Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 140016
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1816 MDT Saturday, September 13, 2014

This forecast is for Sunday, September 14, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 79.0 F/26.1 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1420 ft/min (7.2 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 19770 ft MSL (14483 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 86.0 F/30.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11874 ft MSL (6586 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 09/15....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 45805 ft MSL (40518 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 09/15.......... Poor

Remarks... None

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:39:37 / 19:11:11 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 12 hr 31 min 35 sec (751 min 35 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:54:55 MDT... 53.46 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 09/14/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14624 ft MSL (9337 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18312 ft MSL (13025 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 18812 ft MSL (13525 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +0.6
K index......................... +12.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -65.2 -85.4   270   57   30   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.5 -78.7   270   79   40   5.2   2.8      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.4 -64.1   270   78   40   3.5   1.9      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -51.2 -60.2   270   66   34   3.7   2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -49.0 -56.2   270   54   28   3.8   2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -44.8 -48.6   270   48   25   8.6   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -39.6 -39.3   270   46   23   8.6   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -34.6 -30.3   270   45   23   8.3   4.5   41.4 106.6     8.6      M    M
 29000  -32.1 -25.8   270   45   23   8.3   4.5   40.9 105.6     8.3      M    M
 28000  -29.0 -20.2   270   45   23   8.0   4.4   40.3 104.6     8.0      M    M
 27000  -26.8 -16.2   270   39   20   7.5   4.1   39.4 102.9     7.4      M    M
 26000  -24.5 -12.1   275   34   17   7.5   4.1   38.5 101.3     6.8      M    M
 25000  -22.2  -8.0   275   28   15   7.8   4.3   37.8 100.0     6.3      M    M
 24000  -20.4  -4.7   275   26   13   5.6   3.1   36.4  97.6     5.2      M    M
 23000  -18.7  -1.7   280   25   13   5.7   3.1   34.9  94.8     4.0      M    M
 22000  -17.1   1.2   285   24   12   5.7   3.1   33.5  92.3     2.9      M    M
 21000  -15.4   4.3   285   24   12   5.7   3.1   32.0  89.6     1.6      M    M
 20000  -13.8   7.2   285   24   12   5.7   3.1   30.6  87.0     0.3      M    M
 19500  -12.9   8.8   285   24   12   5.6   3.1   29.9  85.8    -0.3   1401  7.1
 19000  -12.0  10.4   285   24   12   8.7   4.8   29.4  85.0    -0.8   1357  6.9
 18500  -10.6  12.9   285   23   12   9.3   5.1   29.3  84.8    -0.9   1302  6.6
