Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 061214
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0614 MDT Monday, July 6, 2015

This forecast is for Monday, July 6, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 71.5 F/21.9 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 8181 ft MSL (2874 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 69.0 F/21.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 07/07...... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14393 ft MSL (9086 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 07/07......... Poor

Remarks... Cool and moist upslope flow will linger east of the front range for
           nearly entire day.

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:37:52 / 20:30:37 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 52 min 45 sec (892 min 45 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:04:14 MDT... 72.86 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/06/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16317 ft MSL (11010 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 8722 ft MSL (3415 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 8455 ft MSL (3148 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +0.1
K index......................... +24.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -65.3 -85.5   240   26   13   1.6   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.1 -78.0   240   38   19   5.5   3.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -51.7 -61.1   240   46   23   8.3   4.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.7 -52.1   240   45   23   8.3   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -41.8 -43.2   245   44   23   8.3   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -36.8 -34.2   245   41   21   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -31.9 -25.4   250   38   19   8.0   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -27.3 -17.1   255   31   16   7.6   4.2   49.9 121.8    22.3      M    M
 29000  -24.4 -11.9   255   26   13   7.6   4.2   48.9 120.1    21.9      M    M
 28000  -22.2  -8.0   260   23   12   6.8   3.7   48.1 118.6    21.5      M    M
 27000  -20.1  -4.2   260   22   11   6.9   3.8   46.9 116.5    20.8      M    M
 26000  -18.1  -0.6   265   21   11   6.9   3.8   45.9 114.6    20.2      M    M
 25000  -16.0   3.2   265   20   10   6.7   3.7   44.9 112.9    19.7      M    M
 24000  -14.1   6.6   265   20   10   6.3   3.5   43.6 110.5    18.8      M    M
 23000  -12.3   9.9   265   19   10   6.4   3.5   42.3 108.2    17.9      M    M
 22000  -10.4  13.3   265   18    9   6.3   3.4   41.2 106.2    17.1      M    M
 21000   -8.7  16.3   275   16    8   6.1   3.3   39.8 103.7    16.0      M    M
 20000   -7.0  19.4   285   13    7   6.2   3.4   38.5 101.4    14.9      M    M
 19500   -6.2  20.8   295   13    7   6.3   3.5   38.0 100.4    14.4      M    M
 19000   -5.3  22.5   305   13    7   6.9   3.8   37.4  99.4    14.0      M    M
 18500   -4.3  24.3   310   13    7   6.9   3.8   36.9  98.5    13.6      M    M
 18000   -3.3  26.1   315   14    7   6.8   3.7   36.5  97.6    13.2      M    M
