Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 291239
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0639 MDT Friday, August 29, 2014

This forecast is for Friday, August 29, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 74.7 F/23.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 895 ft/min (4.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 15279 ft MSL (9994 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 81.0 F/27.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10966 ft MSL (5680 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 08/30..... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... 17834 ft MSL (12549 ft AGL)
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 19556 ft MSL (14271 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 08/30........ Poor

Remarks... None

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:24:42 / 19:36:40 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 11 min 58 sec (791 min 58 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:00:16 MDT... 59.41 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 08/29/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 13674 ft MSL (8389 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16228 ft MSL (10943 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15773 ft MSL (10488 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +1.6
K index......................... +12.2

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -62.7 -80.9   310   18    9   0.9   0.5   89.7 193.4    36.2      M    M
 45000  -58.0 -72.4   300   31   16  -2.4  -1.3   71.9 161.4    27.8      M    M
 40000  -52.8 -63.0   295   38   19   5.2   2.9   57.2 135.0    20.0      M    M
 38000  -49.6 -57.3   295   36   19   5.4   2.9   53.1 127.7    17.8      M    M
 36000  -47.2 -53.0   290   34   18   0.9   0.5   48.3 118.9    14.8      M    M
 34000  -43.7 -46.7   290   35   18   7.0   3.8   45.0 113.0    12.8      M    M
 32000  -39.2 -38.6   290   37   19   8.4   4.6   43.2 109.8    11.8      M    M
 30000  -33.5 -28.3   295   32   16   8.6   4.7   42.2 108.0    11.4      M    M
 29000  -30.9 -23.6   295   31   16   8.6   4.7   41.5 106.8    11.0      M    M
 28000  -28.3 -18.9   295   30   15   8.6   4.7   41.0 105.8    10.7      M    M
 27000  -25.8 -14.4   300   29   15   8.6   4.7   40.6 105.1    10.5      M    M
 26000  -23.3  -9.9   300   28   14   6.8   3.7   40.2 104.3    10.3      M    M
 25000  -21.4  -6.5   300   27   14   6.3   3.5   38.9 102.0     9.4      M    M
 24000  -19.0  -2.2   300   24   12   9.1   5.0   38.2 100.7     8.9      M    M
 23000  -16.3   2.7   305   20   10   9.1   5.0   38.0 100.4     8.9      M    M
 22000  -13.5   7.7   305   16    8   9.2   5.0   37.9 100.2     8.9      M    M
 21000  -10.8  12.6   305   19   10   9.2   5.0   37.6  99.7     8.8      M    M
 20000   -8.0  17.6   305   23   12   9.4   5.1   37.4  99.3     8.7      M    M
 19500   -6.9  19.6   315   23   12   2.5   1.4   37.0  98.6     8.4      M    M
 19000   -6.9  19.6   320   24   12  -0.2  -0.1   35.3  95.6     7.0      M    M
 18500   -6.5  20.3   320   24   12   6.1   3.3   34.1  93.3     5.9      M    M