 18000   -9.3  15.3   285   22   11   9.3   5.1   29.3  84.7    -1.0   1247  6.3
 17500   -8.0  17.6   280   21   11   8.8   4.8   29.1  84.4    -1.2   1193  6.1
 17000   -6.7  19.9   280   21   11   8.8   4.8   29.0  84.1    -1.4   1140  5.8
 16500   -5.3  22.5   280   20   11   9.3   5.1   28.8  83.9    -1.5   1085  5.5
 16000   -3.9  25.0   280   21   11   9.3   5.1   28.8  83.8    -1.5   1028  5.2
 15500   -2.5  27.5   275   21   11   8.9   4.9   28.7  83.7    -1.6    970  4.9
 15000   -1.3  29.7   280   21   11   8.5   4.7   28.5  83.3    -1.8    918  4.7
 14500    0.0  32.0   280   21   11   8.5   4.7   28.3  82.9    -2.0    865  4.4
 14000    2.0  35.6   280   20   10   8.7   4.8   28.0  82.5    -2.2    785  4.0
 13500    3.2  37.8   280   19   10   8.6   4.7   27.9  82.2    -2.4    731  3.7
 13000    4.5  40.1   280   18    9   8.4   4.6   27.7  81.8    -2.6    679  3.4
 12500    5.8  42.4   280   18    9   8.6   4.7   27.4  81.4    -2.8    627  3.2
 12000    7.1  44.8   280   17    9   9.0   4.9   27.3  81.1    -3.0    572  2.9
 11500    8.4  47.1   280   16    8   9.0   4.9   27.2  80.9    -3.1    517  2.6
 11000    9.8  49.6   280   15    8   8.7   4.8   27.1  80.7    -3.2    462  2.3
 10500   11.1  52.0   280   14    7   4.5   2.5   27.0  80.5    -3.4    407  2.1
 10250   11.3  52.3   280   14    7   5.9   3.3   26.4  79.5    -3.9    394  2.0
 10000   12.1  53.8   280   14    7  12.6   6.9   26.5  79.7    -3.8    361  1.8
  9750   13.0  55.4   280   13    7  11.3   6.2   26.6  79.9    -3.7    329  1.7
  9500   13.8  56.8   280   13    7   9.7   5.3   26.7  80.1    -3.6    296  1.5
  9250   14.4  57.9   280   12    6   6.7   3.7   26.6  79.8    -3.8    272  1.4
  9000   14.9  58.8   280   12    6   8.6   4.7   26.4  79.5    -4.0    248  1.3
  8750   15.7  60.3   280   11    6  10.4   5.7   26.4  79.5    -4.0    218  1.1
  8500   16.4  61.5   275   11    6   8.9   4.9   26.4  79.5    -4.0    189  1.0
  8250   17.0  62.6   275   11    5   7.8   4.3   26.3  79.3    -4.1    164  0.8
  8000   17.6  63.7   275   10    5   7.3   4.0   26.1  79.0    -4.3    140  0.7
  7750   18.1  64.6   270   10    5   6.7   3.7   25.9  78.6    -4.5    117  0.6
  7500   18.5  65.3   270   10    5   5.5   3.0   25.6  78.2    -4.8     96  0.5
  7250   18.8  65.8   265    9    5   4.1   2.3   25.2  77.4    -5.3     80  0.4
  7000   19.1  66.4   255    8    4   5.4   3.0   24.9  76.7    -5.7     64  0.3
  6750   19.4  66.9   250    8    4   2.1   1.2   24.5  76.0    -6.2     48  0.2
  6500   19.2  66.6   240    8    4  -5.9  -3.2   23.6  74.4    -7.1     46  0.2
  6250   18.5  65.3   235    8    4 -12.9  -7.1   22.1  71.8    -8.6     61  0.3
  6000   17.7  63.9   230    8    4   1.1   0.6   20.7  69.2   -10.1     75  0.4
  5750   18.0  64.4   230    8    4 -12.4  -6.8   20.1  68.2   -10.6     61  0.3
  5500   14.6  58.3   220    7    3 -73.5 -40.3   16.2  61.2   -14.7    156  0.8

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/14/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       09/14/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +20.1  LI... +0.2               | K index... +14.1  LI... -2.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... +195.1  CIN... -54.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.4 -83.9  275  58 30   1.7   0.9 | -64.2 -83.6  275  55 28   2.6   1.4