 17500   -2.3  27.9   315   15    8   6.5   3.5   35.9  96.6    12.8      M    M
 17000   -1.4  29.5   320   16    8   6.6   3.6   35.3  95.6    12.3      M    M
 16500   -0.5  31.1   320   16    8   5.5   3.0   34.7  94.5    11.9      M    M
 16000    0.3  32.5   320   17    9   5.5   3.0   34.0  93.2    11.3      M    M
 15500    1.1  34.0   320   18    9   5.2   2.9   33.3  92.0    10.7      M    M
 15000    2.2  36.0   320   19   10   4.9   2.7   32.1  89.8     9.6      M    M
 14500    2.9  37.2   320   20   10   5.0   2.7   31.3  88.3     8.9      M    M
 14000    3.6  38.5   320   20   10   5.1   2.8   30.5  86.9     8.2      M    M
 13500    4.2  39.6   320   21   11   5.3   2.9   29.8  85.6     7.4      M    M
 13000    5.0  41.0   320   21   11   5.7   3.1   29.1  84.4     6.8      M    M
 12500    5.8  42.4   325   20   11   5.3   2.9   28.5  83.2     6.1      M    M
 12000    6.3  43.3   325   20   10   4.0   2.2   27.6  81.7     5.3      M    M
 11500    6.9  44.4   325   19   10   4.4   2.4   26.7  80.0     4.3      M    M
 11000    7.6  45.7   325   18    9   5.9   3.2   26.0  78.8     3.6      M    M
 10500    8.4  47.1   325   17    9   3.9   2.1   25.4  77.7     3.0      M    M
 10250    8.6  47.5   325   17    9   2.7   1.5   24.8  76.7     2.5      M    M
 10000    8.9  48.0   325   16    8   6.2   3.4   24.4  76.0     2.1      M    M
  9750    9.3  48.7   325   16    8   7.1   3.9   24.2  75.6     1.8      M    M
  9500    9.8  49.6   330   15    8   6.4   3.5   24.0  75.2     1.6      M    M
  9250   10.2  50.4   330   14    7   5.1   2.8   23.7  74.6     1.2      M    M
  9000   10.5  50.9   335   14    7   6.2   3.4   23.3  74.0     0.8      M    M
  8750   11.0  51.8   345   13    7   7.8   4.3   23.1  73.6     0.6      M    M
  8500   11.5  52.7   350   12    6   6.8   3.8   23.0  73.3     0.4      M    M
  8250   12.0  53.6   355   12    6   6.1   3.4   22.7  72.9     0.1      M    M
  8000   12.4  54.3   355   12    6   5.9   3.2   22.4  72.3    -0.2    171  0.9
  7750   12.8  55.0   360   12    6   5.8   3.2   22.1  71.8    -0.5    152  0.8
  7500   13.1  55.6   360   12    6   5.3   2.9   21.8  71.2    -0.9    133  0.7
  7250   13.5  56.3   005   13    7   4.9   2.7   21.4  70.6    -1.3    115  0.6
  7000   13.8  56.8   005   13    7   4.8   2.7   21.1  69.9    -1.6     97  0.5
  6750   14.2  57.6   005   13    7   5.5   3.0   20.7  69.3    -2.0     80  0.4
  6500   14.7  58.5   005   13    6   7.6   4.2   20.5  68.8    -2.3     58  0.3
  6250   15.3  59.5   360   11    5   8.8   4.8   20.4  68.6    -2.4     33  0.2
  6000   15.9  60.6   355    9    5   7.4   4.1   20.3  68.5    -2.6      8  0.0
  5750   16.4  61.5   340    7    4   8.5   4.7   20.1  68.1    -2.7      M    M
  5500   17.2  63.0   340    6    3  13.5   7.4   20.2  68.3    -2.7      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/06/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       07/06/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +23.3  LI... -1.1               | K index... +22.0  LI... +0.8
CAPE... +92.4  CIN... -10.3                | CAPE... +18.9  CIN... -0.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.9 -84.8  245  27 14   0.9   0.5 | -64.7 -84.5  245  29 15   1.5   0.8
