4.1      M    M
 17500   -9.4  15.1   230   15    8   8.0   4.4   28.0  82.3     3.7      M    M
 17000   -8.2  17.2   235   15    8   8.2   4.5   27.7  81.8     3.5      M    M
 16500   -6.4  20.5   240   14    7   7.5   4.1   27.2  81.0     3.1      M    M
 16000   -5.3  22.5   240   14    7   7.5   4.1   26.8  80.3     2.8      M    M
 15500   -4.2  24.4   240   13    7   7.8   4.3   26.5  79.7     2.4      M    M
 15000   -3.1  26.4   240   13    6   8.0   4.4   26.2  79.1     2.1      M    M
 14500   -1.9  28.6   245   12    6   8.2   4.5   25.9  78.7     1.8      M    M
 14000   -0.6  30.9   245   12    6   8.7   4.8   25.7  78.3     1.6      M    M
 13500    0.7  33.3   245   12    6   8.7   4.8   25.5  78.0     1.5      M    M
 13000    1.9  35.4   240   11    6   8.1   4.5   25.3  77.6     1.2      M    M
 12500    3.1  37.6   240   11    6   8.1   4.5   25.1  77.1     1.0      M    M
 12000    4.4  39.9   240   11    6   8.6   4.7   24.8  76.7     0.8      M    M
 11500    5.6  42.1   240   10    5   8.6   4.7   24.7  76.4     0.6      M    M
 11000    6.9  44.4   240   10    5   8.3   4.5   24.5  76.0     0.4      M    M
 10500    8.1  46.6   240   10    5   9.0   4.9   24.2  75.6     0.2      M    M
 10250    8.7  47.7   245    9    5   5.6   3.1   24.1  75.4     0.0      M    M
 10000    9.0  48.2   245    9    5   6.4   3.5   23.7  74.6    -0.4    357  1.8
  9750    9.7  49.5   245    9    5  10.3   5.7   23.7  74.6    -0.4    329  1.7
  9500   10.4  50.7   245    9    4   9.6   5.3   23.6  74.6    -0.4    300  1.5
  9250   11.1  52.0   245    8    4   7.5   4.1   23.6  74.5    -0.5    272  1.4
  9000   11.6  52.9   245    8    4   6.8   3.7   23.3  74.0    -0.8    251  1.3
  8750   12.2  54.0   250    7    4   8.5   4.7   23.2  73.8    -0.9    226  1.1
  8500   12.8  55.0   255    7    4   7.9   4.3   23.1  73.5    -1.0    201  1.0
  8250   13.3  55.9   255    7    3   7.0   3.9   22.9  73.2    -1.2    176  0.9
  8000   13.8  56.8   260    7    3   6.2   3.4   22.7  72.8    -1.4    155  0.8
  7750   14.3  57.7   260    6    3   6.3   3.5   22.4  72.3    -1.7    134  0.7
  7500   14.7  58.5   265    6    3   5.5   3.0   22.1  71.8    -2.0    113  0.6
  7250   15.0  59.0   270    6    3   4.2   2.3   21.7  71.1    -2.5     96  0.5
  7000   15.3  59.5   275    6    3   3.5   1.9   21.3  70.3    -2.9     81  0.4
  6750   15.5  59.9   285    6    3   4.9   2.7   20.8  69.5    -3.4     65  0.3
  6500   15.7  60.3   290    6    3  -3.6  -2.0   20.3  68.5    -3.9     52  0.3
  6250   15.0  59.0   275    6    3 -12.0  -6.6   18.8  65.8    -5.5     68  0.3
  6000   14.2  57.6   260    7    4  -7.8  -4.3   17.3  63.2    -7.0     84  0.4
  5750   13.5  56.3   245    9    4 -15.1  -8.3   15.9  60.6    -8.5     99  0.5
  5500   11.5  52.7   230    9    5 -36.4 -20.0   13.2  55.8   -11.1    150  0.8

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           10/21/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       10/21/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +19.5  LI... +1.1               | K index... +21.8  LI... +0.6
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... +2.3  CIN... -55.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.5 -87.7  215  38 20   4.3   2.4 | -66.0 -86.8  205  44 22   4.0   2.2
