Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 191216
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0616 MDT Monday, September 19, 2016

This forecast is for Monday, September 19, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 80.6 F/27.0 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 891 ft/min (4.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 15654 ft MSL (10369 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 90.0 F/32.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 13652 ft MSL (8367 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 09/20...... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... 14657 ft MSL (9372 ft AGL)
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 22302 ft MSL (17017 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 09/20......... Poor

Remarks... None

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:45:01 / 19:01:03 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 12 hr 16 min 2 sec (736 min 2 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:53:02 MDT... 51.30 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 09/19/2016 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16039 ft MSL (10754 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 19731 ft MSL (14446 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 18758 ft MSL (13473 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +2.1
K index......................... +3.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -68.2 -90.8   295   42   21   5.0   2.7   79.8 175.6    27.6      M    M
 45000  -64.3 -83.7   280   50   26   0.8   0.4   61.7 143.1    18.4      M    M
 40000  -55.7 -68.3   260   43   22   9.1   5.0   52.2 126.0    13.4      M    M
 38000  -50.5 -58.9   260   43   22   6.9   3.8   51.3 124.3    13.1      M    M
 36000  -46.3 -51.3   265   42   22   6.8   3.7   48.8 119.9    11.7      M    M
 34000  -41.5 -42.7   265   38   19   9.4   5.2   46.4 115.5    10.3      M    M
 32000  -35.7 -32.3   270   33   17   9.6   5.3   46.4 115.6    10.6      M    M
 30000  -30.2 -22.4   260   32   16   8.6   4.7   45.9 114.6    10.4      M    M
 29000  -27.6 -17.7   250   30   15   8.5   4.7   45.4 113.8    10.2      M    M
 28000  -25.1 -13.2   260   27   14   8.7   4.7   44.9 112.9     9.9      M    M
 27000  -22.9  -9.2   270   25   13   6.4   3.5   43.9 111.1     9.2      M    M
 26000  -21.0  -5.8   280   24   12   6.4   3.5   42.7 108.9     8.4      M    M
 25000  -19.1  -2.4   290   26   13   7.1   3.9   41.4 106.5     7.4      M    M
 24000  -16.7   1.9   295   27   14   7.8   4.3   40.8 105.4     7.0      M    M
 23000  -14.3   6.3   280   30   15   8.1   4.4   40.0 104.0     6.4      M    M
 22000  -13.5   7.7   265   35   18  -2.7  -1.5   37.6  99.7     4.4      M    M
 21000  -12.0  10.4   265   31   16   7.3   4.0   35.9  96.6     3.0      M    M
 20000   -9.2  15.4   260   26   14   9.7   5.3   35.7  96.3     2.9      M    M
 19500   -8.1  17.4   265   27   14   5.5   3.0   35.4  95.7     2.6      M    M
 19000   -7.2  19.0   270   27   14   6.4   3.5   34.7  94.5     2.0      M    M
 18500   -6.3  20.7   275   25   13   6.3   3.5   34.2  93.5     1.5      M    M