 18000   -5.7  21.7   325   24   12   1.4   0.8   33.4  92.1     5.3      M    M
 17500   -5.9  21.4   335   21   11   2.5   1.4   31.5  88.8     3.7      M    M
 17000   -5.9  21.4   355   19   10   0.0   0.0   29.9  85.8     2.2      M    M
 16500   -5.0  23.0   355   19   10   7.0   3.9   29.2  84.5     1.6      M    M
 16000   -4.0  24.8   345   19   10   6.9   3.8   28.7  83.7     1.3      M    M
 15500   -2.9  26.8   350   19   10   5.5   3.0   28.3  82.9     0.9      M    M
 15000   -2.7  27.1   355   19   10   4.9   2.7   26.4  79.6    -1.2    883  4.5
 14500   -2.0  28.4   345   20   10   6.8   3.7   25.7  78.3    -1.9    846  4.3
 14000   -0.6  30.9   340   21   11   9.5   5.2   25.6  78.0    -2.0    791  4.0
 13500    0.8  33.4   345   21   11   9.5   5.2   25.5  77.9    -2.1    734  3.7
 13000    2.2  36.0   345   20   10   9.5   5.2   25.5  77.9    -2.2    677  3.4
 12500    3.6  38.5   350   20   10   9.1   5.0   25.5  77.8    -2.2    619  3.1
 12000    4.8  40.6   350   20   10   8.3   4.6   25.3  77.5    -2.5    568  2.9
 11500    6.0  42.8   350   21   11   8.4   4.6   25.0  77.1    -2.8    518  2.6
 11000    7.2  45.0   355   22   11   9.2   5.0   24.8  76.7    -3.0    467  2.4
 10500    8.6  47.5   355   23   12   9.4   5.2   24.8  76.7    -3.1    410  2.1
 10250    9.3  48.7   355   23   12   9.1   5.0   24.8  76.6    -3.1    382  1.9
 10000   10.0  50.0   355   23   12   9.0   4.9   24.7  76.5    -3.2    354  1.8
  9750   10.6  51.1   355   22   11   9.0   5.0   24.7  76.4    -3.3    327  1.7
  9500   11.3  52.3   355   21   11   9.0   4.9   24.6  76.3    -3.3    299  1.5
  9250   12.0  53.6   350   20   10   9.0   4.9   24.6  76.2    -3.4    271  1.4
  9000   12.7  54.9   350   19   10   9.0   5.0   24.5  76.1    -3.4    244  1.2
  8750   13.3  55.9   345   17    9   9.0   4.9   24.4  76.0    -3.5    216  1.1
  8500   14.0  57.2   345   16    8   9.1   5.0   24.4  75.9    -3.6    189  1.0
  8250   14.7  58.5   340   14    7   8.7   4.8   24.3  75.8    -3.6    161  0.8
  8000   15.3  59.5   335   13    7   7.8   4.3   24.2  75.6    -3.8    135  0.7
  7750   15.9  60.6   330   12    6   7.5   4.1   24.0  75.3    -4.0    112  0.6
  7500   16.4  61.5   325   12    6   7.6   4.2   23.9  75.0    -4.1     88  0.4
  7250   17.0  62.6   320   11    6   7.6   4.2   23.7  74.7    -4.3     64  0.3
  7000   17.5  63.5   315   11    6   7.4   4.1   23.6  74.4    -4.5     40  0.2
  6750   18.1  64.6   310   11    6   8.2   4.5   23.4  74.1    -4.7     16  0.1
  6500   18.6  65.5   305   12    6   5.3   2.9   23.2  73.8    -4.9      M    M
  6250   18.7  65.7   305   12    6   1.0   0.5   22.7  72.8    -5.5      M    M
  6000   18.8  65.8   300   13    7   6.1   3.3   22.1  71.9    -6.1      M    M
  5750   19.0  66.2   300    9    5  -9.7  -5.3   21.6  70.9    -6.8      M    M
  5500   16.4  61.5   290    4    2 -56.4 -31.0   18.4  65.2   -10.1     28  0.1

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/29/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/29/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +26.9  LI... -1.9               | K index... +27.0  LI... -3.7
CAPE... +317.0  CIN... -35.8               | CAPE... +593.1  CIN... -8.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -61.7 -79.1  290  20 10   1.9   1.0 | -61.8 -79.2  280  24 12   2.4   1.3