 45000 -61.1 -78.0  275  79 41   4.5   2.5 | -60.0 -76.0  275  73 38   3.7   2.0
 40000 -53.9 -65.0  270  77 40   4.5   2.5 | -54.2 -65.6  270  74 38   4.3   2.4
 38000 -51.3 -60.3  270  67 35   4.5   2.5 | -51.6 -60.9  270  65 33   4.4   2.4
 36000 -48.6 -55.5  270  58 30   4.5   2.5 | -49.0 -56.2  270  55 28   4.4   2.4
 34000 -44.5 -48.1  270  51 26   7.9   4.3 | -45.0 -49.0  270  49 25   7.6   4.2
 32000 -39.8 -39.6  270  46 24   7.9   4.3 | -40.4 -40.7  270  45 23   7.7   4.2
 30000 -35.1 -31.2  270  42 22   7.8   4.3 | -35.7 -32.3  270  42 21   8.0   4.4
 29000 -32.8 -27.0  275  40 21   7.8   4.3 | -32.7 -26.9  270  39 20   8.1   4.4
 28000 -29.9 -21.8  275  39 20   7.8   4.3 | -30.3 -22.5  270  37 19   8.1   4.4
 27000 -27.6 -17.7  275  35 18   7.7   4.2 | -27.9 -18.2  270  35 18   8.2   4.5
 26000 -25.3 -13.5  275  31 16   7.7   4.2 | -25.4 -13.7  270  32 17   8.2   4.5
 25000 -22.9  -9.2  275  28 14   7.9   4.3 | -22.9  -9.2  270  30 15   8.5   4.7
 24000 -21.0  -5.8  280  26 13   6.1   3.4 | -21.1  -6.0  270  28 14   5.4   3.0
 23000 -19.1  -2.4  285  25 13   6.1   3.4 | -19.4  -2.9  275  26 14   5.4   3.0
 22000 -17.3   0.9  285  24 12   6.1   3.4 | -17.8  -0.0  280  25 13   5.4   3.0
 21000 -15.5   4.1  290  24 12   6.2   3.4 | -15.8   3.6  285  24 12   6.9   3.8
 20000 -13.6   7.5  290  24 12   6.3   3.5 | -13.8   7.2  290  23 12   6.9   3.8
 19500 -12.7   9.1  290  24 12   6.3   3.5 | -12.8   9.0  295  23 12   6.9   3.8
 19000 -11.8  10.8  290  24 12   7.5   4.1 | -11.7  10.9  295  22 11   8.3   4.6
 18500 -10.7  12.7  290  24 12   7.8   4.3 | -10.4  13.3  300  22 11   8.6   4.7
 18000  -9.5  14.9  290  24 12   8.2   4.5 |  -9.1  15.6  305  22 11   8.6   4.7
 17500  -8.2  17.2  290  24 12   9.5   5.2 |  -7.8  18.0  305  22 11   8.8   4.8
 17000  -6.9  19.6  290  23 12   9.5   5.2 |  -6.6  20.1  305  22 11   8.8   4.8
 16500  -5.5  22.1  290  23 12   8.4   4.6 |  -5.2  22.6  310  22 11   9.1   5.0
 16000  -4.3  24.3  290  24 12   8.4   4.6 |  -3.9  25.0  310  22 11   9.1   5.0
 15500  -3.1  26.4  295  24 12   8.6   4.7 |  -2.5  27.5  310  22 11   9.3   5.1
 15000  -1.8  28.8  295  23 12   8.7   4.8 |  -0.4  31.3  310  21 11   9.5   5.2
 14500   0.1  32.2  295  22 12   9.1   5.0 |   1.0  33.8  305  21 11   9.3   5.1
 14000   1.5  34.7  295  22 11   9.2   5.0 |   2.3  36.1  305  21 11   9.2   5.1
 13500   2.8  37.0  295  21 11   9.1   5.0 |   3.7  38.7  305  20 10   9.1   5.0
 13000   4.2  39.6  295  20 10   9.1   5.0 |   5.0  41.0  305  22 11   8.9   4.9
 12500   5.6  42.1  295  19 10   9.0   4.9 |   6.3  43.3  305  23 12   8.8   4.8
 12000   6.9  44.4  295  17  9   8.9   4.9 |   7.6  45.7  305  24 12   8.6   4.7
 11500   8.3  46.9  295  15  8   9.0   4.9 |   8.8  47.8  305  25 13   8.7   4.8
 11000   9.6  49.3  290  15  8   9.0   4.9 |  10.0  50.0  300  24 12   8.8   4.8
 10500  11.0  51.8  290  15  8   4.9   2.7 |  11.3  52.3  300  23 12   4.6   2.5
 10250  11.3  52.3  290  15  8   6.5   3.6 |  11.5  52.7  300  23 12   5.8   3.2
 10000  12.1  53.8  290  15  8  13.0   7.2 |  12.3  54.1  300  22 11  12.3   6.7
  9750  13.0  55.4  290  15  8  11.9   6.5 |  13.1  55.6  300  21 11  11.0   6.1