 18000   -5.3  22.5   275   23   12   7.9   4.3   33.6  92.6     1.0      M    M
 17500   -4.0  24.8   275   21   11   8.4   4.6   33.4  92.1     0.9      M    M
 17000   -2.1  28.2   280   18    9   8.3   4.5   33.1  91.5     0.6      M    M
 16500   -0.9  30.4   285   16    8   8.3   4.6   32.8  91.1     0.3      M    M
 16000    0.4  32.7   290   15    8   8.3   4.5   32.6  90.7     0.1      M    M
 15500    1.6  34.9   280   15    8   8.1   4.4   32.3  90.2    -0.1    864  4.4
 15000    2.8  37.0   270   15    8   3.9   2.1   32.1  89.7    -0.4    813  4.1
 14500    2.6  36.7   260   16    8   2.6   1.4   30.4  86.8    -2.0    804  4.1
 14000    3.4  38.1   255   16    8   7.0   3.8   29.8  85.6    -2.7    765  3.9
 13500    4.4  39.9   255   13    7   8.1   4.4   29.4  84.9    -3.2    720  3.7
 13000    5.7  42.3   255   10    5   8.4   4.6   29.2  84.5    -3.4    667  3.4
 12500    7.0  44.6   255    6    3   8.4   4.6   29.0  84.1    -3.6    615  3.1
 12000    8.2  46.8   255    3    2   8.4   4.6   28.8  83.8    -3.8    562  2.9
 11500    9.5  49.1   265    3    2   8.4   4.6   28.5  83.3    -4.1    510  2.6
 11000   10.7  51.3   275    4    2   8.4   4.6   28.3  83.0    -4.3    458  2.3
 10500   12.0  53.6   280    4    2   8.5   4.7   28.1  82.6    -4.6    405  2.1
 10250   12.6  54.7   285    5    3   8.6   4.7   28.0  82.4    -4.7    379  1.9
 10000   13.2  55.8   290    6    3   8.6   4.7   27.9  82.3    -4.8    352  1.8
  9750   13.9  57.0   290    7    4   8.6   4.7   27.8  82.1    -4.9    326  1.7
  9500   14.5  58.1   295    9    4   8.6   4.7   27.8  82.0    -5.0    299  1.5
  9250   15.1  59.2   295   10    5   8.6   4.7   27.7  81.8    -5.1    273  1.4
  9000   15.8  60.4   295   11    6   8.6   4.7   27.6  81.7    -5.1    246  1.3
  8750   16.4  61.5   290   11    6   8.6   4.7   27.5  81.5    -5.3    220  1.1
  8500   17.1  62.8   290   12    6   8.6   4.7   27.4  81.4    -5.4    193  1.0
  8250   17.7  63.9   285   12    6   8.6   4.7   27.3  81.2    -5.5    167  0.8
  8000   18.3  64.9   285   13    7   8.6   4.7   27.3  81.1    -5.6    140  0.7
  7750   19.0  66.2   280   13    7   8.6   4.7   27.2  80.9    -5.7    114  0.6
  7500   19.6  67.3   280   12    6   8.6   4.7   27.1  80.7    -5.8     87  0.4
  7250   20.2  68.4   275   12    6   8.6   4.7   27.0  80.5    -5.9     61  0.3
  7000   20.9  69.6   270   12    6   8.6   4.7   26.9  80.4    -6.0     34  0.2
  6750   21.5  70.7   265   12    6   8.8   4.8   26.8  80.2    -6.2      8  0.0
  6500   22.1  71.8   265   12    6   8.1   4.4   26.7  80.0    -6.3      M    M
  6250   22.5  72.5   260   12    6   1.0   0.6   26.3  79.4    -6.6      M    M
  6000   22.4  72.3   255   12    6  -3.1  -1.7   25.4  77.8    -7.6      M    M
  5750   21.5  70.7   245    9    4 -30.3 -16.6   23.8  74.9    -9.2      M    M
  5500   17.4  63.3   215    6    3 -72.1 -39.6   19.0  66.2   -14.1     95  0.5

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/19/2016 at 0900 MDT          |       09/19/2016 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...          M        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...          M
CINH...    -0.9    K Index... +12.9        | CINH...    -0.5    K Index...  +8.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -68.3 -90.9  275  25 13   2.3   1.3 | -67.8 -90.0  275  25 13   2.5   1.4
