Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 131234
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0534 MST Monday, November 13, 2017

This forecast is for Monday, November 13, 2017:

If the trigger temperature of 67.0 F/19.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 717 ft/min (3.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 14102 ft MSL (8786 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 69.0 F/21.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1145 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast thin high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 6989 ft MSL (1673 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 11/14...... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1700 MST)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1700 MST)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 45280 ft MSL (39964 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 11/14......... Poor

Remarks... None

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:42:26 / 16:45:10 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 2 min 44 sec (602 min 44 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:43:48 MST... 31.95 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/13/2017 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 12034 ft MSL (6718 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 19188 ft MSL (13872 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 17248 ft MSL (11932 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +5.2
K index......................... +15.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -62.8 -81.0   275   36   19   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -60.4 -76.7   275   46   24  -0.2  -0.1      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -60.6 -77.1   280   49   25   0.1   0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -56.9 -70.4   280   46   24   7.2   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -52.6 -62.7   280   43   22   7.2   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -48.1 -54.6   275   39   20   7.7   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -43.4 -46.1   275   36   19   7.7   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -38.8 -37.8   275   33   17   7.9   4.3   37.4  99.2    12.7      M    M
 29000  -36.4 -33.5   275   30   16   7.9   4.3   36.6  97.8    12.2      M    M
 28000  -34.0 -29.2   275   28   14   7.8   4.3   35.9  96.7    11.9      M    M
 27000  -31.8 -25.2   270   26   13   6.9   3.8   35.1  95.1    11.3      M    M
 26000  -29.7 -21.5   270   23   12   6.9   3.8   33.9  93.0    10.5      M    M
 25000  -27.7 -17.9   265   21   11   7.0   3.8   32.9  91.2     9.8      M    M
 24000  -25.6 -14.1   265   19   10   7.4   4.1   32.0  89.5     9.1      M    M
 23000  -23.4 -10.1   265   18    9   7.4   4.0   31.0  87.8     8.4      M    M
 22000  -21.2  -6.2   265   17    9   7.3   4.0   30.2  86.3     7.8      M    M
 21000  -19.2  -2.6   270   16    8   5.8   3.2   29.1  84.4     7.0      M    M
 20000  -17.5   0.5   270   15    8   5.8   3.2   27.7  81.8     5.8      M    M
 19500  -16.2   2.8   270   14    7   5.8   3.2   26.7  80.0     5.0      M    M
 19000  -15.3   4.5   270   13    7   6.2   3.4   26.0  78.9     4.5      M    M
