Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 291243
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0643 MDT Monday, September 29, 2014

This forecast is for Monday, September 29, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 69.6 F/20.9 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 70 ft/min (0.4 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 9127 ft MSL (3842 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 69.0 F/21.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1445 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7887 ft MSL (2602 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 09/30...... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Increasing
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... 18097 ft MSL (12812 ft AGL)
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 24503 ft MSL (19218 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 09/30......... Good

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:53:49 / 18:46:37 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 11 hr 52 min 49 sec (712 min 49 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:49:43 MDT... 47.64 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 09/29/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14073 ft MSL (8788 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 12078 ft MSL (6793 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 10747 ft MSL (5461 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.1
K index......................... +28.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -62.8 -81.0   235   57   29  -1.6  -0.9   90.2 194.4    40.3      M    M
 45000  -61.4 -78.5   235   62   32   1.0   0.5   68.1 154.7    29.6      M    M
 40000  -54.5 -66.1   230   63   32   5.7   3.1   56.0 132.8    23.6      M    M
 38000  -52.5 -62.5   220   73   37   6.6   3.6   50.4 122.7    20.4      M    M
 36000  -49.3 -56.7   215   66   34   6.5   3.6   46.5 115.7    18.2      M    M
 34000  -45.0 -49.0   215   61   32   7.8   4.3   44.1 111.4    16.9      M    M
 32000  -39.7 -39.5   220   58   30   7.8   4.3   42.4 108.3    16.2      M    M
 30000  -35.3 -31.5   215   52   27   7.2   3.9   40.6 105.1    15.2      M    M
 29000  -33.3 -27.9   215   47   24   6.9   3.8   39.5 103.1    14.5      M    M
 28000  -30.8 -23.4   215   43   22   9.1   5.0   38.8 101.9    14.2      M    M
 27000  -28.1 -18.6   210   38   20   9.1   5.0   38.6 101.6    14.2      M    M
 26000  -25.4 -13.7   210   34   17   6.8   3.7   38.4 101.1    14.1      M    M
 25000  -23.5 -10.3   200   34   18   5.7   3.1   37.2  98.9    13.2      M    M
 24000  -21.5  -6.7   200   36   19   6.2   3.4   36.0  96.8    12.4      M    M
 23000  -19.3  -2.7   195   35   18   9.3   5.1   35.2  95.4    11.9      M    M
 22000  -16.1   3.0   190   33   17   9.6   5.3   35.4  95.7    12.3      M    M
 21000  -13.8   7.2   190   32   17   7.4   4.1   34.7  94.5    11.8      M    M
 20000  -12.4   9.7   185   31   16   4.4   2.4   32.9  91.2    10.3      M    M
 19500  -11.9  10.6   185   30   16   4.8   2.6   32.0  89.6     9.5      M    M
 19000  -11.1  12.0   190   29   15   0.7   0.4   31.2  88.2     8.9      M    M
