Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Graphics & Text | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
286
UXUS97 KBOU 260133
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1933 MDT Tuesday, July 25, 2017

This forecast is for Wednesday, July 26, 2017:

If the trigger temperature of 75.7 F/24.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 162 ft/min (0.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10581 ft MSL (5278 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 80.0 F/27.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1300 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8967 ft MSL (3665 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Thursday 07/27..... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Little change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 18815 ft MSL (13512 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Thursday 07/27........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:53:35 / 20:18:27 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 24 min 51 sec (864 min 51 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:06:01 MDT... 69.45 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/26/2017 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16909 ft MSL (11606 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 11318 ft MSL (6015 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 10910 ft MSL (5607 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -0.9
K index......................... +27.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -66.6 -87.9   245    8    4   1.9   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -60.9 -77.6   240   14    7   7.1   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -49.3 -56.7   230   19   10   8.4   4.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -44.3 -47.7   230   18    9   8.4   4.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -39.3 -38.7   235   18    9   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -34.4 -29.9   245   17    9   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -29.5 -21.1   255   17    9   8.7   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -25.0 -13.0   260   16    8   7.4   4.1   52.2 126.0    19.4      M    M
 29000  -22.3  -8.1   265   14    7   7.4   4.1   51.2 124.1    18.8      M    M
 28000  -20.1  -4.2   270   14    7   7.7   4.2   50.3 122.6    18.4      M    M
 27000  -17.8  -0.0   270   13    7   7.7   4.2   49.5 121.0    17.9      M    M
 26000  -15.6   3.9   275   12    6   7.7   4.2   48.7 119.7    17.4      M    M
 25000  -13.4   7.9   280   11    6   6.4   3.5   48.0 118.4    17.0      M    M
 24000  -11.6  11.1   275   11    6   6.0   3.3   46.5 115.7    15.9      M    M
 23000   -9.9  14.2   265   10    5   6.0   3.3   45.2 113.3    14.9      M    M
 22000   -8.2  17.2   260   10    5   5.4   3.0   43.9 111.0    14.0      M    M
 21000   -6.7  19.9   260   10    5   5.2   2.8   42.2 107.9    12.6      M    M
 20000   -5.2  22.6   255   10    5   5.2   2.9   40.6 105.0    11.3      M    M
 19500   -4.5  23.9   255    9    5   5.3   2.9   39.8 103.7    10.6      M    M
 19000   -3.7  25.3   255    9    5   6.4   3.5   39.2 102.5    10.1      M    M