 18500  -14.4   6.1   275   12    6   6.4   3.5   25.4  77.8     4.0      M    M
 18000  -13.4   7.9   275   12    6   6.4   3.5   24.9  76.8     3.5      M    M
 17500  -12.5   9.5   280   12    6   6.4   3.5   24.3  75.7     3.0      M    M
 17000  -11.5  11.3   280   11    6   6.4   3.5   23.7  74.7     2.5      M    M
 16500  -10.5  13.1   285   11    6   7.1   3.9   23.2  73.8     2.0      M    M
 16000   -9.5  14.9   285   12    6   7.2   4.0   22.8  73.0     1.6      M    M
 15500   -8.4  16.9   290   12    6   6.9   3.8   22.4  72.3     1.2      M    M
 15000   -7.4  18.7   290   12    6   6.5   3.6   21.8  71.3     0.7      M    M
 14500   -6.5  20.3   290   13    6   7.0   3.8   21.3  70.3     0.2      M    M
 14000   -5.3  22.5   290   13    7   8.9   4.9   21.0  69.9    -0.1    800  4.1
 13500   -4.0  24.8   290   13    7   8.8   4.8   20.9  69.6    -0.2    746  3.8
 13000   -2.6  27.3   290   13    7   9.2   5.1   20.8  69.4    -0.3    691  3.5
 12500   -1.2  29.8   285   14    7   9.2   5.0   20.7  69.2    -0.4    635  3.2
 12000    0.2  32.4   285   14    7   9.4   5.2   20.6  69.1    -0.5    578  2.9
 11500    1.6  34.9   285   14    7   9.5   5.2   20.6  69.0    -0.5    520  2.6
 11000    3.0  37.4   285   14    7   8.6   4.7   20.4  68.8    -0.6    464  2.4
 10500    4.3  39.7   285   14    7   8.8   4.8   20.3  68.5    -0.7    410  2.1
 10250    4.9  40.8   285   14    7   5.5   3.0   20.1  68.2    -0.9    385  2.0
 10000    5.2  41.4   285   14    7   7.4   4.1   19.7  67.5    -1.2    366  1.9
  9750    6.1  43.0   285   13    7  11.6   6.3   19.8  67.7    -1.2    334  1.7
  9500    6.9  44.4   280   12    6  10.2   5.6   19.9  67.8    -1.1    302  1.5
  9250    7.6  45.7   280   11    6   7.9   4.3   19.9  67.8    -1.1    273  1.4
  9000    8.1  46.6   280   11    6   7.6   4.2   19.7  67.4    -1.3    250  1.3
  8750    8.8  47.8   280   11    6   9.8   5.4   19.6  67.3    -1.3    222  1.1
  8500    9.5  49.1   280   11    6   9.0   5.0   19.6  67.3    -1.3    193  1.0
  8250   10.2  50.4   280   11    6   7.7   4.2   19.5  67.1    -1.5    167  0.8
  8000   10.7  51.3   280   11    6   7.1   3.9   19.3  66.7    -1.6    143  0.7
  7750   11.2  52.2   280   11    6   6.7   3.6   19.1  66.3    -1.9    120  0.6
  7500   11.7  53.1   280   10    5   5.3   2.9   18.8  65.8    -2.1     99  0.5
  7250   12.0  53.6   280   10    5   4.2   2.3   18.4  65.1    -2.5     81  0.4
  7000   12.4  54.3   280    9    4   5.1   2.8   18.0  64.4    -2.9     63  0.3
  6750   12.7  54.9   280    8    4   2.5   1.4   17.6  63.7    -3.3     45  0.2
  6500   12.6  54.7   275    7    4  -5.6  -3.1   16.7  62.1    -4.2     41  0.2
  6250   12.0  53.6   270    6    3  -9.3  -5.1   15.4  59.6    -5.5     52  0.3
  6000   11.4  52.5   260    5    3  -7.5  -4.1   14.0  57.2    -6.9     64  0.3
  5750   10.4  50.7   245    5    2 -25.9 -14.2   12.3  54.1    -8.7     87  0.4
  5500    7.1  44.8   230    3    2 -55.7 -30.6    8.3  47.0   -12.7    176  0.9

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           11/13/2017 at 0800 MST          |       11/13/2017 at 1100 MST
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...       +3.3        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...       +4.2