 45000 -63.2 -81.8  270  26 13   5.6   3.1 | -63.0 -81.4  270  26 13   5.1   2.8
 40000 -54.7 -66.5  260  21 11   6.8   3.7 | -55.1 -67.2  255  18  9   6.9   3.8
 38000 -50.6 -59.1  265  20 10   6.8   3.7 | -50.9 -59.6  255  18  9   6.9   3.8
 36000 -46.5 -51.7  265  19 10   6.7   3.7 | -46.7 -52.1  255  17  9   6.8   3.7
 34000 -41.7 -43.1  270  18  9   8.3   4.6 | -41.1 -42.0  250  16  8   8.5   4.7
 32000 -36.1 -33.0  270  16  8   8.5   4.7 | -36.0 -32.8  250  15  8   8.7   4.8
 30000 -31.2 -24.2  275  15  7   8.1   4.4 | -31.1 -24.0  255  13  7   8.0   4.4
 29000 -28.8 -19.8  275  14  7   8.1   4.4 | -28.7 -19.7  255  13  7   8.0   4.4
 28000 -26.4 -15.5  275  14  7   7.9   4.3 | -26.3 -15.3  255  12  6   7.7   4.2
 27000 -24.0 -11.2  275  14  7   7.9   4.3 | -24.0 -11.2  260  12  6   7.7   4.2
 26000 -21.6  -6.9  275  14  7   7.9   4.3 | -21.7  -7.1  260  13  6   7.7   4.2
 25000 -19.3  -2.7  270  14  7   7.6   4.2 | -19.4  -2.9  260  13  7   7.5   4.1
 24000 -17.2   1.0  275  15  7   6.8   3.7 | -17.3   0.9  265  13  7   7.2   3.9
 23000 -15.2   4.6  275  15  8   6.8   3.8 | -15.1   4.8  265  14  7   7.2   4.0
 22000 -13.1   8.4  275  15  8   6.9   3.8 | -13.0   8.6  270  14  7   7.1   3.9
 21000 -11.1  12.0  270  14  7   6.9   3.8 | -10.8  12.6  270  14  7   7.1   3.9
 20000  -9.0  15.8  270  13  7   6.9   3.8 |  -8.7  16.3  270  13  7   7.1   3.9
 19500  -8.0  17.6  270  12  6   7.0   3.8 |  -7.7  18.1  270  13  7   7.1   3.9
 19000  -7.0  19.4  270  12  6   6.2   3.4 |  -6.6  20.1  270  13  6   6.8   3.7
 18500  -6.1  21.0  270  11  5   6.2   3.4 |  -5.6  21.9  270  12  6   6.8   3.7
 18000  -5.2  22.6  265  10  5   5.6   3.1 |  -4.6  23.7  270  12  6   6.2   3.4
 17500  -4.5  23.9  265   9  5   5.0   2.7 |  -3.8  25.2  270  11  6   5.6   3.1
 17000  -3.8  25.2  260   9  4   5.0   2.7 |  -3.0  26.6  270  11  5   5.6   3.1
 16500  -2.6  27.3  255   8  4   5.6   3.0 |  -1.9  28.6  270  10  5   4.9   2.7
 16000  -1.9  28.6  255   8  4   5.8   3.2 |  -1.2  29.8  270   9  5   5.2   2.9
 15500  -0.9  30.4  250   7  4   6.9   3.8 |  -0.3  31.5  270   8  4   6.9   3.8
 15000   0.1  32.2  250   7  3   6.6   3.6 |   0.7  33.3  270   8  4   6.7   3.7
 14500   1.2  34.2  250   6  3   8.9   4.9 |   1.7  35.1  270   7  4   8.2   4.5
 14000   2.5  36.5  250   5  3   8.8   4.8 |   2.9  37.2  270   6  3   8.1   4.4
 13500   3.8  38.8  250   5  2   8.7   4.8 |   4.1  39.4  275   6  3   8.2   4.5
 13000   5.1  41.2  255   4  2   8.6   4.7 |   5.4  41.7  275   5  3   8.3   4.5
 12500   6.4  43.5  260   4  2   8.6   4.7 |   6.6  43.9  280   5  2   8.8   4.8
 12000   7.6  45.7  270   3  2   8.6   4.7 |   8.0  46.4  285   5  2   9.1   5.0
 11500   8.9  48.0  285   3  2   9.0   4.9 |   9.3  48.7  290   4  2   8.8   4.8
 11000  10.3  50.5  300   3  2   9.0   4.9 |  10.6  51.1  300   4  2   8.4   4.6
 10500  11.6  52.9  310   3  2   4.5   2.5 |  11.8  53.2  310   4  2   3.9   2.2
 10250  11.8  53.2  310   3  2   5.6   3.1 |  12.0  53.6  310   4  2   6.1   3.3
 10000  12.6  54.7  315   3  2  12.5   6.9 |  12.8  55.0  315   4  2  12.8   7.0
  9750  13.5  56.3  320   4  2  11.8   6.5 |  13.7  56.7  320   4  2  11.6   6.3