 18500   -2.8  27.0   260    9    5   6.3   3.4   38.6 101.4     9.6      M    M
 18000   -1.9  28.6   265    9    5   5.8   3.2   38.0 100.4     9.1      M    M
 17500   -1.1  30.0   265    9    5   5.5   3.0   37.2  99.0     8.4      M    M
 17000   -0.3  31.5   270    9    5   5.5   3.0   36.5  97.7     7.8      M    M
 16500    0.5  32.9   275    9    5   6.1   3.4   35.9  96.5     7.2      M    M
 16000    1.4  34.5   275    9    5   6.1   3.3   35.2  95.4     6.7      M    M
 15500    2.2  36.0   280    9    5   5.9   3.2   34.6  94.3     6.1      M    M
 15000    3.5  38.3   285    9    5   5.8   3.2   33.6  92.5     5.2      M    M
 14500    4.3  39.7   285   10    5   6.3   3.4   33.0  91.4     4.6      M    M
 14000    5.2  41.4   290   10    5   6.3   3.5   32.4  90.4     4.0      M    M
 13500    6.1  43.0   290   10    5   6.3   3.5   31.9  89.4     3.5      M    M
 13000    7.0  44.6   290   10    5   6.3   3.5   31.3  88.4     3.0      M    M
 12500    7.9  46.2   295   10    5   6.2   3.4   30.8  87.4     2.4      M    M
 12000    8.7  47.7   295    9    5   6.0   3.3   30.2  86.3     1.8      M    M
 11500    9.6  49.3   295    9    5   5.8   3.2   29.6  85.2     1.2      M    M
 11000   10.3  50.5   295    8    4   5.2   2.9   28.9  84.0     0.5      M    M
 10500   11.1  52.0   295    7    4   4.0   2.2   28.2  82.7    -0.2    353  1.8
 10250   11.3  52.3   295    7    4   3.4   1.8   27.7  81.8    -0.7    340  1.7
 10000   11.6  52.9   300    7    3   5.0   2.7   27.2  81.0    -1.1    323  1.6
  9750   11.9  53.4   300    6    3   5.2   2.9   26.9  80.4    -1.5    306  1.6
  9500   12.2  54.0   300    5    3   4.2   2.3   26.5  79.7    -1.9    289  1.5
  9250   12.4  54.3   300    5    2   2.6   1.4   26.0  78.8    -2.4    275  1.4
  9000   12.6  54.7   300    4    2   4.0   2.2   25.5  77.8    -3.0    262  1.3
  8750   12.9  55.2   300    4    2   5.3   2.9   25.1  77.2    -3.4    246  1.2
  8500   13.2  55.8   305    3    2   4.4   2.4   24.7  76.5    -3.9    230  1.2
  8250   13.5  56.3   310    3    2   3.6   2.0   24.3  75.7    -4.3    215  1.1
  8000   13.7  56.7   320    3    1   4.5   2.5   23.8  74.9    -4.8    199  1.0
  7750   14.1  57.4   330    3    1   5.8   3.2   23.5  74.2    -5.2    181  0.9
  7500   14.5  58.1   340    3    1   6.4   3.5   23.2  73.7    -5.5    162  0.8
  7250   15.0  59.0   350    3    1   6.5   3.6   22.9  73.3    -5.8    141  0.7
  7000   15.4  59.7   360    3    1   6.3   3.5   22.7  72.8    -6.1    120  0.6
  6750   15.8  60.4   010    3    1   6.7   3.7   22.4  72.4    -6.4    100  0.5
  6500   16.3  61.3   015    3    1   7.4   4.1   22.2  72.0    -6.6     77  0.4
  6250   16.9  62.4   015    3    1   8.0   4.4   22.1  71.7    -6.8     53  0.3
  6000   17.4  63.3   020    3    1   6.4   3.5   21.9  71.5    -7.0     30  0.2
  5750   17.9  64.2   020    2    1   6.7   3.7   21.6  70.9    -7.3      9  0.0
  5500   18.6  65.5   010    2    1  11.6   6.4   21.6  70.9    -7.4      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/26/2017 at 0900 MDT          |       07/26/2017 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
CAPE...  +274.1    LI...       -1.1        | CAPE...  +524.4    LI...       -1.2
