Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Graphics & Text | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
000
UXUS97 KBOU 180106
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1906 MDT Thursday, July 17, 2014

This forecast is for Friday, July 18, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 81.0 F/27.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1059 ft/min (5.4 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 16987 ft MSL (11700 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 90.0 F/32.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1030 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 14003 ft MSL (8716 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 07/19..... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14388 ft MSL (9101 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 07/19........ Poor

Remarks... None

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:46:26 / 20:25:10 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 38 min 44 sec (878 min 44 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:41 MDT... 71.14 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/18/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15415 ft MSL (10128 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16218 ft MSL (10931 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 16704 ft MSL (11416 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -2.0
K index......................... +16.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -63.3 -81.9   295   28   14   1.1   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -60.1 -76.2   295   40   20   4.3   2.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.4 -64.1   295   42   22   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.7 -57.5   295   41   21   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -45.9 -50.6   295   41   21   6.1   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -41.3 -42.3   290   38   20   8.0   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -36.5 -33.7   285   36   19   8.1   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -31.2 -24.2   285   29   15   7.8   4.3   44.2 111.6     9.1      M    M
 29000  -28.9 -20.0   285   25   13   7.8   4.3   43.5 110.3     8.7      M    M
 28000  -26.5 -15.7   285   22   11   7.9   4.3   42.9 109.2     8.3      M    M
 27000  -24.2 -11.6   290   22   11   7.9   4.3   42.1 107.7     7.7      M    M
 26000  -21.9  -7.4   295   22   11   7.9   4.3   41.4 106.4     7.2      M    M
 25000  -19.5  -3.1   300   22   11   7.9   4.3   40.8 105.4     6.8      M    M
 24000  -17.4   0.7   300   21   11   6.6   3.6   39.6 103.3     6.0      M    M
 23000  -15.4   4.3   300   20   11   6.7   3.7   38.5 101.3     5.1      M    M
 22000  -13.4   7.9   305   20   10   6.7   3.7   37.5  99.4     4.4      M    M
 21000  -11.4  11.5   305   18    9   6.7   3.7   36.3  97.4     3.4      M    M
 20000   -9.3  15.3   305   17    9   6.7   3.7   35.2  95.4     2.6      M    M
 19500   -8.3  17.1   305   16    8   6.6   3.6   34.8  94.6     2.2      M    M
 19000   -7.3  18.9   305   15    8   7.5   4.1   34.3  93.7     1.8      M    M
 18500   -6.2  20.8   310   15    8   7.5   4.1   33.9  93.0     1.4      M    M