CINH...     0.0    K Index... +13.7        | CINH...     0.0    K Index...  +5.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.5 -80.5  275  37 19   0.2   0.1 | -63.6 -82.5  275  41 21  -1.1  -0.6
 45000 -62.1 -79.8  280  48 25   1.6   0.9 | -64.7 -84.5  280  48 25   2.9   1.6
 40000 -59.7 -75.5  285  52 27   1.1   0.6 | -60.2 -76.4  280  49 25   2.9   1.6
 38000 -56.3 -69.3  285  50 26   6.5   3.6 | -56.4 -69.5  280  48 25   7.2   4.0
 36000 -52.4 -62.3  280  47 24   6.5   3.6 | -52.1 -61.8  280  45 23   7.2   4.0
 34000 -48.2 -54.8  280  44 22   7.4   4.1 | -47.1 -52.8  275  43 22   7.4   4.1
 32000 -43.8 -46.8  275  40 21   7.4   4.1 | -42.7 -44.9  275  40 20   7.4   4.1
 30000 -39.4 -38.9  275  36 18   7.4   4.0 | -38.3 -36.9  280  37 19   7.2   4.0
 29000 -37.2 -35.0  270  33 17   7.4   4.0 | -36.1 -33.0  280  35 18   7.2   4.0
 28000 -34.4 -29.9  270  30 15   7.4   4.1 | -34.0 -29.2  280  34 17   7.2   4.0
 27000 -32.2 -26.0  265  28 14   7.5   4.1 | -31.8 -25.2  280  32 16   7.0   3.9
 26000 -30.0 -22.0  270  26 13   7.5   4.1 | -29.7 -21.5  280  30 15   7.0   3.9
 25000 -27.8 -18.0  270  25 13   7.5   4.1 | -27.6 -17.7  275  28 14   7.1   3.9
 24000 -25.6 -14.1  270  23 12   7.0   3.8 | -25.5 -13.9  275  26 13   6.9   3.8
 23000 -23.5 -10.3  275  22 11   7.0   3.8 | -23.5 -10.3  280  25 13   6.9   3.8
 22000 -21.4  -6.5  280  21 11   7.0   3.8 | -21.4  -6.5  280  23 12   7.0   3.8
 21000 -19.3  -2.7  285  20 10   6.9   3.8 | -19.3  -2.7  285  22 11   7.5   4.1
 20000 -17.3   0.9  285  18  9   6.9   3.8 | -17.0   1.4  285  21 11   7.5   4.1
 19500 -16.3   2.7  290  18  9   6.9   3.8 | -15.9   3.4  285  20 10   7.5   4.1
 19000 -15.3   4.5  290  17  9   6.9   3.8 | -14.7   5.5  290  19 10   7.5   4.1
 18500 -14.3   6.3  295  16  8   6.4   3.5 | -13.7   7.3  290  19 10   7.0   3.8
 18000 -13.4   7.9  295  16  8   6.4   3.5 | -12.6   9.3  290  18  9   7.0   3.8
 17500 -12.4   9.7  300  15  8   6.8   3.7 | -11.0  12.2  290  17  9   7.1   3.9
 17000 -11.4  11.5  300  14  7   6.8   3.7 | -10.0  14.0  295  16  8   7.1   3.9
 16500 -10.4  13.3  300  14  7   7.1   3.9 |  -8.9  16.0  295  15  8   6.9   3.8
 16000  -9.3  15.3  305  13  7   7.5   4.1 |  -7.9  17.8  295  15  7   6.9   3.8
 15500  -8.2  17.2  305  13  7   7.5   4.1 |  -6.9  19.6  295  14  7   7.1   3.9
 15000  -7.2  19.0  305  13  7   6.8   3.7 |  -5.8  21.6  295  13  7   7.3   4.0
 14500  -5.7  21.7  305  13  7   7.2   4.0 |  -4.7  23.5  295  12  6   7.3   4.0
 14000  -4.5  23.9  305  13  7   8.0   4.4 |  -3.7  25.3  295  12  6   7.2   4.0
 13500  -3.3  26.1  305  13  7   8.0   4.4 |  -2.6  27.3  295  11  6   7.3   4.0
 13000  -2.1  28.2  305  13  6   8.2   4.5 |  -1.5  29.3  295  11  5   7.5   4.1
 12500  -0.9  30.4  305  12  6   8.1   4.5 |  -0.4  31.3  295  10  5   7.5   4.1
 12000   0.3  32.5  305  12  6   7.9   4.3 |   0.7  33.3  295   9  5   7.3   4.0
 11500   1.5  34.7  300  11  6   7.9   4.3 |   1.7  35.1  295   9  4   7.3   4.0
 11000   2.7  36.9  300  11  6   8.6   4.7 |   2.9  37.2  295   8  4   8.0   4.4
 10500   4.0  39.2  300  10  5   7.9   4.4 |   4.1  39.4  295   7  4   7.6   4.2
 10250   4.5  40.1  295  10  5   4.6   2.5 |   4.5  40.1  295   7  4   4.7   2.6
 10000   4.8  40.6  295  10  5   7.5   4.1 |   4.9  40.8  290   7  3   7.8   4.3