CINH...   -31.1    K Index... +28.1        | CINH...    -2.2    K Index... +28.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.4 -87.5  190  44 23   2.2   1.2 | -66.2 -87.2  190  51 26   2.1   1.2
 45000 -60.1 -76.2  200  39 20   6.8   3.7 | -60.0 -76.0  195  47 24   6.6   3.6
 40000 -49.4 -56.9  200  46 24   8.0   4.4 | -49.6 -57.3  200  40 21   8.0   4.4
 38000 -44.6 -48.3  200  44 23   8.0   4.4 | -44.8 -48.6  205  36 19   8.0   4.4
 36000 -39.8 -39.6  200  42 22   8.1   4.4 | -39.9 -39.8  205  33 17   8.1   4.5
 34000 -35.0 -31.0  200  40 20   8.1   4.4 | -35.1 -31.2  205  32 16   8.1   4.5
 32000 -30.1 -22.2  200  37 19   8.6   4.7 | -30.2 -22.4  205  31 16   8.5   4.7
 30000 -25.1 -13.2  200  35 18   7.6   4.1 | -25.2 -13.4  205  31 16   7.4   4.1
 29000 -22.8  -9.0  200  33 17   7.6   4.1 | -23.0  -9.4  200  32 16   7.4   4.1
 28000 -20.6  -5.1  200  32 17   7.3   4.0 | -20.9  -5.6  200  31 16   7.2   4.0
 27000 -18.4  -1.1  200  32 16   7.3   4.0 | -18.7  -1.7  200  31 16   7.2   4.0
 26000 -16.3   2.7  200  31 16   7.4   4.0 | -16.6   2.1  200  30 16   7.3   4.0
 25000 -14.1   6.6  200  30 15   6.8   3.7 | -14.4   6.1  200  29 15   6.9   3.8
 24000 -12.2  10.0  200  28 15   6.7   3.7 | -12.4   9.7  200  28 14   6.9   3.8
 23000 -10.2  13.6  200  27 14   6.8   3.7 | -10.4  13.3  205  26 14   6.9   3.8
 22000  -8.3  17.1  200  25 13   6.1   3.4 |  -8.4  16.9  205  25 13   6.2   3.4
 21000  -6.6  20.1  205  23 12   6.0   3.3 |  -6.6  20.1  205  24 12   6.1   3.4
 20000  -4.8  23.4  205  20 10   6.0   3.3 |  -4.9  23.2  205  22 11   6.2   3.4
 19500  -4.0  24.8  210  19 10   6.0   3.3 |  -4.0  24.8  205  22 11   6.2   3.4
 19000  -3.1  26.4  210  17  9   5.9   3.3 |  -3.1  26.4  200  21 11   6.1   3.3
 18500  -2.3  27.9  215  16  8   6.0   3.3 |  -2.3  27.9  200  20 10   6.2   3.4
 18000  -1.5  29.3  215  15  8   5.5   3.0 |  -1.5  29.3  200  19 10   5.6   3.1
 17500  -0.7  30.7  220  13  7   5.3   2.9 |  -0.7  30.7  200  17  9   5.4   3.0
 17000   0.0  32.0  225  12  6   5.3   2.9 |   0.4  32.7  205  15  8   5.5   3.0
 16500   0.8  33.4  235  10  5   5.7   3.1 |   1.2  34.2  210  12  6   5.5   3.0
 16000   1.6  34.9  250   9  5   5.7   3.1 |   2.0  35.6  220   9  5   5.6   3.1
 15500   2.8  37.0  280   8  4   5.6   3.1 |   2.8  37.0  255   6  3   5.8   3.2
 15000   3.6  38.5  305  10  5   5.6   3.1 |   3.6  38.5  305   7  4   5.7   3.1
 14500   4.3  39.7  325  13  7   5.4   2.9 |   4.4  39.9  335  13  6   6.3   3.5
 14000   5.1  41.2  335  18  9   5.4   3.0 |   5.3  41.5  345  21 11   6.3   3.5
 13500   5.8  42.4  340  23 12   5.6   3.1 |   6.1  43.0  350  29 15   5.5   3.0
 13000   6.6  43.9  345  30 15   5.7   3.1 |   6.9  44.4  350  39 20   5.4   3.0
 12500   7.4  45.3  350  36 19   5.6   3.1 |   7.6  45.7  355  49 25   5.3   2.9
 12000   8.2  46.8  350  43 22   5.6   3.0 |   8.3  46.9  355  60 31   5.2   2.9
 11500   9.0  48.2  355  49 25   5.6   3.1 |   9.0  48.2  355  71 37   5.3   2.9
 11000   9.7  49.5  355  56 29   5.6   3.1 |   9.7  49.5  355  85 44   5.3   2.9
 10500  10.5  50.9  355  63 33   5.2   2.9 |  10.5  50.9  360  99 51   6.0   3.3
 10250  10.9  51.6  355  72 37   4.8   2.6 |  10.9  51.6  360 109 56   5.5   3.0
 10000  11.2  52.2  355  76 39   5.1   2.8 |  11.2  52.2  360 113 58   4.1   2.2