 18000   -5.1  22.8   310   14    7   7.3   4.0   33.6  92.4     1.1      M    M
 17500   -4.1  24.6   315   14    7   6.5   3.6   33.0  91.4     0.6      M    M
 17000   -3.1  26.4   320   13    7   6.6   3.6   32.5  90.5     0.1      M    M
 16500   -2.2  28.0   320   14    7   6.3   3.5   31.9  89.5    -0.4   1025  5.2
 16000   -1.3  29.7   325   14    7   6.4   3.5   31.3  88.4    -1.0    984  5.0
 15500   -0.4  31.3   330   15    8   6.7   3.7   30.8  87.4    -1.6    942  4.8
 15000    1.1  34.0   330   16    8   7.2   4.0   30.1  86.2    -2.3    875  4.4
 14500    2.1  35.8   335   17    9   8.1   4.4   29.8  85.6    -2.7    830  4.2
 14000    3.3  37.9   335   17    9   8.4   4.6   29.5  85.1    -3.1    780  4.0
 13500    4.4  39.9   335   18    9   8.8   4.8   29.3  84.8    -3.4    730  3.7
 13000    5.8  42.4   335   17    9   9.2   5.0   29.2  84.6    -3.5    676  3.4
 12500    7.1  44.8   335   16    8   9.2   5.0   29.1  84.4    -3.7    621  3.2
 12000    8.4  47.1   335   15    8   9.1   5.0   29.0  84.3    -3.8    566  2.9
 11500    9.8  49.6   335   14    7   9.0   5.0   28.9  84.1    -4.0    511  2.6
 11000   11.0  51.8   335   13    6   8.3   4.6   28.8  83.8    -4.2    459  2.3
 10500   12.3  54.1   335   11    6   5.9   3.2   28.6  83.4    -4.4    406  2.1
 10250   12.6  54.7   335   11    6   7.1   3.9   28.2  82.8    -4.8    389  2.0
 10000   13.4  56.1   335   10    5  11.2   6.2   28.2  82.8    -4.8    358  1.8
  9750   14.2  57.6   335   10    5  10.4   5.7   28.3  82.9    -4.8    328  1.7
  9500   14.9  58.8   330    9    5   9.6   5.3   28.3  83.0    -4.7    298  1.5
  9250   15.5  59.9   330    9    5   7.9   4.3   28.3  82.9    -4.8    272  1.4
  9000   16.2  61.2   325    9    5   8.7   4.8   28.1  82.6    -5.0    246  1.3
  8750   16.9  62.4   320    9    5   9.7   5.3   28.1  82.6    -5.0    218  1.1
  8500   17.6  63.7   315    9    5   8.8   4.8   28.1  82.5    -5.0    189  1.0
  8250   18.2  64.8   310    9    5   8.0   4.4   28.0  82.3    -5.2    163  0.8
  8000   18.7  65.7   300    9    5   7.0   3.8   27.8  82.1    -5.3    139  0.7
  7750   19.2  66.6   295    8    4   5.9   3.2   27.5  81.6    -5.6    118  0.6
  7500   19.6  67.3   285    8    4   6.0   3.3   27.3  81.1    -5.9     98  0.5
  7250   20.0  68.0   280    7    4   5.9   3.2   27.0  80.5    -6.3     78  0.4
  7000   20.5  68.9   270    7    4   6.1   3.4   26.7  80.0    -6.6     58  0.3
  6750   20.9  69.6   265    7    4   5.1   2.8   26.4  79.5    -6.9     37  0.2
  6500   21.0  69.8   260    7    4  -2.3  -1.3   25.8  78.4    -7.5     26  0.1
  6250   20.5  68.9   260    7    4  -8.9  -4.9   24.6  76.2    -8.8     35  0.2
  6000   19.9  67.8   255    7    4  -1.1  -0.6   23.3  74.0   -10.1     44  0.2
  5750   19.8  67.6   250    8    4 -10.5  -5.8   22.5  72.5   -11.0     41  0.2
  5500   17.4  63.3   235    7    4 -50.5 -27.7   19.6  67.2   -14.1    105  0.5

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/18/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/18/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +25.3  LI... +0.3               | K index... +22.8  LI... -1.4