 45000 -61.3 -78.3  240  39 20   5.6   3.1 | -60.5 -76.9  240  41 21   4.8   2.6
 40000 -51.9 -61.4  235  44 23   7.9   4.3 | -52.6 -62.7  235  42 22   8.3   4.5
 38000 -47.1 -52.8  235  43 22   7.9   4.3 | -47.6 -53.7  230  38 19   8.3   4.5
 36000 -42.4 -44.3  230  43 22   8.2   4.5 | -42.6 -44.7  230  33 17   8.5   4.7
 34000 -37.1 -34.8  235  33 17   8.8   4.8 | -37.2 -35.0  235  29 15   9.2   5.1
 32000 -31.9 -25.4  250  24 13   8.8   4.8 | -31.6 -24.9  240  24 12   9.3   5.1
 30000 -27.5 -17.5  260  20 10   7.0   3.8 | -27.3 -17.1  255  18  9   6.1   3.3
 29000 -24.9 -12.8  265  18  9   7.0   3.8 | -25.5 -13.9  260  16  8   6.0   3.3
 28000 -22.8  -9.0  270  16  8   7.4   4.1 | -23.6 -10.5  270  14  7   7.6   4.2
 27000 -20.6  -5.1  270  16  8   7.4   4.1 | -21.3  -6.3  265  15  8   7.5   4.1
 26000 -18.4  -1.1  265  16  8   7.4   4.1 | -19.0  -2.2  265  15  8   7.5   4.1
 25000 -16.1   3.0  265  16  8   7.0   3.8 | -16.8   1.8  260  16  8   7.2   4.0
 24000 -14.3   6.3  265  16  8   6.1   3.3 | -14.8   5.4  265  15  8   6.6   3.6
 23000 -12.5   9.5  265  16  8   6.1   3.3 | -12.8   9.0  265  15  8   6.6   3.6
 22000 -10.7  12.7  265  16  8   6.0   3.3 | -10.8  12.6  265  14  7   6.3   3.5
 21000  -9.0  15.8  265  15  8   6.0   3.3 |  -9.1  15.6  265  14  7   5.9   3.2
 20000  -7.4  18.7  265  13  7   6.4   3.5 |  -7.4  18.7  265  14  7   6.1   3.4
 19500  -6.5  20.3  265  12  6   6.7   3.7 |  -6.6  20.1  265  14  7   6.3   3.4
 19000  -5.6  21.9  270  12  6   6.4   3.5 |  -5.7  21.7  265  13  7   6.6   3.6
 18500  -4.6  23.7  275  11  6   6.4   3.5 |  -4.8  23.4  270  13  6   6.6   3.6
 18000  -3.6  25.5  275  10  5   6.5   3.6 |  -3.9  25.0  270  12  6   6.5   3.6
 17500  -2.6  27.3  285  11  6   6.8   3.7 |  -2.9  26.8  280  12  6   6.1   3.4
 17000  -1.6  29.1  290  12  6   6.9   3.8 |  -2.0  28.4  285  12  6   6.1   3.4
 16500  -0.6  30.9  295  13  7   6.1   3.3 |  -1.1  30.0  295  13  7   6.1   3.4
 16000   0.2  32.4  305  14  7   6.1   3.3 |  -0.2  31.6  300  14  7   6.1   3.4
 15500   1.4  34.5  310  16  8   3.8   2.1 |   1.1  34.0  310  15  8   6.2   3.4
 15000   1.9  35.4  315  17  9   4.1   2.3 |   1.9  35.4  310  16  8   6.3   3.4
 14500   2.5  36.5  315  17  9   4.2   2.3 |   2.8  37.0  315  16  8   5.2   2.8
 14000   3.0  37.4  320  18  9   4.3   2.4 |   3.5  38.3  320  17  9   5.0   2.7
 13500   3.6  38.5  320  18  9   4.4   2.4 |   4.1  39.4  320  17  9   4.6   2.5
 13000   4.2  39.6  320  17  9   4.6   2.5 |   4.7  40.5  320  17  9   4.3   2.3
 12500   4.9  40.8  320  17  9   4.9   2.7 |   5.2  41.4  320  17  9   3.7   2.0
 12000   5.6  42.1  320  16  8   5.4   3.0 |   5.6  42.1  320  16  8   2.9   1.6
 11500   6.3  43.3  320  15  8   5.5   3.0 |   5.9  42.6  320  15  8   3.3   1.8
 11000   7.0  44.6  325  13  7   5.5   3.0 |   6.5  43.7  320  14  7   4.2   2.3
 10500   7.8  46.0  330  12  6   4.4   2.4 |   7.0  44.6  320  12  6   2.8   1.5
 10250   8.0  46.4  330  11  6   3.5   1.9 |   7.2  45.0  320  12  6   2.0   1.1
 10000   8.3  46.9  335  11  6   5.7   3.1 |   7.4  45.3  325  11  6   5.3   2.9
  9750   8.7  47.7  340  10  5   6.6   3.6 |   7.9  46.2  335  11  6   6.9   3.8