 18500  -10.4  13.3   185   27   14  13.4   7.4   30.4  86.7     8.1      M    M
 18000   -9.8  14.4   180   24   13  -4.8  -2.6   29.5  85.0     7.3      M    M
 17500   -9.0  15.8   180   24   12  12.9   7.1   28.8  83.9     6.7      M    M
 17000   -7.7  18.1   180   23   12   9.1   5.0   28.6  83.5     6.5      M    M
 16500   -6.4  20.5   180   23   12   8.7   4.8   28.4  83.2     6.4      M    M
 16000   -4.5  23.9   180   22   11   8.7   4.8   28.2  82.8     6.2      M    M
 15500   -3.2  26.2   185   21   11   8.7   4.8   28.0  82.4     6.0      M    M
 15000   -1.9  28.6   195   21   11   8.7   4.8   27.8  82.1     5.9      M    M
 14500   -0.6  30.9   200   21   11   7.8   4.3   27.7  81.8     5.8      M    M
 14000    0.3  32.5   205   21   11   6.2   3.4   27.1  80.8     5.3      M    M
 13500    1.2  34.2   210   23   12   6.2   3.4   26.6  79.8     4.7      M    M
 13000    2.1  35.8   210   24   12   6.3   3.4   26.0  78.8     4.2      M    M
 12500    2.9  37.2   205   23   12   6.2   3.4   25.4  77.8     3.6      M    M
 12000    3.9  39.0   205   23   12   8.0   4.4   25.0  76.9     3.1      M    M
 11500    5.2  41.4   205   23   12   8.3   4.5   24.7  76.5     2.9      M    M
 11000    6.4  43.5   210   23   12   8.3   4.5   24.5  76.1     2.7      M    M
 10500    7.6  45.7   210   23   12   7.8   4.3   24.3  75.7     2.5      M    M
 10250    8.0  46.4   210   23   12   2.9   1.6   24.0  75.2     2.2      M    M
 10000    8.0  46.4   205   23   12   2.5   1.3   23.3  74.0     1.5      M    M
  9750    8.3  46.9   210   20   10   4.9   2.7   22.9  73.2     1.0      M    M
  9500    8.6  47.5   220   17    9   4.4   2.4   22.5  72.5     0.6      M    M
  9250    9.0  48.2   230   15    8   4.3   2.3   22.1  71.7     0.2      M    M
  9000    9.1  48.4   240   13    7  -2.0  -1.1   21.5  70.7    -0.4    263  1.3
  8750    8.7  47.7   245   11    6  -1.6  -0.9   20.4  68.8    -1.4    267  1.4
  8500    8.9  48.0   255    9    5   5.4   3.0   19.9  67.8    -2.0    255  1.3
  8250    9.3  48.7   270    8    4   8.0   4.4   19.6  67.3    -2.3    234  1.2
  8000    9.8  49.6   285    7    4   2.0   1.1   19.4  66.9    -2.6    213  1.1
  7750    9.6  49.3   305    7    4  -3.8  -2.1   18.4  65.2    -3.5    211  1.1
  7500    9.4  48.9   325    8    4  -2.4  -1.3   17.5  63.5    -4.5    210  1.1
  7250    9.2  48.6   335   10    5  -2.5  -1.4   16.5  61.8    -5.4    208  1.1
  7000    9.0  48.2   345   12    6  -3.4  -1.9   15.6  60.1    -6.3    207  1.1
  6750    8.8  47.8   345   11    6   0.1   0.1   14.7  58.4    -7.3    206  1.0
  6500    9.0  48.2   345   10    5   3.2   1.8   14.1  57.4    -7.8    191  1.0
  6250    9.3  48.7   350    8    4   3.9   2.1   13.6  56.5    -8.3    176  0.9
  6000    9.7  49.5   350    7    4   8.0   4.4   13.3  56.0    -8.6    155  0.8
  5750   10.4  50.7   350    5    2   9.6   5.2   13.3  55.9    -8.6    127  0.6
  5500   11.1  52.0   350    2    1   8.6   4.7   13.2  55.8    -8.7    100  0.5

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/29/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       09/29/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +21.8  LI... -1.3               | K index... +18.7  LI... -3.2