CAPE... +4.6  CIN... -65.9                 | CAPE... +174.1  CIN... -20.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.1 -81.6  285  26 13   1.0   0.5 | -62.8 -81.0  285  27 14   0.8   0.4
 45000 -60.1 -76.2  290  40 20   4.3   2.3 | -60.1 -76.2  290  41 21   4.2   2.3
 40000 -53.3 -63.9  295  48 25   6.7   3.7 | -53.4 -64.1  295  52 27   6.6   3.6
 38000 -49.3 -56.7  295  48 25   6.8   3.7 | -49.4 -56.9  295  52 27   6.7   3.7
 36000 -45.2 -49.4  295  48 25   6.8   3.7 | -45.4 -49.7  295  52 27   6.6   3.6
 34000 -40.9 -41.6  295  45 23   7.3   4.0 | -40.9 -41.6  295  47 24   7.6   4.2
 32000 -36.6 -33.9  295  40 21   7.3   4.0 | -36.3 -33.3  295  41 21   7.6   4.2
 30000 -31.7 -25.1  290  35 18   7.1   3.9 | -31.5 -24.7  295  37 19   7.1   3.9
 29000 -29.6 -21.3  285  34 17   7.1   3.9 | -29.4 -20.9  295  36 19   7.1   3.9
 28000 -27.5 -17.5  285  32 16   7.9   4.4 | -27.2 -17.0  295  35 18   7.1   3.9
 27000 -25.0 -13.0  285  31 16   8.3   4.6 | -25.2 -13.4  295  35 18   7.1   3.9
 26000 -22.5  -8.5  285  31 16   8.4   4.6 | -23.1  -9.6  295  34 18   7.1   3.9
 25000 -20.0  -4.0  290  31 16   8.3   4.6 | -21.0  -5.8  295  34 17   7.2   3.9
 24000 -18.0  -0.4  290  30 15   6.6   3.6 | -18.9  -2.0  300  31 16   7.2   3.9
 23000 -16.1   3.0  295  29 15   6.6   3.6 | -16.7   1.9  300  28 15   7.2   3.9
 22000 -14.1   6.6  300  28 14   6.7   3.7 | -14.6   5.7  305  26 13   7.2   3.9
 21000 -12.0  10.4  300  25 13   7.1   3.9 | -12.5   9.5  305  24 12   7.1   3.9
 20000  -9.8  14.4  300  21 11   7.2   3.9 | -10.4  13.3  305  23 12   7.2   3.9
 19500  -8.7  16.3  300  19 10   7.3   4.0 |  -9.4  15.1  305  22 11   7.1   3.9
 19000  -7.7  18.1  300  18  9   5.8   3.2 |  -8.3  17.1  305  21 11   7.3   4.0
 18500  -6.9  19.6  305  17  9   5.8   3.2 |  -7.2  19.0  310  20 11   7.3   4.0
 18000  -6.1  21.0  310  16  8   6.0   3.3 |  -6.1  21.0  315  20 10   7.3   4.0
 17500  -5.2  22.6  315  17  9   6.4   3.5 |  -5.1  22.8  315  19 10   7.3   4.0
 17000  -4.3  24.3  325  18  9   6.4   3.5 |  -4.0  24.8  320  19 10   7.3   4.0
 16500  -3.4  25.9  330  19 10   7.9   4.3 |  -2.9  26.8  320  18  9   7.2   3.9
 16000  -2.2  28.0  330  19 10   8.0   4.4 |  -1.9  28.6  320  18  9   7.2   3.9
 15500  -1.1  30.0  335  20 10   8.3   4.5 |  -0.8  30.6  325  17  9   7.3   4.0
 15000   0.7  33.3  335  20 10   8.5   4.7 |   0.8  33.4  330  17  9   7.4   4.0
 14500   2.0  35.6  335  20 10   9.2   5.0 |   1.9  35.4  330  16  8   8.3   4.5
 14000   3.4  38.1  335  20 10   9.3   5.1 |   3.1  37.6  330  16  8   8.4   4.6
 13500   4.7  40.5  335  19 10   9.3   5.1 |   4.4  39.9  330  15  8   8.9   4.9
 13000   6.1  43.0  335  18  9   9.2   5.1 |   5.7  42.3  330  15  8   9.2   5.1
 12500   7.4  45.3  335  17  9   9.2   5.1 |   7.1  44.8  330  15  8   9.4   5.2
 12000   8.8  47.8  335  16  8   9.2   5.0 |   8.5  47.3  330  15  8   9.6   5.3
 11500  10.2  50.4  335  15  8   9.2   5.0 |   9.9  49.8  330  14  7   9.6   5.3
 11000  11.6  52.9  330  14  7   8.8   4.8 |  11.4  52.5  330  14  7   9.2   5.1
 10500  12.9  55.2  330  13  7   5.2   2.9 |  12.8  55.0  330  14  7   5.2   2.8
 10250  13.1  55.6  330  13  6   6.2   3.4 |  13.0  55.4  330  14  7   6.5   3.6
 10000  13.9  57.0  325  12  6  11.6   6.4 |  13.8  56.8  330  14  7  12.8   7.0
  9750  14.7  58.5  325  11  6  10.6   5.8 |  14.7  58.5  330  14  7  11.7   6.4