  9750  11.6  52.9  355  80 41   5.3   2.9 |  11.5  52.7  360 117 60   4.2   2.3
  9500  11.9  53.4  360  84 43   4.1   2.2 |  11.8  53.2  360 121 62   4.5   2.5
  9250  12.1  53.8  360  94 48   2.6   1.4 |  12.1  53.8  360 122 63   4.8   2.6
  9000  12.3  54.1  360 104 53   4.9   2.7 |  12.5  54.5  360 111 57   6.2   3.4
  8750  12.7  54.9  360 110 57   6.4   3.5 |  12.9  55.2  360  51 26   7.4   4.1
  8500  13.1  55.6  360 105 54   5.2   2.8 |  13.4  56.1  005   8  4   7.2   3.9
  8250  13.4  56.1  360  62 32   4.8   2.6 |  14.0  57.2  005   9  5   7.2   4.0
  8000  13.7  56.7  355  20 10   4.6   2.5 |  14.5  58.1  005  10  5   7.5   4.1
  7750  14.0  57.2  355   5  3   5.0   2.8 |  15.1  59.2  005  10  5   8.7   4.7
  7500  14.4  57.9  360   5  3   6.8   3.7 |  15.7  60.3  005  11  6   9.4   5.2
  7250  14.9  58.8  360   6  3   7.4   4.1 |  16.4  61.5  005  11  6   9.8   5.4
  7000  15.5  59.9  360   6  3   7.0   3.9 |  17.1  62.8  010  12  6   9.0   4.9
  6750  16.0  60.8  005   6  3   8.6   4.7 |  17.7  63.9  010  12  6   9.3   5.1
  6500  16.7  62.1  005   6  3   9.7   5.3 |  18.5  65.3  010  12  6  10.4   5.7
  6250  17.4  63.3  005   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  19.3  66.7  005  12  6  10.2   5.6
  6000  18.1  64.6  005   6  3   8.0   4.4 |  20.0  68.0  005  12  6  10.1   5.6
  5750  18.7  65.7  005   7  4  11.3   6.2 |  20.9  69.6  005  13  7  16.9   9.3
  5500  19.9  67.8  005   7  4  22.8  12.5 |  22.6  72.7  005  13  7  28.5  15.6

           07/26/2017 at 1500 MDT          |       07/26/2017 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
CAPE...  +352.4    LI...       -1.4        | CAPE...  +231.7    LI...       -1.3
CINH...   -29.6    K Index... +29.1        | CINH...   -25.2    K Index... +29.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.5 -87.7  235   9  5   1.3   0.7 | -66.7 -88.1  230  11  6   1.4   0.8
 45000 -60.5 -76.9  245  14  7   7.5   4.1 | -60.7 -77.3  230  16  8   7.5   4.1
 40000 -49.1 -56.4  245  16  8   8.1   4.4 | -49.2 -56.6  235  18  9   8.2   4.5
 38000 -44.3 -47.7  245  17  9   8.1   4.4 | -44.3 -47.7  245  19 10   8.2   4.5
 36000 -39.5 -39.1  245  18  9   8.1   4.4 | -39.4 -38.9  250  21 11   8.0   4.4
 34000 -34.6 -30.3  245  17  9   8.1   4.4 | -34.6 -30.3  250  19 10   8.0   4.4
 32000 -29.2 -20.6  250  16  8   8.2   4.5 | -29.2 -20.6  250  16  8   8.3   4.6
 30000 -24.8 -12.6  255  14  7   7.4   4.0 | -24.8 -12.6  250  14  7   7.5   4.1
 29000 -22.6  -8.7  255  13  7   7.4   4.0 | -22.6  -8.7  250  13  7   7.5   4.1
 28000 -20.5  -4.9  255  12  6   6.8   3.7 | -20.5  -4.9  255  12  6   6.4   3.5
 27000 -18.5  -1.3  255  12  6   6.8   3.7 | -18.6  -1.5  255  12  6   6.4   3.5
 26000 -16.5   2.3  255  12  6   6.8   3.7 | -16.7   1.9  260  11  6   6.4   3.5
 25000 -14.5   5.9  260  12  6   6.8   3.7 | -14.8   5.4  260  11  6   6.8   3.7
 24000 -12.5   9.5  260  11  6   6.8   3.7 | -12.8   9.0  265  10  5   6.9   3.8
 23000 -10.4  13.3  265  11  5   6.8   3.8 | -10.8  12.6  270  10  5   6.9   3.8
 22000  -8.5  16.7  270  10  5   6.2   3.4 |  -8.8  16.2  275  10  5   6.4   3.5
 21000  -6.7  19.9  275   9  5   6.0   3.3 |  -7.0  19.4  280   9  5   6.3   3.5
 20000  -5.0  23.0  275   8  4   6.0   3.3 |  -5.2  22.6  285   8  4   6.4   3.5