CAPE... +96.2  CIN... -135.0               | CAPE... +561.6  CIN... -47.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.2 -80.0  235  33 17   1.1   0.6 | -61.8 -79.2  230  33 17   1.5   0.8
 45000 -59.7 -75.5  230  60 31   3.8   2.1 | -58.9 -74.0  225  56 29   3.7   2.0
 40000 -54.0 -65.2  230  64 33   4.1   2.2 | -53.4 -64.1  225  68 35   3.8   2.1
 38000 -51.2 -60.2  225  65 33   4.7   2.6 | -50.8 -59.4  220  69 35   4.4   2.4
 36000 -48.3 -54.9  225  66 34   4.7   2.6 | -48.1 -54.6  220  70 36   4.4   2.4
 34000 -44.9 -48.8  220  62 32   6.6   3.6 | -44.9 -48.8  215  67 35   6.2   3.4
 32000 -40.4 -40.7  215  54 28   6.6   3.6 | -40.7 -41.3  210  60 31   6.2   3.4
 30000 -35.8 -32.4  215  49 25   8.6   4.7 | -36.1 -33.0  210  55 28   8.6   4.7
 29000 -33.2 -27.8  215  47 24   8.6   4.7 | -33.5 -28.3  210  52 27   8.6   4.7
 28000 -30.6 -23.1  215  45 23   8.6   4.7 | -30.9 -23.6  205  50 26   8.7   4.8
 27000 -28.2 -18.8  215  43 22   7.7   4.2 | -28.6 -19.5  205  48 25   7.2   4.0
 26000 -25.9 -14.6  215  42 22   7.7   4.2 | -26.4 -15.5  205  47 24   7.2   4.0
 25000 -23.6 -10.5  215  41 21   7.7   4.2 | -24.3 -11.7  210  46 24   7.3   4.0
 24000 -21.5  -6.7  215  40 21   6.2   3.4 | -22.1  -7.8  210  45 23   7.2   3.9
 23000 -19.6  -3.3  210  40 20   6.3   3.4 | -20.0  -4.0  210  44 23   7.2   4.0
 22000 -17.7   0.1  210  40 20   6.3   3.5 | -17.9  -0.2  210  44 23   7.3   4.0
 21000 -15.7   3.7  210  39 20   7.2   4.0 | -15.8   3.6  210  43 22   6.9   3.8
 20000 -13.6   7.5  210  38 20   7.4   4.0 | -13.8   7.2  210  40 21   6.9   3.8
 19500 -12.6   9.3  210  38 19   7.4   4.1 | -12.7   9.1  210  39 20   6.9   3.8
 19000 -11.5  11.3  210  37 19   7.5   4.1 | -11.7  10.9  210  37 19   7.0   3.8
 18500 -10.4  13.3  210  36 19   7.4   4.0 | -10.6  12.9  205  36 19   7.8   4.3
 18000  -9.3  15.3  205  36 18   7.4   4.1 |  -9.5  14.9  205  35 18   7.8   4.3
 17500  -8.2  17.2  205  35 18   6.9   3.8 |  -8.4  16.9  200  34 18   7.1   3.9
 17000  -7.2  19.0  200  33 17   6.8   3.7 |  -7.4  18.7  200  33 17   7.0   3.8
 16500  -6.3  20.7  195  32 16   7.3   4.0 |  -6.4  20.5  195  31 16   7.0   3.9
 16000  -4.4  24.1  195  31 16   8.7   4.8 |  -4.8  23.4  195  29 15   7.3   4.0
 15500  -3.1  26.4  200  30 16   8.6   4.7 |  -3.7  25.3  195  27 14   7.5   4.1
 15000  -1.9  28.6  205  31 16   8.4   4.6 |  -2.5  27.5  200  27 14   7.8   4.3
 14500  -0.7  30.7  205  31 16   8.0   4.4 |  -1.3  29.7  210  28 14   7.6   4.2
 14000   0.3  32.5  210  31 16   6.2   3.4 |  -0.3  31.5  215  27 14   5.8   3.2
 13500   1.2  34.2  215  30 15   6.3   3.5 |   0.6  33.1  215  26 13   5.8   3.2
 13000   2.1  35.8  220  28 15   6.6   3.6 |   1.5  34.7  220  25 13   7.2   4.0
 12500   3.1  37.6  220  26 13   6.6   3.6 |   2.5  36.5  225  24 12   7.0   3.8
 12000   4.1  39.4  220  23 12   7.1   3.9 |   3.6  38.5  225  22 11   8.3   4.5
 11500   5.2  41.4  220  21 11   7.1   3.9 |   4.8  40.6  220  20 10   8.4   4.6
 11000   6.1  43.0  215  18  9   6.3   3.5 |   5.9  42.6  220  19 10   6.7   3.7
 10500   7.0  44.6  210  16  8   6.8   3.8 |   6.9  44.4  215  18  9   5.9   3.2
 10250   7.4  45.3  205  15  8   4.4   2.4 |   7.4  45.3  215  18  9  10.0   5.5
 10000   7.7  45.9  205  14  7   5.1   2.8 |   8.3  46.9  215  17  9  10.4   5.7