 45000 -59.2 -74.6  215  46 24   5.8   3.2 | -59.3 -74.7  205  53 27   5.4   2.9
 40000 -50.5 -58.9  225  37 19   5.8   3.2 | -51.2 -60.2  215  43 22   5.3   2.9
 38000 -47.1 -52.8  225  32 16   5.8   3.2 | -48.0 -54.4  220  38 20   5.3   2.9
 36000 -43.6 -46.5  230  27 14   5.8   3.2 | -44.8 -48.6  225  33 17   5.3   2.9
 34000 -40.8 -41.4  240  23 12   3.7   2.1 | -41.8 -43.2  230  30 15   4.8   2.6
 32000 -38.3 -36.9  250  18 10   3.7   2.0 | -38.6 -37.5  240  26 14   4.8   2.6
 30000 -35.8 -32.4  245  19 10   4.5   2.5 | -35.4 -31.7  240  24 13   5.7   3.1
 29000 -34.4 -29.9  240  22 11   4.5   2.5 | -33.7 -28.7  235  24 12   5.7   3.1
 28000 -33.1 -27.6  230  24 12   4.3   2.4 | -32.0 -25.6  230  23 12   5.6   3.1
 27000 -30.9 -23.6  230  24 13   8.8   4.8 | -29.9 -21.8  225  23 12   7.8   4.3
 26000 -28.3 -18.9  225  23 12   8.8   4.8 | -27.6 -17.7  220  24 12   7.8   4.3
 25000 -25.6 -14.1  225  22 11   8.8   4.8 | -25.3 -13.5  220  25 13   7.8   4.3
 24000 -23.2  -9.8  225  21 11   7.7   4.2 | -23.0  -9.4  215  25 13   7.2   4.0
 23000 -20.9  -5.6  220  20 10   7.7   4.2 | -20.9  -5.6  215  25 13   7.3   4.0
 22000 -18.6  -1.5  215  19 10   7.7   4.2 | -18.7  -1.7  220  24 13   7.3   4.0
 21000 -16.5   2.3  215  18  9   6.9   3.8 | -16.6   2.1  220  23 12   7.2   4.0
 20000 -14.5   5.9  210  17  9   6.9   3.8 | -14.5   5.9  215  21 11   7.2   4.0
 19500 -13.5   7.7  210  17  9   6.9   3.8 | -13.4   7.9  215  20 10   7.3   4.0
 19000 -12.5   9.5  210  17  9   6.9   3.8 | -12.3   9.9  215  19 10   7.3   4.0
 18500 -11.5  11.3  210  16  8   6.9   3.8 | -11.3  11.7  215  19 10   7.2   3.9
 18000 -10.4  13.3  210  15  8   6.9   3.8 | -10.2  13.6  215  18  9   7.2   4.0
 17500  -9.4  15.1  210  15  8   6.9   3.8 |  -9.2  15.4  215  17  9   7.2   4.0
 17000  -8.4  16.9  210  14  7   6.9   3.8 |  -8.1  17.4  215  17  9   7.3   4.0
 16500  -7.4  18.7  210  14  7   7.4   4.0 |  -7.1  19.2  215  16  8   7.4   4.1
 16000  -6.2  20.8  215  13  7   8.2   4.5 |  -5.9  21.4  215  16  8   7.8   4.3
 15500  -4.4  24.1  220  13  7   8.2   4.5 |  -4.2  24.4  215  15  8   7.8   4.3
 15000  -3.1  26.4  220  13  7   8.3   4.5 |  -3.1  26.4  215  14  7   7.8   4.3
 14500  -1.9  28.6  220  12  6   8.2   4.5 |  -1.9  28.6  215  14  7   7.8   4.3
 14000  -0.7  30.7  220  12  6   8.0   4.4 |  -0.8  30.6  215  13  7   7.6   4.2
 13500   0.5  32.9  220  11  6   8.0   4.4 |   0.4  32.7  215  13  6   7.6   4.2
 13000   1.7  35.1  220  10  5   8.0   4.4 |   1.5  34.7  215  12  6   7.1   3.9
 12500   2.8  37.0  220  10  5   8.0   4.4 |   2.5  36.5  215  11  6   7.1   3.9
 12000   4.0  39.2  220   9  4   8.1   4.4 |   3.6  38.5  210  10  5   7.3   4.0
 11500   5.2  41.4  220   7  4   8.1   4.5 |   4.7  40.5  210   8  4   7.3   4.0
 11000   6.4  43.5  225   6  3   7.8   4.3 |   5.8  42.4  205   7  4   7.8   4.3
 10500   7.5  45.5  230   5  3   8.2   4.5 |   6.9  44.4  205   5  3   8.4   4.6
 10250   8.1  46.6  235   4  2   5.7   3.1 |   7.5  45.5  205   4  2   5.1   2.8
 10000   8.4  47.1  240   4  2   6.7   3.7 |   7.8  46.0  205   4  2   5.8   3.2
  9750   9.1  48.4  250   4  2   9.6   5.3 |   8.4  47.1  210   3  1   9.5   5.2