  9500  15.5  59.9  320  11  6   9.2   5.0 |  15.5  59.9  330  14  7   9.8   5.4
  9250  16.1  61.0  320  11  5   6.8   3.7 |  16.1  61.0  330  14  7   7.8   4.3
  9000  16.6  61.9  315  10  5   8.3   4.5 |  16.8  62.2  325  13  7   9.8   5.4
  8750  17.3  63.1  310  10  5   9.3   5.1 |  17.5  63.5  325  12  6  10.5   5.8
  8500  17.9  64.2  305  10  5   8.6   4.7 |  18.2  64.8  320  11  6  10.1   5.6
  8250  18.5  65.3  300   9  5   7.8   4.3 |  19.0  66.2  320  10  5  10.1   5.5
  8000  19.1  66.4  295   9  4   8.0   4.4 |  19.7  67.5  315  10  5   9.7   5.3
  7750  19.7  67.5  290   8  4   8.5   4.7 |  20.4  68.7  315   9  5   9.1   5.0
  7500  20.4  68.7  285   8  4   7.9   4.3 |  21.1  70.0  315   9  5  10.1   5.5
  7250  20.9  69.6  280   8  4   7.4   4.0 |  21.9  71.4  310   9  5  11.0   6.1
  7000  21.5  70.7  275   8  4   7.4   4.1 |  22.6  72.7  310   9  4  10.0   5.5
  6750  22.0  71.6  265   9  4   6.6   3.6 |  23.4  74.1  310   9  4   9.2   5.0
  6500  22.4  72.3  265   9  5   4.0   2.2 |  24.1  75.4  310   8  4  10.3   5.7
  6250  22.6  72.7  265   8  4   3.5   1.9 |  24.9  76.8  310   8  4  11.5   6.3
  6000  22.7  72.9  265   7  4   1.4   0.8 |  25.7  78.3  310   8  4  10.0   5.5
  5750  22.7  72.9  260   6  3   3.3   1.8 |  26.5  79.7  310   8  4  13.1   7.2
  5500  23.2  73.8  250   5  3  16.2   8.9 |  27.8  82.0  310   8  4  22.1  12.1

           07/18/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/18/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +26.0  LI... -2.5               | K index... +27.4  LI... -1.8
CAPE... +228.6  CIN... -18.3               | CAPE... +143.5  CIN... -16.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.0 -81.4  280  28 15   0.8   0.4 | -63.5 -82.3  285  32 17   1.0   0.6
 45000 -60.3 -76.5  290  41 21   4.1   2.3 | -60.6 -77.1  290  47 24   4.0   2.2
 40000 -53.7 -64.7  290  54 28   6.7   3.7 | -54.0 -65.2  290  54 28   6.9   3.8
 38000 -49.6 -57.3  295  52 27   6.8   3.7 | -49.8 -57.6  295  52 27   7.0   3.8
 36000 -45.5 -49.9  295  51 26   6.7   3.7 | -45.6 -50.1  295  50 26   6.9   3.8
 34000 -40.9 -41.6  295  47 24   7.9   4.3 | -41.0 -41.8  295  45 23   7.9   4.3
 32000 -36.2 -33.2  295  41 21   7.9   4.3 | -35.6 -32.1  300  39 20   8.2   4.5
 30000 -31.0 -23.8  300  37 19   7.8   4.3 | -30.9 -23.6  300  35 18   7.8   4.3
 29000 -28.6 -19.5  300  35 18   7.8   4.3 | -28.6 -19.5  305  33 17   7.8   4.3
 28000 -26.3 -15.3  300  33 17   7.4   4.1 | -26.3 -15.3  305  31 16   7.7   4.2
 27000 -24.1 -11.4  300  30 15   7.3   4.0 | -24.0 -11.2  305  28 14   7.7   4.2
 26000 -22.0  -7.6  300  27 14   7.3   4.0 | -21.7  -7.1  305  25 13   7.7   4.2
 25000 -19.8  -3.6  305  25 13   7.2   4.0 | -19.4  -2.9  310  22 12   7.5   4.1
 24000 -17.9  -0.2  305  25 13   6.2   3.4 | -17.4   0.7  310  21 11   6.4   3.5
 23000 -16.0   3.2  305  25 13   6.2   3.4 | -15.6   3.9  310  21 11   6.4   3.5
 22000 -14.2   6.4  305  26 13   6.2   3.4 | -13.7   7.3  315  20 10   6.4   3.5
 21000 -12.4   9.7  305  25 13   6.1   3.3 | -11.9  10.6  315  21 11   6.3   3.4
 20000 -10.6  12.9  305  25 13   6.1   3.3 | -10.1  13.8  320  21 11   6.3   3.5
 19500  -9.7  14.5  305  24 13   5.8   3.2 |  -9.2  15.4  325  22 11   6.2   3.4