 45000 -58.1 -72.6  295  27 14   4.1   2.2 | -57.6 -71.7  290  32 16   3.8   2.1
 40000 -51.6 -60.9  295  31 16   4.8   2.7 | -51.6 -60.9  295  35 18   4.5   2.5
 38000 -48.7 -55.7  295  32 16   4.8   2.6 | -49.0 -56.2  295  34 17   4.4   2.4
 36000 -45.9 -50.6  295  32 17   4.8   2.6 | -46.3 -51.3  300  33 17   4.5   2.5
 34000 -42.5 -44.5  290  30 16   6.0   3.3 | -42.6 -44.7  305  31 16   6.9   3.8
 32000 -38.9 -38.0  290  28 14   6.0   3.3 | -38.5 -37.3  305  30 15   6.9   3.8
 30000 -34.7 -30.5  290  26 13   7.7   4.2 | -34.3 -29.7  305  27 14   6.9   3.8
 29000 -32.4 -26.3  295  25 13   7.7   4.2 | -32.3 -26.1  305  25 13   6.9   3.8
 28000 -29.5 -21.1  295  24 12   7.9   4.3 | -29.7 -21.5  305  22 11   7.3   4.0
 27000 -27.1 -16.8  300  23 12   8.3   4.5 | -27.3 -17.1  310  21 11   7.9   4.3
 26000 -24.6 -12.3  300  22 11   8.3   4.5 | -25.0 -13.0  310  20 10   7.9   4.3
 25000 -22.1  -7.8  305  21 11   8.3   4.5 | -22.6  -8.7  310  18  9   8.0   4.4
 24000 -19.7  -3.5  305  20 10   8.0   4.4 | -20.4  -4.7  315  18  9   7.1   3.9
 23000 -17.3   0.9  305  19 10   8.0   4.4 | -18.3  -0.9  315  18  9   7.1   3.9
 22000 -14.9   5.2  310  19 10   8.2   4.5 | -16.2   2.8  320  18  9   7.1   3.9
 21000 -13.2   8.2  305  18  9   5.3   2.9 | -14.4   6.1  320  18  9   6.2   3.4
 20000 -11.6  11.1  305  17  9   5.5   3.0 | -12.6   9.3  320  19 10   6.2   3.4
 19500 -10.8  12.6  300  17  9   5.6   3.1 | -11.7  10.9  325  19 10   6.2   3.4
 19000 -10.1  13.8  300  16  8   4.7   2.6 | -10.8  12.6  325  19 10   6.7   3.7
 18500  -9.5  14.9  310  17  9   4.5   2.4 |  -9.8  14.4  325  20 10   6.8   3.7
 18000  -8.8  16.2  320  18  9   4.6   2.5 |  -8.8  16.2  330  20 10   6.9   3.8
 17500  -8.1  17.4  330  19 10   5.7   3.1 |  -7.7  18.1  330  20 10   7.5   4.1
 17000  -7.2  19.0  335  20 10   5.5   3.0 |  -6.7  19.9  330  20 10   7.5   4.1
 16500  -6.4  20.5  340  21 11   7.4   4.1 |  -5.6  21.9  330  20 10   7.5   4.1
 16000  -5.2  22.6  340  21 11   7.9   4.3 |  -4.5  23.9  335  19 10   7.5   4.1
 15500  -4.1  24.6  345  21 11   8.1   4.5 |  -3.4  25.9  335  17  9   7.6   4.2
 15000  -3.0  26.6  345  21 11   8.5   4.7 |  -2.2  28.0  340  16  8   7.7   4.2
 14500  -1.8  28.8  350  21 11   8.7   4.8 |  -1.1  30.0  345  15  8   7.7   4.3
 14000   0.2  32.4  350  21 11   9.5   5.2 |   0.6  33.1  345  13  7   8.3   4.5
 13500   1.5  34.7  350  20 10   9.4   5.2 |   1.8  35.2  345  12  6   8.3   4.6
 13000   2.8  37.0  350  20 10   9.2   5.0 |   3.0  37.4  345  12  6   8.4   4.6
 12500   4.2  39.6  350  19 10   9.3   5.1 |   4.2  39.6  345  12  6   8.5   4.7
 12000   5.6  42.1  345  19 10   9.7   5.3 |   5.5  41.9  345  11  6   8.9   4.9
 11500   7.0  44.6  345  18  9   9.5   5.2 |   6.8  44.2  340  11  6   8.9   4.9
 11000   8.4  47.1  345  19 10   8.8   4.8 |   8.0  46.4  340  11  6   8.5   4.7
 10500   9.8  49.6  345  19 10   4.8   2.7 |   9.3  48.7  340  11  6   5.3   2.9
 10250  10.0  50.0  345  19 10   5.6   3.1 |   9.6  49.3  340  11  6   6.5   3.6
 10000  10.7  51.3  345  19 10  11.4   6.3 |  10.4  50.7  340  12  6  11.7   6.4
  9750  11.5  52.7  345  19 10  10.2   5.6 |  11.2  52.2  340  12  6  10.7   5.9