  9500   9.2  48.6  345  10  5   5.6   3.1 |   8.3  46.9  345  10  5   5.4   3.0
  9250   9.5  49.1  355   9  5   3.9   2.2 |   8.6  47.5  355  10  5   3.8   2.1
  9000   9.8  49.6  010   9  4   4.7   2.6 |   8.9  48.0  360  10  5   4.7   2.6
  8750  10.1  50.2  025   9  5   6.0   3.3 |   9.2  48.6  010   9  5   5.6   3.1
  8500  10.5  50.9  040  10  5   4.9   2.7 |   9.6  49.3  020   9  5   5.0   2.7
  8250  10.8  51.4  040  12  6   4.0   2.2 |  10.0  50.0  035  10  5   4.6   2.5
  8000  11.1  52.0  045  14  7   4.1   2.2 |  10.3  50.5  045  11  6   4.6   2.5
  7750  11.4  52.5  045  16  8   3.9   2.1 |  10.6  51.1  055  13  7   4.8   2.6
  7500  11.7  53.1  045  17  9   4.8   2.6 |  11.0  51.8  055  13  7   5.5   3.0
  7250  12.0  53.6  045  17  9   5.6   3.1 |  11.4  52.5  055  12  6   6.1   3.4
  7000  12.4  54.3  040  18  9   5.1   2.8 |  11.8  53.2  055  11  6   5.1   2.8
  6750  12.8  55.0  035  18  9   6.6   3.6 |  12.1  53.8  050  10  5   7.3   4.0
  6500  13.3  55.9  030  17  9   8.5   4.7 |  12.8  55.0  045   9  5  10.3   5.6
  6250  13.9  57.0  025  15  8   8.6   4.7 |  13.5  56.3  040   9  4   9.9   5.4
  6000  14.5  58.1  020  14  7   8.7   4.8 |  14.3  57.7  035   8  4  10.3   5.6
  5750  15.1  59.2  015  13  7  11.2   6.1 |  15.2  59.4  030   8  4  15.8   8.7
  5500  16.1  61.0  015  11  6  14.7   8.1 |  16.6  61.9  030   8  4  24.0  13.1

           07/06/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       07/06/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +20.3  LI... -0.9               | K index... +23.9  LI... -0.4
CAPE... +58.9  CIN... -14.3                | CAPE... +70.7  CIN... -0.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.7 -84.5  250  33 17   0.8   0.4 | -64.5 -84.1  245  32 17   1.4   0.7
 45000 -60.8 -77.4  245  47 24   5.8   3.2 | -60.3 -76.5  245  51 26   5.2   2.9
 40000 -51.7 -61.1  235  48 25   7.9   4.4 | -51.8 -61.2  240  53 27   8.3   4.6
 38000 -46.9 -52.4  230  47 24   7.9   4.3 | -46.8 -52.2  240  52 27   8.3   4.5
 36000 -42.2 -44.0  225  46 24   8.0   4.4 | -41.9 -43.4  235  51 26   8.2   4.5
 34000 -37.2 -35.0  230  41 21   8.3   4.5 | -37.0 -34.6  240  46 24   8.1   4.4
 32000 -32.3 -26.1  235  36 19   8.1   4.5 | -32.2 -26.0  245  41 21   7.9   4.3
 30000 -27.2 -17.0  245  27 14   7.5   4.1 | -27.1 -16.8  255  32 17   7.5   4.1
 29000 -24.9 -12.8  250  24 12   7.5   4.1 | -24.9 -12.8  260  28 15   7.5   4.1
 28000 -22.7  -8.9  260  21 11   6.8   3.7 | -22.7  -8.9  265  25 13   7.1   3.9
 27000 -20.7  -5.3  265  19 10   6.8   3.7 | -20.6  -5.1  270  23 12   7.1   3.9
 26000 -18.7  -1.7  270  18  9   6.8   3.7 | -18.4  -1.1  275  20 10   7.1   3.9
 25000 -16.6   2.1  275  18  9   6.7   3.7 | -16.3   2.7  280  18  9   6.9   3.8
 24000 -14.7   5.5  275  16  8   6.4   3.5 | -14.4   6.1  285  17  9   6.2   3.4
 23000 -12.7   9.1  280  15  8   6.4   3.5 | -12.6   9.3  290  16  8   6.2   3.4
 22000 -10.8  12.6  280  14  7   6.0   3.3 | -10.7  12.7  295  16  8   5.9   3.2
 21000  -9.3  15.3  280  14  7   5.2   2.8 |  -9.1  15.6  300  16  8   5.3   2.9
 20000  -7.8  18.0  280  14  7   5.3   2.9 |  -7.6  18.3  300  15  8   5.3   2.9
 19500  -7.1  19.2  280  14  7   5.3   2.9 |  -6.8  19.8  300  15  8   5.3   2.9