 19000  -8.7  16.3  305  24 12   9.0   4.9 |  -8.2  17.2  325  22 11   8.0   4.4
 18500  -7.4  18.7  305  24 12   8.9   4.9 |  -7.0  19.4  320  21 11   7.9   4.3
 18000  -6.1  21.0  305  23 12   8.9   4.9 |  -5.8  21.6  315  20 10   7.8   4.3
 17500  -4.8  23.4  305  23 12   8.7   4.8 |  -4.7  23.5  315  20 10   7.7   4.2
 17000  -3.6  25.5  305  22 11   8.8   4.8 |  -3.6  25.5  310  20 10   7.6   4.2
 16500  -2.3  27.9  310  22 11   8.4   4.6 |  -2.5  27.5  305  19 10   8.1   4.5
 16000  -1.1  30.0  310  21 11   8.4   4.6 |  -0.7  30.7  305  18  9   8.1   4.4
 15500   0.7  33.3  310  19 10   8.4   4.6 |   0.5  32.9  305  16  8   8.4   4.6
 15000   1.9  35.4  315  18  9   8.5   4.6 |   1.7  35.1  305  14  7   8.3   4.6
 14500   3.1  37.6  315  17  9   8.6   4.7 |   3.0  37.4  310  12  6   9.6   5.3
 14000   4.3  39.7  320  16  8   8.6   4.7 |   4.4  39.9  310  12  6   9.7   5.3
 13500   5.6  42.1  320  15  8   8.5   4.7 |   5.9  42.6  310  11  6   9.7   5.3
 13000   6.8  44.2  325  14  7   8.5   4.7 |   7.3  45.1  315  10  5   9.7   5.3
 12500   8.0  46.4  325  13  7   8.8   4.8 |   8.8  47.8  315  10  5   9.4   5.2
 12000   9.4  48.9  325  12  6   9.2   5.1 |  10.1  50.2  320   9  5   9.1   5.0
 11500  10.7  51.3  325  11  6   9.1   5.0 |  11.4  52.5  320   9  4   8.8   4.8
 11000  12.1  53.8  325  10  5   8.7   4.8 |  12.7  54.9  325   7  4   8.1   4.4
 10500  13.4  56.1  325   8  4   5.9   3.2 |  13.9  57.0  335   5  3   4.7   2.6
 10250  13.7  56.7  325   8  4   7.5   4.1 |  14.2  57.6  340   5  2   6.4   3.5
 10000  14.6  58.3  325   8  4  12.4   6.8 |  15.0  59.0  345   4  2  12.2   6.7
  9750  15.4  59.7  325   7  4  11.5   6.3 |  15.8  60.4  350   4  2  10.9   6.0
  9500  16.3  61.3  325   7  4  10.1   5.6 |  16.6  61.9  355   3  2  10.1   5.6
  9250  16.9  62.4  320   7  3   8.7   4.8 |  17.2  63.0  360   3  2   8.9   4.9
  9000  17.6  63.7  320   7  3  10.3   5.7 |  17.9  64.2  360   3  2   9.9   5.4
  8750  18.4  65.1  320   7  3  10.8   5.9 |  18.7  65.7  360   3  2  10.0   5.5
  8500  19.2  66.6  320   6  3  10.4   5.7 |  19.5  67.1  360   3  2  10.1   5.5
  8250  20.0  68.0  320   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  20.2  68.4  360   3  1  10.3   5.7
  8000  20.7  69.3  320   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  21.0  69.8  360   3  1  10.1   5.5
  7750  21.5  70.7  320   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  21.7  71.1  360   3  1   9.9   5.4
  7500  22.2  72.0  315   6  3  10.1   5.5 |  22.5  72.5  360   3  1  10.1   5.6
  7250  23.0  73.4  315   6  3  10.3   5.6 |  23.2  73.8  360   3  2  10.4   5.7
  7000  23.7  74.7  315   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  24.0  75.2  355   3  2  10.0   5.5
  6750  24.5  76.1  315   6  3   9.8   5.4 |  24.7  76.5  355   3  2   9.8   5.4
  6500  25.2  77.4  315   6  3  10.6   5.8 |  25.5  77.9  355   3  2  10.3   5.7
  6250  26.1  79.0  315   6  3  11.6   6.4 |  26.2  79.2  355   3  2  11.1   6.1
  6000  26.9  80.4  315   6  3   9.6   5.3 |  27.0  80.6  355   3  2   9.7   5.3
  5750  27.6  81.7  315   5  3  13.9   7.6 |  27.8  82.0  355   3  2  11.3   6.2
  5500  29.1  84.4  315   5  3  27.7  15.2 |  28.9  84.0  355   3  2  18.6  10.2
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.