  9500  12.3  54.1  340  19 10   9.2   5.0 |  12.0  53.6  340  12  6   9.3   5.1
  9250  12.8  55.0  340  19 10   6.8   3.8 |  12.5  54.5  340  12  6   7.3   4.0
  9000  13.4  56.1  340  19 10   8.3   4.6 |  13.1  55.6  340  12  6   9.4   5.2
  8750  14.0  57.2  340  19 10   9.8   5.4 |  13.8  56.8  340  10  5  10.7   5.9
  8500  14.7  58.5  335  18  9   8.7   4.8 |  14.5  58.1  335   9  5  10.0   5.5
  8250  15.3  59.5  335  18  9   7.8   4.3 |  15.2  59.4  335   9  4   9.5   5.2
  8000  15.9  60.6  335  18  9   8.1   4.4 |  15.9  60.6  335   8  4   9.8   5.4
  7750  16.5  61.7  330  18  9   8.6   4.7 |  16.7  62.1  335   8  4  10.1   5.5
  7500  17.1  62.8  325  18 10   7.4   4.1 |  17.4  63.3  335   8  4  10.1   5.5
  7250  17.5  63.5  320  19 10   6.2   3.4 |  18.2  64.8  335   7  4  10.2   5.6
  7000  18.0  64.4  315  19 10   7.1   3.9 |  18.9  66.0  330   7  4   9.9   5.4
  6750  18.4  65.1  315  20 10   5.9   3.2 |  19.6  67.3  330   7  4  10.0   5.5
  6500  18.7  65.7  310  19 10   1.2   0.6 |  20.4  68.7  330   7  4  10.6   5.8
  6250  18.6  65.5  300  16  8  -0.2  -0.1 |  21.2  70.2  330   7  4  11.7   6.4
  6000  18.6  65.5  290  14  7  -1.8  -1.0 |  22.0  71.6  330   7  3   8.6   4.7
  5750  18.4  65.1  275  12  6  -1.3  -0.7 |  22.7  72.9  330   6  3  12.6   6.9
  5500  18.5  65.3  265   9  5   6.8   3.7 |  24.2  75.6  335   6  3  28.0  15.3

           08/29/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/29/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.0  LI... -3.0               | K index... +26.0  LI... -2.2
CAPE... +416.1  CIN... -7.2                | CAPE... +272.0  CIN... -77.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.0 -79.6  275  28 14   2.5   1.4 | -61.5 -78.7  275  31 16   2.4   1.3
 45000 -57.8 -72.0  285  36 19   3.7   2.0 | -57.9 -72.2  280  39 20   2.5   1.4
 40000 -52.0 -61.6  290  37 19   4.3   2.4 | -53.7 -64.7  285  42 22   4.5   2.5
 38000 -49.4 -56.9  290  36 18   4.3   2.3 | -51.1 -60.0  285  31 16   4.3   2.4
 36000 -46.9 -52.4  295  35 18   4.4   2.4 | -48.6 -55.5  285  21 11   4.4   2.4
 34000 -43.0 -45.4  300  32 16   7.2   4.0 | -44.2 -47.6  290  16  8   8.3   4.6
 32000 -38.7 -37.7  305  28 14   7.3   4.0 | -39.2 -38.6  300  14  7   8.4   4.6
 30000 -34.0 -29.2  310  24 13   8.1   4.5 | -34.2 -29.6  300  15  8   8.5   4.7
 29000 -31.6 -24.9  310  23 12   8.1   4.5 | -31.7 -25.1  300  16  8   8.5   4.7
 28000 -28.6 -19.5  315  21 11   7.7   4.2 | -28.5 -19.3  300  18  9   8.0   4.4
 27000 -26.5 -15.7  315  20 11   7.1   3.9 | -26.3 -15.3  305  18  9   7.5   4.1
 26000 -24.4 -11.9  315  20 10   7.1   3.9 | -24.1 -11.4  310  19 10   7.5   4.1
 25000 -22.3  -8.1  315  19 10   7.2   3.9 | -21.9  -7.4  315  19 10   7.6   4.2
 24000 -20.2  -4.4  315  18  9   6.9   3.8 | -19.8  -3.6  320  20 10   6.8   3.7
 23000 -18.2  -0.8  315  18  9   6.9   3.8 | -17.8  -0.0  325  21 11   6.8   3.7
 22000 -16.2   2.8  320  17  9   6.9   3.8 | -15.9   3.4  330  21 11   6.8   3.7
 21000 -14.2   6.4  315  16  8   6.6   3.6 | -13.9   7.0  330  22 11   6.5   3.6
 20000 -12.3   9.9  310  16  8   6.6   3.6 | -12.0  10.4  330  22 11   6.5   3.6
 19500 -11.3  11.7  310  16  8   6.6   3.6 | -11.1  12.0  330  23 12   6.5   3.6