 19000  -6.3  20.7  280  14  7   6.3   3.5 |  -6.0  21.2  300  15  8   6.3   3.5
 18500  -5.4  22.3  285  14  7   6.3   3.5 |  -5.1  22.8  300  15  8   6.3   3.5
 18000  -4.5  23.9  285  14  7   6.5   3.6 |  -4.2  24.4  300  15  8   6.2   3.4
 17500  -3.5  25.7  290  15  8   6.9   3.8 |  -3.3  26.1  300  15  8   6.0   3.3
 17000  -2.5  27.5  295  15  8   6.9   3.8 |  -2.5  27.5  305  15  8   6.0   3.3
 16500  -1.4  29.5  295  16  8   6.9   3.8 |  -1.7  28.9  305  15  8   5.8   3.2
 16000   0.1  32.2  300  17  9   7.0   3.8 |  -0.5  31.1  305  15  8   5.9   3.2
 15500   0.9  33.6  305  18  9   5.4   2.9 |   0.3  32.5  310  14  7   5.7   3.1
 15000   1.7  35.1  310  17  9   5.6   3.1 |   1.1  34.0  310  13  7   5.9   3.2
 14500   2.4  36.3  310  17  9   5.3   2.9 |   1.8  35.2  315  12  6   4.8   2.6
 14000   3.1  37.6  315  17  9   5.2   2.9 |   2.4  36.3  320  10  5   4.6   2.5
 13500   3.8  38.8  315  16  8   4.8   2.6 |   3.0  37.4  330   9  5   3.9   2.1
 13000   4.4  39.9  320  15  8   4.4   2.4 |   3.4  38.1  335   7  4   3.3   1.8
 12500   5.0  41.0  320  14  7   3.9   2.1 |   3.9  39.0  345   6  3   3.7   2.1
 12000   5.4  41.7  325  13  6   3.0   1.7 |   4.5  40.1  355   4  2   4.6   2.5
 11500   5.8  42.4  330  11  6   3.4   1.9 |   5.2  41.4  010   3  2   4.8   2.7
 11000   6.3  43.3  340   9  5   4.2   2.3 |   5.9  42.6  030   4  2   5.3   2.9
 10500   6.9  44.4  350   7  4   2.8   1.6 |   6.7  44.1  045   4  2   3.5   1.9
 10250   7.1  44.8  355   7  4   3.2   1.7 |   6.9  44.4  045   5  2   2.6   1.4
 10000   7.5  45.5  005   7  4   7.3   4.0 |   7.2  45.0  050   5  3   6.0   3.3
  9750   8.0  46.4  020   7  4   9.1   5.0 |   7.6  45.7  050   6  3   7.1   3.9
  9500   8.6  47.5  030   8  4   6.5   3.6 |   8.1  46.6  050   6  3   5.9   3.3
  9250   8.9  48.0  040   8  4   3.1   1.7 |   8.4  47.1  050   7  4   4.0   2.2
  9000   9.2  48.6  045   8  4   5.5   3.0 |   8.7  47.7  050   8  4   7.0   3.8
  8750   9.7  49.5  050   9  5   7.7   4.2 |   9.4  48.9  050   9  4   9.8   5.4
  8500  10.1  50.2  055  10  5   5.8   3.2 |  10.0  50.0  050   9  5   8.8   4.8
  8250  10.5  50.9  060  10  5   4.8   2.6 |  10.6  51.1  050   9  5   8.8   4.8
  8000  10.8  51.4  060  11  6   5.1   2.8 |  11.2  52.2  050   9  5   8.8   4.8
  7750  11.2  52.2  055  12  6   6.1   3.4 |  11.8  53.2  050  10  5   9.0   4.9
  7500  11.7  53.1  055  11  6   8.6   4.7 |  12.5  54.5  050  10  5   9.5   5.2
  7250  12.3  54.1  050  11  6   9.6   5.3 |  13.2  55.8  050  10  5   9.6   5.2
  7000  13.0  55.4  045  10  5   9.5   5.2 |  14.0  57.2  050   9  5  10.1   5.5
  6750  13.7  56.7  045  10  5  10.4   5.7 |  14.7  58.5  050   9  5  10.7   5.9
  6500  14.5  58.1  045   9  5  10.6   5.8 |  15.5  59.9  050   9  5  10.2   5.6
  6250  15.3  59.5  045   9  5  10.5   5.8 |  16.3  61.3  050   9  5  10.2   5.6
  6000  16.0  60.8  045   9  5  10.4   5.7 |  17.0  62.6  050   9  5   9.6   5.3
  5750  17.0  62.6  045   9  5  16.7   9.2 |  17.8  64.0  045   9  5  12.9   7.1
  5500  18.6  65.5  040   9  5  27.2  14.9 |  19.0  66.2  045   9  4  20.1  11.0
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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