  9750   5.6  42.1  295  10  5  11.6   6.4 |   5.7  42.3  290   6  3  11.8   6.5
  9500   6.4  43.5  295  10  5   9.6   5.3 |   6.6  43.9  290   6  3  10.3   5.7
  9250   7.0  44.6  295  10  5   6.4   3.5 |   7.3  45.1  290   7  3   8.3   4.5
  9000   7.5  45.5  290  11  6   6.4   3.5 |   7.8  46.0  295   7  4   8.5   4.7
  8750   8.1  46.6  285  11  6   8.8   4.9 |   8.6  47.5  295   8  4  10.7   5.8
  8500   8.7  47.7  285  12  6   7.9   4.3 |   9.4  48.9  295   9  5   9.3   5.1
  8250   9.2  48.6  285  12  6   6.8   3.7 |  10.0  50.0  295   9  5   7.5   4.1
  8000   9.7  49.5  280  12  6   6.6   3.6 |  10.5  50.9  295  10  5   7.3   4.0
  7750  10.2  50.4  280  11  6   6.3   3.4 |  11.1  52.0  295  10  5   7.9   4.4
  7500  10.7  51.3  280  11  6   6.6   3.6 |  11.7  53.1  290  11  5   6.5   3.6
  7250  11.2  52.2  275  10  5   6.9   3.8 |  12.1  53.8  290  10  5   5.1   2.8
  7000  11.7  53.1  270  10  5   7.1   3.9 |  12.5  54.5  285   9  5   5.6   3.1
  6750  12.3  54.1  270  10  5   6.6   3.6 |  12.9  55.2  280   8  4   5.7   3.1
  6500  12.7  54.9  265   9  5   3.2   1.8 |  13.3  55.9  275   7  4   5.1   2.8
  6250  12.9  55.2  265   8  4   4.3   2.4 |  13.7  56.7  265   6  3   4.2   2.3
  6000  13.1  55.6  260   7  4  -4.0  -2.2 |  14.0  57.2  255   5  2   5.7   3.1
  5750  11.7  53.1  255   6  3 -33.1 -18.2 |  14.6  58.3  250   4  2   9.9   5.4
  5500   8.3  46.9  240   4  2 -53.7 -29.5 |  15.4  59.7  245   3  2  12.9   7.1

           11/13/2017 at 1400 MST          |       11/13/2017 at 1700 MST
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...       +4.7        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...       +4.5
CINH...     0.0    K Index...  -0.3        | CINH...     0.0    K Index...  -0.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.9 -83.0  280  43 22  -1.2  -0.7 | -64.5 -84.1  280  44 23  -0.2  -0.1
 45000 -65.0 -85.0  280  47 24   2.8   1.6 | -64.3 -83.7  280  48 25   2.6   1.4
 40000 -60.5 -76.9  275  47 24   2.7   1.5 | -60.3 -76.5  275  46 24   2.4   1.3
 38000 -56.4 -69.5  275  45 23   7.7   4.2 | -56.3 -69.3  275  43 22   7.4   4.1
 36000 -51.8 -61.2  275  43 22   7.7   4.2 | -51.9 -61.4  275  39 20   7.4   4.1
 34000 -47.3 -53.1  275  40 21   7.2   4.0 | -47.4 -53.3  280  36 19   7.5   4.1
 32000 -42.4 -44.3  275  37 19   7.2   4.0 | -42.3 -44.1  280  33 17   7.5   4.1
 30000 -38.1 -36.6  280  34 18   7.3   4.0 | -38.0 -36.4  280  30 15   6.9   3.8
 29000 -35.9 -32.6  280  33 17   7.3   4.0 | -35.9 -32.6  280  28 14   6.9   3.8
 28000 -33.7 -28.7  280  31 16   7.3   4.0 | -33.8 -28.8  280  26 13   7.0   3.8
 27000 -31.6 -24.9  280  29 15   7.0   3.9 | -31.7 -25.1  275  25 13   7.6   4.1
 26000 -29.5 -21.1  280  28 14   7.0   3.9 | -29.4 -20.9  275  24 12   7.6   4.2
 25000 -27.4 -17.3  280  26 13   7.0   3.9 | -27.1 -16.8  275  23 12   7.6   4.2
 24000 -25.2 -13.4  280  25 13   7.7   4.2 | -24.8 -12.6  275  22 11   7.8   4.3
 23000 -22.9  -9.2  285  24 12   7.7   4.2 | -22.5  -8.5  280  21 11   7.8   4.3
 22000 -20.6  -5.1  285  23 12   7.7   4.2 | -20.2  -4.4  280  21 11   7.8   4.3
 21000 -18.4  -1.1  285  22 12   7.2   4.0 | -17.9  -0.2  285  20 10   7.1   3.9
 20000 -16.2   2.8  285  21 11   7.2   4.0 | -15.8   3.6  285  19 10   7.1   3.9