 19500  -4.1  24.6  275   8  4   6.1   3.4 |  -4.3  24.3  285   8  4   6.4   3.5
 19000  -3.2  26.2  280   7  4   6.6   3.6 |  -3.4  25.9  285   8  4   6.3   3.4
 18500  -2.3  27.9  280   7  3   6.7   3.7 |  -2.1  28.2  290   8  4   6.3   3.5
 18000  -1.4  29.5  280   6  3   5.8   3.2 |  -1.3  29.7  285   7  4   5.6   3.1
 17500  -0.3  31.5  280   6  3   5.3   2.9 |  -0.4  31.3  285   7  4   5.7   3.1
 17000   0.4  32.7  280   6  3   5.3   2.9 |   0.4  32.7  285   7  4   5.8   3.2
 16500   1.1  34.0  280   6  3   5.3   2.9 |   1.2  34.2  285   7  4   5.8   3.2
 16000   1.9  35.4  285   5  3   5.4   3.0 |   2.0  35.6  285   7  3   5.9   3.2
 15500   2.7  36.9  290   5  3   5.8   3.2 |   2.9  37.2  285   6  3   6.2   3.4
 15000   3.5  38.3  295   5  3   5.8   3.2 |   3.7  38.7  285   6  3   6.2   3.4
 14500   4.3  39.7  300   5  3   5.9   3.2 |   4.5  40.1  285   5  3   5.5   3.0
 14000   5.1  41.2  305   5  3   5.9   3.2 |   5.3  41.5  285   5  3   5.6   3.1
 13500   6.0  42.8  310   5  2   5.7   3.1 |   6.1  43.0  290   4  2   5.1   2.8
 13000   6.7  44.1  310   5  2   5.7   3.1 |   6.8  44.2  300   4  2   5.0   2.7
 12500   7.5  45.5  315   5  2   5.6   3.1 |   7.4  45.3  310   3  2   4.7   2.6
 12000   8.3  46.9  325   5  2   5.5   3.0 |   8.1  46.6  340   3  1   4.5   2.5
 11500   9.0  48.2  335   5  2   5.5   3.0 |   8.7  47.7  010   3  2   4.8   2.6
 11000   9.8  49.6  345   5  2   5.4   3.0 |   9.4  48.9  030   3  2   5.2   2.8
 10500  10.6  51.1  360   5  2   3.6   2.0 |  10.1  50.2  045   4  2   4.1   2.3
 10250  10.7  51.3  010   5  2   4.6   2.5 |  10.4  50.7  045   5  2   6.4   3.5
 10000  11.2  52.2  015   5  3   7.7   4.2 |  11.0  51.8  045   5  2   9.5   5.2
  9750  11.7  53.1  020   5  3   7.3   4.0 |  11.7  53.1  045   5  2   9.3   5.1
  9500  12.2  54.0  025   5  3   6.2   3.4 |  12.3  54.1  045   5  3   7.7   4.2
  9250  12.6  54.7  025   5  3   5.5   3.0 |  12.8  55.0  045   5  3   6.1   3.4
  9000  13.1  55.6  025   5  3   9.0   5.0 |  13.3  55.9  045   5  3   8.8   4.8
  8750  13.9  57.0  025   6  3  10.9   6.0 |  14.0  57.2  045   5  3  10.1   5.5
  8500  14.6  58.3  025   6  3   9.8   5.4 |  14.7  58.5  040   5  2   9.5   5.2
  8250  15.3  59.5  025   6  3   9.5   5.2 |  15.4  59.7  040   5  2   9.5   5.2
  8000  16.0  60.8  025   6  3   9.7   5.3 |  16.1  61.0  035   5  2   9.1   5.0
  7750  16.7  62.1  020   6  3   9.9   5.4 |  16.7  62.1  035   4  2   8.8   4.8
  7500  17.5  63.5  020   6  3  10.3   5.6 |  17.4  63.3  035   4  2   9.8   5.4
  7250  18.3  64.9  020   6  3  10.7   5.8 |  18.2  64.8  030   4  2  10.5   5.8
  7000  19.0  66.2  020   6  3   9.9   5.4 |  18.9  66.0  030   4  2   9.3   5.1
  6750  19.7  67.5  020   6  3   9.5   5.2 |  19.5  67.1  025   4  2   8.6   4.7
  6500  20.5  68.9  020   6  3  10.2   5.6 |  20.2  68.4  025   4  2  10.0   5.5
  6250  21.2  70.2  020   6  3  10.7   5.9 |  21.0  69.8  025   4  2  10.1   5.5
  6000  22.0  71.6  020   6  3   9.4   5.1 |  21.7  71.1  020   4  2  10.9   6.0
  5750  22.9  73.2  020   6  3  17.1   9.4 |  22.7  72.9  020   3  2  14.5   7.9
  5500  24.7  76.5  020   5  3  33.4  18.3 |  23.8  74.8  020   3  2  17.8   9.7
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CINH (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.