  9500   9.7  49.5  260   3  2   9.0   4.9 |   9.0  48.2  220   2  1   8.7   4.8
  9250  10.4  50.7  275   3  2   7.8   4.3 |   9.7  49.5  245   1  1   8.0   4.4
  9000  10.9  51.6  285   3  2   7.2   3.9 |  10.2  50.4  280   1  1   7.9   4.4
  8750  11.5  52.7  295   3  2   8.0   4.4 |  10.8  51.4  300   2  1   9.0   4.9
  8500  12.0  53.6  305   4  2   7.7   4.2 |  11.5  52.7  315   3  1   8.7   4.8
  8250  12.6  54.7  310   4  2   7.5   4.1 |  12.1  53.8  320   4  2   8.8   4.8
  8000  13.1  55.6  315   4  2   6.9   3.8 |  12.8  55.0  320   4  2   8.3   4.5
  7750  13.6  56.5  320   5  3   6.6   3.6 |  13.3  55.9  320   5  2   7.7   4.2
  7500  14.0  57.2  320   5  3   5.7   3.1 |  13.9  57.0  320   5  3   7.3   4.0
  7250  14.4  57.9  320   5  3   4.6   2.5 |  14.4  57.9  320   4  2   6.8   3.7
  7000  14.7  58.5  320   5  3   4.3   2.4 |  14.9  58.8  315   3  2   6.6   3.6
  6750  15.0  59.0  320   6  3   4.9   2.7 |  15.3  59.5  310   2  1   5.1   2.8
  6500  15.2  59.4  320   5  3  -1.3  -0.7 |  15.7  60.3  280   1  1   7.5   4.1
  6250  14.8  58.6  305   5  2  -7.1  -3.9 |  16.4  61.5  255   1  1  10.5   5.8
  6000  14.4  57.9  290   4  2  -3.7  -2.0 |  17.1  62.8  225   1  1   9.1   5.0
  5750  14.1  57.4  270   5  2  -6.3  -3.4 |  17.9  64.2  205   2  1  11.5   6.3
  5500  13.1  55.6  240   5  2 -18.7 -10.3 |  18.9  66.0  205   2  1  18.0   9.9

           10/21/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       10/21/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +20.5  LI... -0.3               | K index... +28.0  LI... -0.8
CAPE... +2.8  CIN... -57.6                 | CAPE... +40.4  CIN... -16.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.5 -85.9  210  47 24   3.9   2.2 | -64.9 -84.8  215  50 26   4.0   2.2
 45000 -59.0 -74.2  210  54 28   4.9   2.7 | -58.9 -74.0  210  59 30   4.4   2.4
 40000 -51.7 -61.1  220  46 24   4.7   2.6 | -52.0 -61.6  220  55 29   4.0   2.2
 38000 -49.0 -56.2  225  44 23   4.5   2.5 | -50.2 -58.4  225  51 26   2.9   1.6
 36000 -46.2 -51.2  230  42 21   4.5   2.5 | -48.5 -55.3  230  48 25   2.9   1.6
 34000 -43.2 -45.8  235  38 20   5.6   3.1 | -45.5 -49.9  235  44 22   6.9   3.8
 32000 -39.8 -39.6  235  33 17   5.6   3.1 | -41.4 -42.5  235  38 20   6.9   3.8
 30000 -35.6 -32.1  235  30 15   6.7   3.7 | -36.9 -34.4  235  34 18   7.9   4.3
 29000 -33.6 -28.5  235  29 15   6.7   3.7 | -34.0 -29.2  235  33 17   7.9   4.3
 28000 -31.6 -24.9  235  29 15   6.6   3.6 | -31.6 -24.9  240  32 17   7.9   4.3
 27000 -29.5 -21.1  230  28 14   7.5   4.1 | -29.3 -20.7  235  31 16   7.6   4.2
 26000 -27.3 -17.1  225  27 14   7.5   4.1 | -27.1 -16.8  235  30 15   7.6   4.2
 25000 -25.1 -13.2  220  27 14   7.5   4.1 | -24.8 -12.6  230  28 15   7.6   4.2
 24000 -22.9  -9.2  215  26 13   7.2   3.9 | -22.6  -8.7  225  27 14   7.3   4.0
 23000 -20.7  -5.3  220  25 13   7.2   4.0 | -20.4  -4.7  225  25 13   7.4   4.0
 22000 -18.6  -1.5  220  25 13   7.3   4.0 | -18.3  -0.9  225  23 12   7.3   4.0
 21000 -16.5   2.3  220  24 12   7.1   3.9 | -16.3   2.7  220  22 11   6.3   3.5
 20000 -14.4   6.1  220  22 12   7.1   3.9 | -14.4   6.1  220  20 10   6.3   3.5
 19500 -13.4   7.9  220  22 11   7.1   3.9 | -13.5   7.7  215  19 10   6.3   3.5