  9500  14.3  57.7  320   4  2   9.0   4.9 |  14.5  58.1  320   4  2   8.7   4.8
  9250  14.8  58.6  320   4  2   6.5   3.6 |  15.0  59.0  325   3  2   6.4   3.5
  9000  15.4  59.7  320   4  2   9.5   5.2 |  15.6  60.1  325   3  2   9.6   5.2
  8750  16.2  61.2  320   4  2  10.8   5.9 |  16.3  61.3  330   3  1  10.6   5.8
  8500  17.0  62.6  320   4  2   9.3   5.1 |  17.1  62.8  330   2  1   9.0   4.9
  8250  17.6  63.7  320   4  2   8.5   4.7 |  17.7  63.9  330   2  1   8.2   4.5
  8000  18.3  64.9  315   4  2   9.2   5.0 |  18.3  64.9  330   2  1   9.2   5.0
  7750  19.0  66.2  315   5  2   8.8   4.9 |  19.1  66.4  330   1  1  10.0   5.5
  7500  19.6  67.3  315   5  2   7.5   4.1 |  19.8  67.6  330   1  1   9.8   5.4
  7250  20.2  68.4  310   5  2   6.8   3.7 |  20.5  68.9  330   1  1   9.5   5.2
  7000  20.7  69.3  305   5  2   8.3   4.6 |  21.3  70.3  330   1  1  10.5   5.8
  6750  21.3  70.3  305   5  2   4.8   2.6 |  22.1  71.8  320   1  1  10.7   5.9
  6500  21.4  70.5  295   4  2  -0.2  -0.1 |  22.8  73.0  320   1  1   9.9   5.4
  6250  21.5  70.7  290   4  2   3.1   1.7 |  23.6  74.5  320   1  0   9.8   5.4
  6000  21.6  70.9  280   4  2  -5.9  -3.2 |  24.3  75.7  320   1  0  11.1   6.1
  5750  20.6  69.1  260   3  2 -13.2  -7.3 |  25.3  77.5  315   1  0  16.4   9.0
  5500  20.0  68.0  240   3  1   0.5   0.3 |  26.7  80.1  320   1  0  20.8  11.4

           09/19/2016 at 1500 MDT          |       09/19/2016 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
CAPE...     0.0    LI...          M        | CAPE...     0.0    LI...          M
CINH...    -0.1    K Index...  +8.9        | CINH...    -0.6    K Index... +16.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -68.0 -90.4  270  28 14   2.6   1.4 | -67.3 -89.1  270  29 15   2.5   1.3
 45000 -62.9 -81.2  270  30 15   5.5   3.0 | -62.3 -80.1  270  35 18   5.6   3.1
 40000 -54.5 -66.1  260  22 11   6.4   3.5 | -53.3 -63.9  270  34 17   6.4   3.5
 38000 -50.6 -59.1  255  19 10   6.4   3.5 | -49.5 -57.1  265  28 14   6.4   3.5
 36000 -46.7 -52.1  245  15  8   6.3   3.5 | -45.7 -50.3  265  22 12   6.3   3.4
 34000 -41.3 -42.3  240  14  7   8.3   4.5 | -41.3 -42.3  260  19 10   7.4   4.1
 32000 -36.4 -33.5  235  13  7   8.4   4.6 | -36.9 -34.4  255  16  8   7.4   4.0
 30000 -31.5 -24.7  240  13  7   8.0   4.4 | -32.4 -26.3  250  15  8   7.6   4.2
 29000 -29.1 -20.4  240  13  7   8.0   4.4 | -30.1 -22.2  250  15  8   7.6   4.2
 28000 -26.7 -16.1  240  13  6   7.6   4.2 | -27.2 -17.0  250  15  8   8.4   4.6
 27000 -24.4 -11.9  245  12  6   7.6   4.2 | -24.7 -12.5  250  14  7   8.4   4.6
 26000 -22.2  -8.0  250  12  6   7.6   4.2 | -22.2  -8.0  255  14  7   8.4   4.6
 25000 -19.9  -3.8  250  12  6   7.6   4.2 | -19.7  -3.5  255  13  7   7.6   4.2
 24000 -17.7   0.1  255  13  7   7.5   4.1 | -17.8  -0.0  260  13  7   6.7   3.7
 23000 -15.4   4.3  260  13  7   7.5   4.1 | -15.8   3.6  260  13  7   6.7   3.7
 22000 -13.2   8.2  260  13  7   7.2   4.0 | -13.8   7.2  265  13  7   6.4   3.5
 21000 -11.1  12.0  265  13  7   6.9   3.8 | -12.0  10.4  265  14  7   6.2   3.4
 20000  -9.1  15.6  270  13  7   6.9   3.8 | -10.3  13.5  265  14  7   6.3   3.5
 19500  -8.0  17.6  270  13  7   6.9   3.8 |  -9.4  15.1  270  14  7   6.5   3.6