  9750   8.2  46.8  205  13  7   7.9   4.3 |   8.8  47.8  210  16  8   6.4   3.5
  9500   8.7  47.7  200  12  6   8.2   4.5 |   9.3  48.7  205  16  8   7.9   4.3
  9250   9.2  48.6  200  11  6   4.7   2.6 |   9.8  49.6  200  15  8   6.0   3.3
  9000   9.3  48.7  200  10  5   2.0   1.1 |  10.1  50.2  200  14  7   5.5   3.0
  8750   9.5  49.1  200   9  5   3.8   2.1 |  10.5  50.9  200  13  7   6.7   3.7
  8500   9.7  49.5  200   8  4   3.4   1.9 |  11.0  51.8  195  11  6   6.6   3.6
  8250   9.8  49.6  200   7  4   1.3   0.7 |  11.4  52.5  195  10  5   4.1   2.2
  8000   9.8  49.6  205   7  4   0.6   0.3 |  11.4  52.5  190   8  4   1.3   0.7
  7750   9.9  49.8  205   7  3   2.8   1.5 |  11.4  52.5  185   6  3   0.4   0.2
  7500  10.1  50.2  210   6  3   3.1   1.7 |  11.3  52.3  175   4  2   2.2   1.2
  7250  10.2  50.4  215   6  3   2.7   1.5 |  11.6  52.9  160   3  1   7.5   4.1
  7000  10.4  50.7  220   5  3   2.8   1.5 |  12.2  54.0  130   2  1   9.5   5.2
  6750  10.6  51.1  235   4  2   1.7   0.9 |  12.8  55.0  095   2  1   8.2   4.5
  6500  10.7  51.3  250   4  2   3.3   1.8 |  13.5  56.3  090   2  1   9.8   5.4
  6250  11.1  52.0  265   3  2   5.6   3.1 |  14.3  57.7  080   2  1  11.9   6.5
  6000  11.5  52.7  285   3  1   4.3   2.4 |  15.1  59.2  075   2  1  10.7   5.9
  5750  11.8  53.2  315   3  1   7.8   4.3 |  16.0  60.8  070   2  1  12.5   6.8
  5500  12.7  54.9  320   2  1  16.3   8.9 |  17.1  62.8  065   2  1  20.1  11.0

           09/29/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       09/29/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +31.9  LI... -4.1               | K index... +28.0  LI... -2.4
CAPE... +958.9  CIN... -0.8                | CAPE... +425.3  CIN... -58.5
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.1 -76.2  235  27 14   1.8   1.0 | -59.0 -74.2  240  29 15   2.9   1.6
 45000 -57.0 -70.6  225  44 23   3.3   1.8 | -54.6 -66.3  230  41 21   2.2   1.2
 40000 -52.0 -61.6  225  81 42   3.5   1.9 | -51.3 -60.3  220  54 28   2.3   1.3
 38000 -50.8 -59.4  220  80 41   1.8   1.0 | -50.5 -58.9  210  59 30   1.0   0.5
 36000 -49.7 -57.5  215  79 40   1.8   1.0 | -50.0 -58.0  205  66 34   1.0   0.5
 34000 -46.8 -52.2  210  73 38   8.2   4.5 | -47.7 -53.9  200  64 33   7.7   4.2
 32000 -41.3 -42.3  205  63 32   8.2   4.5 | -42.6 -44.7  190  47 24   7.7   4.2
 30000 -36.1 -33.0  200  56 29   9.0   4.9 | -37.6 -35.7  185  38 20   8.7   4.8
 29000 -33.5 -28.3  200  53 27   9.0   4.9 | -35.0 -31.0  185  35 18   8.7   4.8
 28000 -30.8 -23.4  195  50 26   9.0   4.9 | -32.4 -26.3  185  32 17   8.7   4.8
 27000 -28.3 -18.9  195  48 25   7.6   4.2 | -29.9 -21.8  185  30 16   7.7   4.2
 26000 -26.1 -15.0  195  46 24   7.5   4.1 | -27.7 -17.9  190  29 15   7.7   4.2
 25000 -23.9 -11.0  195  44 23   7.6   4.1 | -25.4 -13.7  190  28 14   7.7   4.2
 24000 -21.7  -7.1  190  42 22   6.5   3.6 | -23.1  -9.6  195  27 14   6.9   3.8
 23000 -19.8  -3.6  190  40 21   6.6   3.6 | -21.1  -6.0  195  27 14   7.0   3.9
 22000 -17.8  -0.0  190  38 20   6.6   3.6 | -19.0  -2.2  200  27 14   7.0   3.9
 21000 -15.9   3.4  185  35 18   6.5   3.6 | -16.9   1.6  205  28 14   6.8   3.7
 20000 -14.0   6.8  185  32 17   6.5   3.6 | -14.9   5.2  205  28 14   6.9   3.8