  9500  13.9  57.0  285  16  8   9.8   5.4 |  13.9  57.0  300  20 10   9.5   5.2
  9250  14.4  57.9  285  16  8   6.6   3.6 |  14.4  57.9  300  19 10   7.4   4.0
  9000  15.0  59.0  285  16  8   8.9   4.9 |  15.1  59.2  300  19 10   9.3   5.1
  8750  15.8  60.4  280  17  9  10.5   5.8 |  15.8  60.4  300  18  9  10.3   5.7
  8500  16.5  61.7  280  17  9   9.2   5.0 |  16.6  61.9  300  18  9   9.4   5.2
  8250  17.1  62.8  280  17  9   8.3   4.5 |  17.2  63.0  300  17  9   8.9   4.9
  8000  17.8  64.0  275  16  8   8.2   4.5 |  17.9  64.2  295  16  8   8.5   4.7
  7750  18.4  65.1  275  15  8   7.8   4.3 |  18.4  65.1  295  15  8   7.9   4.3
  7500  19.0  66.2  275  14  7   7.2   4.0 |  19.0  66.2  290  15  7   8.3   4.6
  7250  19.5  67.1  275  13  7   6.4   3.5 |  19.7  67.5  285  13  7   8.4   4.6
  7000  20.0  68.0  275  12  6   7.5   4.1 |  20.3  68.5  280  12  6   8.7   4.8
  6750  20.5  68.9  270  11  6   3.5   1.9 |  20.9  69.6  275  11  6   8.7   4.8
  6500  20.5  68.9  270  10  5  -3.4  -1.9 |  21.5  70.7  275  10  5   7.1   3.9
  6250  20.0  68.0  265   9  5  -9.7  -5.3 |  22.0  71.6  270   8  4   7.5   4.1
  6000  19.5  67.1  260   8  4   5.7   3.1 |  22.4  72.3  265   7  4   4.0   2.2
  5750  20.2  68.4  265   8  4  -3.1  -1.7 |  22.5  72.5  260   5  3   7.0   3.8
  5500  17.5  63.5  245   6  3 -59.4 -32.6 |  23.6  74.5  260   5  3  22.8  12.5

           09/14/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       09/14/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +14.5  LI... -2.5               | K index... +23.6  LI... -1.6
CAPE... +201.1  CIN... -27.5               | CAPE... +273.9  CIN... -37.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.3 -83.7  270  49 25   3.1   1.7 | -63.5 -82.3  280  49 25   2.8   1.5
 45000 -59.4 -74.9  275  65 34   3.1   1.7 | -59.3 -74.7  275  64 33   2.3   1.2
 40000 -54.7 -66.5  275  69 36   4.9   2.7 | -55.8 -68.4  270  71 36   5.4   3.0
 38000 -51.8 -61.2  275  65 33   5.0   2.7 | -52.5 -62.5  275  68 35   5.5   3.0
 36000 -48.8 -55.8  275  60 31   5.0   2.7 | -49.1 -56.4  275  65 33   5.5   3.0
 34000 -44.8 -48.6  275  54 28   7.6   4.1 | -45.1 -49.2  275  60 31   7.4   4.1
 32000 -40.2 -40.4  275  49 25   7.6   4.2 | -40.6 -41.1  280  55 28   7.4   4.1
 30000 -34.9 -30.8  280  45 23   8.0   4.4 | -35.1 -31.2  280  51 26   8.7   4.8
 29000 -32.6 -26.7  280  44 23   8.0   4.4 | -32.5 -26.5  280  50 26   8.7   4.8
 28000 -30.2 -22.4  280  42 22   8.0   4.4 | -29.9 -21.8  280  49 25   8.2   4.5
 27000 -27.8 -18.0  280  40 21   7.9   4.3 | -27.7 -17.9  285  46 24   7.5   4.1
 26000 -25.5 -13.9  280  38 19   7.9   4.3 | -25.4 -13.7  285  42 22   7.5   4.1
 25000 -23.1  -9.6  280  35 18   8.0   4.4 | -23.2  -9.8  290  39 20   7.7   4.2
 24000 -20.9  -5.6  280  33 17   7.1   3.9 | -21.3  -6.3  285  36 18   6.1   3.4
 23000 -18.8  -1.8  285  31 16   7.1   3.9 | -19.5  -3.1  285  33 17   6.2   3.4
 22000 -16.6   2.1  285  29 15   7.1   3.9 | -17.7   0.1  280  29 15   6.3   3.5
 21000 -14.9   5.2  290  28 14   5.6   3.1 | -15.3   4.5  280  29 15   8.4   4.6
 20000 -13.2   8.2  295  27 14   5.6   3.1 | -12.8   9.0  280  28 15   8.4   4.6
 19500 -12.4   9.7  300  26 13   5.5   3.0 | -11.6  11.1  280  28 15   8.4   4.6