 19000  -7.1  19.2  275  13  7   6.3   3.5 |  -8.3  17.1  265  13  7   8.5   4.7
 18500  -6.1  21.0  275  12  6   6.4   3.5 |  -7.1  19.2  265  12  6   8.4   4.6
 18000  -5.2  22.6  275  12  6   6.3   3.5 |  -5.9  21.4  265  11  6   8.2   4.5
 17500  -4.2  24.4  280  12  6   6.3   3.4 |  -4.7  23.5  260  10  5   8.0   4.4
 17000  -2.8  27.0  280  11  6   6.9   3.8 |  -3.5  25.7  260   9  5   8.1   4.4
 16500  -1.8  28.8  285  11  6   7.3   4.0 |  -2.3  27.9  260   9  5   8.7   4.8
 16000  -0.7  30.7  285  11  5   7.5   4.1 |  -1.0  30.2  260   8  4   8.6   4.7
 15500   0.4  32.7  285  10  5   7.9   4.4 |   0.3  32.5  260   8  4   8.6   4.7
 15000   1.6  34.9  290   9  5   7.9   4.3 |   2.2  36.0  255   7  3   8.5   4.7
 14500   2.8  37.0  290   8  4   8.5   4.6 |   3.5  38.3  255   6  3   8.8   4.8
 14000   4.0  39.2  290   7  4   8.5   4.6 |   4.8  40.6  245   5  3   8.8   4.9
 13500   5.2  41.4  290   6  3   8.4   4.6 |   6.1  43.0  240   5  2   8.2   4.5
 13000   6.5  43.7  290   4  2   8.4   4.6 |   7.3  45.1  225   4  2   8.2   4.5
 12500   7.7  45.9  285   3  2   8.5   4.7 |   8.6  47.5  205   4  2   8.5   4.7
 12000   9.0  48.2  275   2  1   8.5   4.7 |   9.9  49.8  190   3  2   8.6   4.7
 11500  10.3  50.5  255   1  1   8.6   4.7 |  11.2  52.2  180   4  2   8.8   4.8
 11000  11.6  52.9  210   1  0   8.5   4.6 |  12.5  54.5  170   3  2   8.8   4.8
 10500  12.8  55.0  175   1  1   3.3   1.8 |  13.8  56.8  165   3  2   4.1   2.2
 10250  12.9  55.2  175   1  1   5.6   3.1 |  14.0  57.2  160   3  2   5.7   3.1
 10000  13.8  56.8  170   1  1  13.4   7.3 |  14.8  58.6  160   3  2  12.3   6.8
  9750  14.7  58.5  165   1  1  11.6   6.4 |  15.6  60.1  155   3  2  10.9   6.0
  9500  15.5  59.9  165   1  1   9.1   5.0 |  16.4  61.5  150   3  1   9.3   5.1
  9250  16.0  60.8  165   1  1   7.0   3.9 |  17.0  62.6  150   3  1   7.9   4.4
  9000  16.7  62.1  165   1  1  10.5   5.8 |  17.7  63.9  145   3  1   9.9   5.4
  8750  17.5  63.5  165   1  1  11.6   6.4 |  18.5  65.3  145   3  1  10.3   5.7
  8500  18.3  64.9  165   1  1   9.9   5.4 |  19.2  66.6  145   2  1   9.7   5.3
  8250  19.0  66.2  165   1  1   8.6   4.7 |  19.9  67.8  145   2  1   9.4   5.1
  8000  19.7  67.5  165   1  1  10.3   5.6 |  20.6  69.1  145   2  1   9.3   5.1
  7750  20.5  68.9  165   1  1  11.3   6.2 |  21.3  70.3  145   2  1   9.2   5.1
  7500  21.3  70.3  165   1  1  10.1   5.5 |  22.0  71.6  145   2  1   9.7   5.3
  7250  22.1  71.8  170   1  1   9.9   5.4 |  22.7  72.9  145   2  1  10.0   5.5
  7000  22.8  73.0  170   1  1   9.6   5.3 |  23.5  74.3  150   1  1   9.6   5.3
  6750  23.5  74.3  175   1  1   9.7   5.3 |  24.1  75.4  150   1  1   9.5   5.2
  6500  24.3  75.7  175   1  1  10.4   5.7 |  24.9  76.8  150   1  1  10.0   5.5
  6250  25.1  77.2  175   1  1  10.2   5.6 |  25.6  78.1  150   1  1  10.1   5.5
  6000  25.8  78.4  175   1  1  10.9   6.0 |  26.4  79.5  150   1  1  10.3   5.6
  5750  26.8  80.2  175   1  1  16.2   8.9 |  27.2  81.0  155   1  0  10.9   6.0
  5500  28.3  82.9  175   1  1  22.6  12.4 |  28.0  82.4  155   1  0  11.2   6.1
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CINH (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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