 19500 -13.1   8.4  190  31 16   6.5   3.6 | -13.9   7.0  205  28 15   6.9   3.8
 19000 -12.1  10.2  190  29 15   6.6   3.6 | -12.9   8.8  205  29 15   6.9   3.8
 18500 -11.2  11.8  190  27 14   6.1   3.4 | -11.9  10.6  205  29 15   6.6   3.6
 18000 -10.3  13.5  190  26 13   6.2   3.4 | -11.0  12.2  205  29 15   6.6   3.6
 17500  -9.4  15.1  195  25 13   6.2   3.4 | -10.0  14.0  205  29 15   6.8   3.7
 17000  -8.5  16.7  195  25 13   6.3   3.5 |  -9.0  15.8  205  30 15   7.0   3.8
 16500  -7.5  18.5  195  24 12   6.3   3.5 |  -8.0  17.6  200  30 15   7.0   3.8
 16000  -6.2  20.8  195  23 12   6.3   3.5 |  -6.5  20.3  200  30 15   6.9   3.8
 15500  -5.3  22.5  195  23 12   6.4   3.5 |  -5.5  22.1  195  30 15   6.9   3.8
 15000  -4.3  24.3  185  22 11   6.7   3.7 |  -4.5  23.9  195  30 15   6.8   3.7
 14500  -3.4  25.9  180  22 11   6.6   3.6 |  -3.5  25.7  195  30 15   6.7   3.7
 14000  -2.4  27.7  170  22 11   7.2   4.0 |  -2.4  27.7  195  30 15   7.6   4.2
 13500  -1.3  29.7  165  21 11   7.1   3.9 |  -1.4  29.5  195  29 15   7.5   4.1
 13000  -0.3  31.5  165  20 10   8.0   4.4 |  -0.2  31.6  195  28 15   7.9   4.3
 12500   0.9  33.6  160  19 10   8.0   4.4 |   0.9  33.6  200  28 14   7.9   4.3
 12000   2.0  35.6  155  17  9   7.9   4.3 |   2.1  35.8  200  27 14   8.8   4.8
 11500   3.2  37.8  150  14  7   7.9   4.3 |   3.5  38.3  200  27 14   9.1   5.0
 11000   4.2  39.6  145  12  6   7.6   4.2 |   4.8  40.6  205  26 13   7.9   4.3
 10500   5.3  41.5  140  10  5   6.7   3.7 |   5.9  42.6  205  26 13   6.6   3.6
 10250   5.8  42.4  135   9  4  11.1   6.1 |   6.5  43.7  210  26 13  10.5   5.7
 10000   6.8  44.2  135   8  4  12.6   6.9 |   7.4  45.3  210  26 13  11.0   6.0
  9750   7.5  45.5  130   7  4   9.4   5.1 |   8.0  46.4  210  26 13   7.3   4.0
  9500   8.3  46.9  130   6  3  10.5   5.7 |   8.6  47.5  215  25 13   8.4   4.6
  9250   9.0  48.2  125   6  3   9.4   5.1 |   9.2  48.6  215  25 13   7.6   4.2
  9000   9.7  49.5  125   5  3   9.4   5.1 |   9.7  49.5  215  25 13   7.8   4.3
  8750  10.4  50.7  120   5  3  10.3   5.7 |  10.3  50.5  215  25 13   8.5   4.7
  8500  11.1  52.0  120   5  2   9.8   5.4 |  10.9  51.6  220  25 13   7.9   4.4
  8250  11.9  53.4  120   4  2  11.1   6.1 |  11.6  52.9  220  25 13   9.6   5.3
  8000  12.7  54.9  115   4  2  11.1   6.1 |  12.3  54.1  225  24 12   9.8   5.4
  7750  13.5  56.3  110   4  2   9.6   5.2 |  12.9  55.2  225  23 12   7.4   4.1
  7500  14.2  57.6  110   4  2   9.7   5.3 |  13.4  56.1  225  22 11   7.4   4.0
  7250  14.9  58.8  105   3  2   9.9   5.4 |  14.0  57.2  230  21 11   6.8   3.8
  7000  15.7  60.3  100   3  2  10.0   5.5 |  14.4  57.9  235  19 10   5.7   3.1
  6750  16.4  61.5  095   3  1   9.4   5.1 |  14.8  58.6  235  17  9   4.1   2.2
  6500  17.1  62.8  090   3  1  10.0   5.5 |  15.0  59.0  240  15  8   3.2   1.8
  6250  17.9  64.2  080   2  1  11.5   6.3 |  15.2  59.4  250  12  6   4.0   2.2
  6000  18.8  65.8  070   2  1  11.6   6.4 |  15.4  59.7  260   9  5   4.4   2.4
  5750  19.6  67.3  060   2  1  10.5   5.7 |  15.6  60.1  275   7  4   5.2   2.9
  5500  20.4  68.7  050   2  1  14.4   7.9 |  16.0  60.8  295   5  3   8.6   4.7
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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