 19500 -15.2   4.6  285  20 10   7.3   4.0 | -14.8   5.4  285  18  9   7.1   3.9
 19000 -14.1   6.6  285  20 10   7.4   4.0 | -13.7   7.3  290  18  9   7.1   3.9
 18500 -12.9   8.8  285  19 10   8.1   4.5 | -12.7   9.1  290  17  9   7.1   3.9
 18000 -11.7  10.9  290  18  9   8.1   4.4 | -11.6  11.1  285  17  9   7.1   3.9
 17500 -10.5  13.1  290  18  9   7.6   4.1 | -10.6  12.9  285  17  9   7.3   4.0
 17000  -9.4  15.1  290  17  9   7.4   4.1 |  -8.9  16.0  285  16  8   7.3   4.0
 16500  -7.8  18.0  290  17  9   7.0   3.9 |  -7.8  18.0  285  16  8   7.1   3.9
 16000  -6.7  19.9  290  16  8   7.0   3.8 |  -6.8  19.8  285  15  8   7.0   3.9
 15500  -5.7  21.7  290  16  8   6.8   3.7 |  -5.7  21.7  285  15  8   6.6   3.6
 15000  -4.7  23.5  290  15  8   6.6   3.6 |  -4.8  23.4  280  15  8   6.1   3.3
 14500  -3.7  25.3  290  15  8   6.5   3.6 |  -3.9  25.0  275  15  8   6.1   3.4
 14000  -2.7  27.1  285  15  8   6.3   3.5 |  -2.9  26.8  275  14  7   6.4   3.5
 13500  -1.8  28.8  285  14  7   6.3   3.5 |  -2.0  28.4  270  14  7   6.4   3.5
 13000  -0.8  30.6  285  14  7   7.0   3.8 |  -1.0  30.2  265  13  7   7.3   4.0
 12500   0.2  32.4  280  14  7   6.9   3.8 |   0.1  32.2  265  12  6   7.2   4.0
 12000   1.2  34.2  280  13  7   7.8   4.3 |   1.2  34.2  260  11  6   8.1   4.4
 11500   2.3  36.1  275  12  6   7.8   4.3 |   2.3  36.1  255  10  5   8.0   4.4
 11000   3.4  38.1  275  11  6   7.5   4.1 |   3.5  38.3  255   9  5   8.3   4.6
 10500   4.5  40.1  270  10  5   7.6   4.1 |   4.7  40.5  250   8  4   8.6   4.7
 10250   5.0  41.0  270   9  5   5.0   2.8 |   5.3  41.5  245   7  4   5.3   2.9
 10000   5.4  41.7  270   9  4   7.6   4.2 |   5.6  42.1  240   7  4   7.4   4.1
  9750   6.2  43.2  270   8  4  11.3   6.2 |   6.4  43.5  235   7  3  11.8   6.5
  9500   7.0  44.6  270   7  4  10.2   5.6 |   7.2  45.0  230   6  3  10.7   5.9
  9250   7.7  45.9  265   6  3   7.5   4.1 |   8.0  46.4  225   6  3   9.0   5.0
  9000   8.1  46.6  265   6  3   7.3   4.0 |   8.6  47.5  220   6  3   8.7   4.8
  8750   8.8  47.8  260   6  3   9.5   5.2 |   9.3  48.7  215   6  3  10.1   5.5
  8500   9.5  49.1  255   5  3   8.7   4.8 |  10.1  50.2  215   6  3   9.6   5.2
  8250  10.1  50.2  250   5  2   8.1   4.5 |  10.8  51.4  210   5  3   9.2   5.1
  8000  10.7  51.3  245   4  2   7.9   4.3 |  11.4  52.5  205   5  3   8.9   4.9
  7750  11.3  52.3  240   3  2   7.9   4.4 |  12.1  53.8  200   4  2   8.6   4.7
  7500  11.9  53.4  230   3  1   8.4   4.6 |  12.7  54.9  200   4  2   8.6   4.7
  7250  12.6  54.7  230   3  1   8.8   4.9 |  13.4  56.1  195   3  2   8.7   4.8
  7000  13.2  55.8  225   2  1   8.7   4.8 |  14.0  57.2  190   3  1   8.6   4.7
  6750  13.9  57.0  225   2  1   9.1   5.0 |  14.6  58.3  185   2  1   7.4   4.0
  6500  14.6  58.3  225   2  1  10.0   5.5 |  15.2  59.4  180   2  1   7.4   4.1
  6250  15.4  59.7  225   2  1  10.6   5.8 |  15.8  60.4  165   1  1   7.9   4.3
  6000  16.2  61.2  225   2  1  10.1   5.5 |  16.4  61.5  140   1  0   9.0   5.0
  5750  16.9  62.4  225   2  1  11.5   6.3 |  17.0  62.6  095   1  0   3.9   2.1
  5500  17.9  64.2  225   2  1  15.1   8.3 |  16.7  62.1  070   1  0  -9.6  -5.2
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CINH (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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