 19000 -11.4  11.5  300  26 13   8.9   4.9 | -10.4  13.3  280  28 14   8.4   4.6
 18500 -10.0  14.0  300  25 13   9.4   5.1 |  -9.1  15.6  275  27 14   8.4   4.6
 18000  -8.6  16.5  300  25 13   9.4   5.1 |  -7.9  17.8  275  27 14   8.5   4.7
 17500  -7.3  18.9  300  24 12   9.1   5.0 |  -6.6  20.1  275  26 13   8.9   4.9
 17000  -5.9  21.4  295  24 12   9.1   5.0 |  -5.3  22.5  280  26 13   8.8   4.8
 16500  -4.6  23.7  295  24 12   9.4   5.2 |  -4.0  24.8  280  25 13   9.2   5.0
 16000  -3.2  26.2  295  24 12   9.4   5.2 |  -2.7  27.1  275  23 12   9.2   5.1
 15500  -1.8  28.8  295  24 12   9.3   5.1 |  -1.3  29.7  275  22 11   9.2   5.1
 15000   0.3  32.5  290  23 12   9.3   5.1 |   0.8  33.4  275  20 10   9.3   5.1
 14500   1.7  35.1  290  23 12   9.6   5.3 |   2.1  35.8  280  19 10   9.4   5.2
 14000   3.1  37.6  290  22 11   9.7   5.3 |   3.5  38.3  280  18  9   9.4   5.2
 13500   4.5  40.1  285  21 11   9.5   5.2 |   4.9  40.8  285  17  9   9.2   5.1
 13000   5.9  42.6  285  20 10   9.3   5.1 |   6.3  43.3  285  16  8   9.1   5.0
 12500   7.3  45.1  285  19 10   9.2   5.0 |   7.6  45.7  285  15  8   9.1   5.0
 12000   8.6  47.5  285  18  9   8.9   4.9 |   9.0  48.2  290  14  7   9.3   5.1
 11500   9.9  49.8  285  16  8   9.0   4.9 |  10.4  50.7  290  13  7   9.1   5.0
 11000  11.2  52.2  280  15  8   8.9   4.9 |  11.7  53.1  290  12  6   8.6   4.7
 10500  12.5  54.5  280  15  7   5.6   3.1 |  13.1  55.6  295  10  5   5.3   2.9
 10250  12.8  55.0  280  14  7   6.5   3.6 |  13.3  55.9  295  10  5   6.2   3.4
 10000  13.6  56.5  280  13  7  11.5   6.3 |  14.1  57.4  295   9  5  11.4   6.3
  9750  14.3  57.7  280  13  6  10.5   5.7 |  14.9  58.8  295   9  4  10.3   5.7
  9500  15.1  59.2  280  12  6   9.7   5.3 |  15.6  60.1  295   8  4   9.5   5.2
  9250  15.7  60.3  280  11  6   8.3   4.5 |  16.3  61.3  295   7  4   7.8   4.3
  9000  16.4  61.5  275  10  5   9.1   5.0 |  16.9  62.4  295   6  3   8.6   4.7
  8750  17.1  62.8  275   9  4   9.7   5.3 |  17.5  63.5  290   6  3   9.1   5.0
  8500  17.8  64.0  270   8  4   8.9   4.9 |  18.2  64.8  285   5  3   8.9   4.9
  8250  18.4  65.1  265   7  3   8.0   4.4 |  18.9  66.0  275   5  2   9.1   5.0
  8000  19.0  66.2  255   6  3   8.3   4.5 |  19.5  67.1  265   4  2   8.7   4.8
  7750  19.6  67.3  250   5  3   8.5   4.7 |  20.2  68.4  260   4  2   8.4   4.6
  7500  20.3  68.5  245   5  3   8.9   4.9 |  20.8  69.4  255   4  2   8.5   4.7
  7250  20.9  69.6  240   5  2   9.3   5.1 |  21.4  70.5  255   4  2   8.5   4.7
  7000  21.5  70.7  240   5  2   9.4   5.2 |  22.0  71.6  255   3  2   8.6   4.7
  6750  22.2  72.0  235   5  2   9.9   5.4 |  22.6  72.7  255   3  2   8.8   4.9
  6500  22.9  73.2  235   5  2  10.1   5.5 |  23.2  73.8  255   3  2   9.5   5.2
  6250  23.7  74.7  235   5  2  10.3   5.7 |  23.9  75.0  255   3  2   9.9   5.5
  6000  24.4  75.9  235   5  2   9.5   5.2 |  24.6  76.3  260   3  2   9.6   5.3
  5750  25.2  77.4  235   5  2  11.8   6.5 |  25.3  77.5  260   3  2   9.0   4.9
  5500  26.3  79.3  235   5  2  18.7  10.3 |  25.9  78.6  260   3  2   8.8   4.8
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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