 19000 -10.3  13.5  305  16  8   7.0   3.8 | -10.1  13.8  330  23 12   6.6   3.6
 18500  -9.3  15.3  300  16  8   7.1   3.9 |  -9.1  15.6  330  23 12   6.6   3.6
 18000  -8.2  17.2  295  16  8   7.2   3.9 |  -8.2  17.2  330  23 12   6.8   3.7
 17500  -7.1  19.2  295  16  8   7.5   4.1 |  -7.1  19.2  330  23 12   7.3   4.0
 17000  -6.0  21.2  295  16  8   7.5   4.1 |  -6.1  21.0  325  23 12   7.3   4.0
 16500  -4.9  23.2  295  16  8   7.7   4.2 |  -5.0  23.0  325  23 12   7.4   4.0
 16000  -3.8  25.2  300  15  8   7.7   4.2 |  -3.9  25.0  325  23 12   7.4   4.1
 15500  -2.7  27.1  300  14  7   7.7   4.2 |  -2.8  27.0  325  24 12   7.8   4.3
 15000  -1.6  29.1  305  14  7   7.6   4.2 |  -1.6  29.1  325  24 12   8.3   4.5
 14500  -0.5  31.1  305  13  7   7.6   4.2 |  -0.4  31.3  320  24 12   8.3   4.5
 14000   1.2  34.2  310  11  6   7.5   4.1 |   1.4  34.5  320  23 12   8.1   4.4
 13500   2.3  36.1  315  11  5   7.7   4.2 |   2.5  36.5  315  22 12   8.3   4.6
 13000   3.4  38.1  320   9  5   8.0   4.4 |   3.8  38.8  315  22 11   8.5   4.7
 12500   4.5  40.1  325   8  4   8.3   4.5 |   5.0  41.0  315  21 11   8.4   4.6
 12000   5.8  42.4  330   8  4   8.8   4.9 |   6.2  43.2  310  20 10   8.1   4.5
 11500   7.1  44.8  335   7  4   9.0   4.9 |   7.4  45.3  310  18 10   8.1   4.4
 11000   8.4  47.1  335   7  4   9.1   5.0 |   8.6  47.5  310  17  9   7.8   4.3
 10500   9.7  49.5  335   7  4   5.5   3.0 |   9.8  49.6  305  15  8   3.9   2.2
 10250   9.9  49.8  335   7  4   6.8   3.8 |   9.9  49.8  310  15  8   5.5   3.0
 10000  10.8  51.4  335   7  4  12.6   6.9 |  10.7  51.3  310  14  7  11.9   6.5
  9750  11.6  52.9  335   7  4  11.4   6.3 |  11.5  52.7  310  13  7  10.7   5.9
  9500  12.4  54.3  335   7  4  10.3   5.7 |  12.3  54.1  310  12  6   9.2   5.1
  9250  13.1  55.6  335   7  4   8.6   4.7 |  12.8  55.0  310  11  6   6.8   3.7
  9000  13.8  56.8  335   7  4  10.1   5.5 |  13.4  56.1  310  10  5   8.7   4.8
  8750  14.6  58.3  330   7  4  10.9   6.0 |  14.1  57.4  310   9  5  10.1   5.6
  8500  15.4  59.7  330   7  4  10.5   5.8 |  14.8  58.6  310   8  4   9.1   5.0
  8250  16.2  61.2  330   7  4  10.4   5.7 |  15.5  59.9  315   8  4   8.2   4.5
  8000  16.9  62.4  330   7  4  10.2   5.6 |  16.1  61.0  320   7  4   8.5   4.7
  7750  17.7  63.9  330   7  4  10.0   5.5 |  16.7  62.1  325   6  3   8.7   4.7
  7500  18.4  65.1  330   7  4   9.9   5.4 |  17.4  63.3  330   6  3   7.6   4.2
  7250  19.1  66.4  330   7  4   9.8   5.4 |  17.9  64.2  335   5  3   7.1   3.9
  7000  19.9  67.8  330   7  4   9.5   5.2 |  18.4  65.1  345   5  3   6.6   3.6
  6750  20.6  69.1  330   7  4   9.6   5.2 |  18.8  65.8  350   5  3   5.7   3.1
  6500  21.3  70.3  330   7  4  10.7   5.9 |  19.2  66.6  355   5  3   7.0   3.8
  6250  22.2  72.0  330   7  4  11.9   6.5 |  19.7  67.5  350   5  3   8.2   4.5
  6000  23.0  73.4  325   7  4   9.6   5.3 |  20.2  68.4  350   6  3   6.5   3.6
  5750  23.7  74.7  325   7  4  13.3   7.3 |  20.6  69.1  345   6  3   9.0   4.9
  5500  25.1  77.2  325   7  4  25.8  14.2 |  21.5  70.7  345   6  3  17.3   9.5
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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