 19000 -12.3   9.9  220  21 11   7.2   3.9 | -12.6   9.3  215  19 10   6.4   3.5
 18500 -11.2  11.8  220  20 11   7.5   4.1 | -11.6  11.1  215  18  9   6.8   3.7
 18000 -10.1  13.8  220  20 10   7.5   4.1 | -10.6  12.9  210  17  9   6.8   3.7
 17500  -9.0  15.8  220  19 10   7.5   4.1 |  -9.7  14.5  210  16  8   6.5   3.6
 17000  -7.9  17.8  220  18 10   7.5   4.1 |  -8.7  16.3  210  14  7   6.5   3.6
 16500  -6.8  19.8  220  18  9   7.6   4.2 |  -7.8  18.0  210  13  7   6.5   3.6
 16000  -5.6  21.9  225  17  9   8.1   4.4 |  -6.8  19.8  210  11  6   6.6   3.6
 15500  -4.5  23.9  225  17  9   8.1   4.4 |  -5.9  21.4  210  10  5   6.6   3.6
 15000  -2.7  27.1  230  15  8   7.7   4.2 |  -4.9  23.2  215   9  4   7.5   4.1
 14500  -1.6  29.1  230  14  7   7.7   4.2 |  -3.2  26.2  215   7  4   7.6   4.2
 14000  -0.4  31.3  230  13  7   7.5   4.1 |  -2.0  28.4  215   7  3   8.7   4.8
 13500   0.7  33.3  230  12  6   7.6   4.2 |  -0.8  30.6  215   6  3   8.7   4.7
 13000   1.8  35.2  235  11  6   7.3   4.0 |   0.5  32.9  210   6  3   9.0   4.9
 12500   2.8  37.0  235  10  5   7.4   4.0 |   1.8  35.2  205   5  2   9.0   4.9
 12000   3.9  39.0  235   9  5   7.3   4.0 |   3.1  37.6  200   4  2   8.8   4.8
 11500   5.0  41.0  225   8  4   7.4   4.1 |   4.4  39.9  205   3  1   8.9   4.9
 11000   6.0  42.8  220   7  4   6.6   3.6 |   5.7  42.3  205   2  1   7.7   4.2
 10500   7.0  44.6  210   7  4   5.9   3.2 |   6.9  44.4  205   1  1   6.9   3.8
 10250   7.5  45.5  205   7  4   9.8   5.4 |   7.4  45.3  000   0  0  11.3   6.2
 10000   8.3  46.9  200   6  3  10.7   5.9 |   8.4  47.1  000   0  0  11.8   6.5
  9750   8.9  48.0  195   5  3   7.4   4.1 |   9.1  48.4  000   0  0   7.9   4.3
  9500   9.5  49.1  190   5  2   8.4   4.6 |   9.7  49.5  000   0  0   9.1   5.0
  9250  10.1  50.2  180   4  2   7.8   4.3 |  10.3  50.5  000   0  0   8.2   4.5
  9000  10.7  51.3  175   3  2   8.3   4.6 |  10.9  51.6  000   0  0   8.5   4.7
  8750  11.3  52.3  170   3  2   9.1   5.0 |  11.6  52.9  355   1  0   9.3   5.1
  8500  12.0  53.6  165   3  1   8.9   4.9 |  12.3  54.1  345   1  1   9.1   5.0
  8250  12.6  54.7  160   2  1   9.4   5.2 |  13.0  55.4  340   2  1   9.0   4.9
  8000  13.3  55.9  160   2  1   9.6   5.3 |  13.6  56.5  335   2  1   8.6   4.7
  7750  14.0  57.2  155   2  1   9.3   5.1 |  14.2  57.6  330   3  1   8.3   4.6
  7500  14.7  58.5  155   2  1   9.5   5.2 |  14.8  58.6  325   3  2   8.6   4.7
  7250  15.4  59.7  155   2  1  10.3   5.7 |  15.5  59.9  325   4  2   9.4   5.1
  7000  16.2  61.2  160   2  1  10.5   5.8 |  16.2  61.2  320   5  2   9.7   5.3
  6750  17.0  62.6  160   1  1   9.4   5.2 |  16.9  62.4  320   5  3   9.6   5.3
  6500  17.7  63.9  165   1  1   9.9   5.4 |  17.6  63.7  320   6  3   9.3   5.1
  6250  18.4  65.1  170   1  1  11.0   6.0 |  18.3  64.9  320   6  3   8.9   4.9
  6000  19.3  66.7  170   1  1  10.5   5.8 |  19.0  66.2  320   7  3   9.2   5.0
  5750  20.0  68.0  175   1  1  10.6   5.8 |  19.6  67.3  320   7  4   8.3   4.6
  5500  20.9  69.6  185   1  0  14.7   8.0 |  20.1  68.2  320   7  4   3.8   2.1
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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