Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 020124
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1924 MDT Wednesday, July 1, 2015

This forecast is for Thursday, July 2, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 85.3 F/29.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 8057 ft MSL (2750 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 83.0 F/28.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 6572 ft MSL (1265 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 07/03....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change.
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 14636 ft MSL (9329 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Friday 07/03.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:35:41 / 20:31:20 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 55 min 40 sec (895 min 40 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:03:33 MDT... 73.21 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/02/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16248 ft MSL (10941 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 14813 ft MSL (9506 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 13406 ft MSL (8099 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -0.7
K index......................... +28.7

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -65.9 -86.6   300   33   17  -0.1  -0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -63.0 -81.4   305   52   27   6.1   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.6 -62.7   305   60   31   9.2   5.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -47.1 -52.8   310   57   29   9.2   5.0      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -41.5 -42.7   315   54   28   8.5   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -36.9 -34.4   320   51   26   7.8   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -32.2 -26.0   320   48   25   8.1   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -27.9 -18.2   325   42   22   7.2   3.9   48.5 119.4    15.4      M    M
 29000  -25.7 -14.3   325   39   20   7.2   3.9   47.6 117.7    14.8      M    M
 28000  -23.0  -9.4   325   35   18   7.6   4.2   46.5 115.7    14.2      M    M
 27000  -20.8  -5.4   325   33   17   7.6   4.2   45.6 114.0    13.6      M    M
 26000  -18.5  -1.3   325   31   16   7.6   4.2   44.8 112.6    13.2      M    M
 25000  -16.2   2.8   325   29   15   6.7   3.7   44.1 111.4    12.7      M    M
 24000  -14.5   5.9   320   25   13   5.9   3.3   42.6 108.6    11.6      M    M
 23000  -12.8   9.0   315   21   11   6.0   3.3   41.2 106.2    10.5      M    M
 22000  -11.1  12.0   310   18    9   6.2   3.4   40.0 104.0     9.5      M    M
 21000   -9.2  15.4   310   17    9   6.3   3.5   38.7 101.6     8.4      M    M
 20000   -7.4  18.7   310   15    8   6.3   3.5   37.5  99.4     7.4      M    M
 19500   -6.5  20.3   310   15    8   6.4   3.5   36.9  98.5     7.0      M    M
 19000   -5.6  21.9   315   14    7   6.1   3.4   36.3  97.4     6.4      M    M
 18500   -4.8  23.4   315   14    7   6.2   3.4   35.7  96.2     5.9      M    M
 18000   -3.9  25.0   320   14    7   6.7   3.7   35.1  95.2     5.3      M    M
 17500   -2.9  26.8   325   15    8   7.0   3.9   34.6  94.3     4.9      M    M
 17000   -1.9  28.6   335   15    8   7.0   3.9   34.2  93.5     4.5      M    M
 16500   -0.8  30.6   340   16    8   7.8   4.3   33.8  92.8     4.1      M    M
 16000    0.3  32.5   345   17    9   7.7   4.2   33.4  92.2     3.8      M    M
 15500    1.5  34.7   345   19   10   8.5   4.7   33.1  91.7     3.5      M    M
 15000    3.4  38.1   345   20   11   8.9   4.9   32.9  91.2     3.3      M    M
 14500    4.6  40.3   345   21   11   8.6   4.7   32.7  90.9     3.1      M    M
 14000    5.8  42.4   340   21   11   8.7   4.8   32.6  90.6     2.8      M    M
 13500    7.0  44.6   340   21   11   8.9   4.9   32.4  90.3     2.6      M    M
 13000    8.3  46.9   340   20   10   9.0   5.0   32.3  90.1     2.4      M    M
 12500    9.6  49.3   340   19   10   9.0   4.9   32.2  89.9     2.3      M    M
 12000   10.9  51.6   340   18    9   8.9   4.9   32.0  89.6     2.2      M    M
 11500   12.2  54.0   340   17    9   9.0   4.9   31.9  89.4     2.1      M    M
 11000   13.6  56.5   340   16    8   8.8   4.9   31.8  89.2     1.9      M    M
 10500   14.9  58.8   340   15    8   4.7   2.6   31.7  89.1     1.9      M    M
 10250   15.1  59.2   340   15    8   5.2   2.8   31.1  88.0     1.3      M    M
 10000   15.8  60.4   340   15    8  11.2   6.1   31.1  88.0     1.3      M    M
  9750   16.6  61.9   340   15    8   9.9   5.5   31.2  88.1     1.3      M    M
  9500   17.3  63.1   340   15    8   9.0   4.9   31.2  88.1     1.4      M    M
  9250   17.9  64.2   340   15    8   6.8   3.7   31.0  87.8     1.2      M    M
  9000   18.4  65.1   340   15    8   7.0   3.9   30.8  87.4     0.9      M    M
  8750   18.9  66.0   340   15    8   7.6   4.2   30.6  87.1     0.8      M    M
  8500   19.4  66.9   340   15    8   6.6   3.6   30.4  86.7     0.6      M    M
  8250   19.9  67.8   340   15    7   5.2   2.9   30.1  86.2     0.3      M    M
  8000   20.2  68.4   340   14    7   5.4   3.0   29.8  85.6    -0.1    164  0.8
  7750   20.7  69.3   340   14    7   6.1   3.3   29.5  85.0    -0.4    144  0.7
  7500   21.1  70.0   340   13    7   4.6   2.5   29.1  84.5    -0.7    124  0.6
  7250   21.3  70.3   345   13    7   3.3   1.8   28.7  83.6    -1.2    110  0.6
  7000   21.5  70.7   345   13    7   3.4   1.9   28.2  82.8    -1.7     96  0.5
  6750   21.7  71.1   345   13    7   1.2   0.7   27.7  81.8    -2.3     85  0.4
  6500   21.5  70.7   345   13    7  -3.1  -1.7   26.8  80.3    -3.1     81  0.4
  6250   21.1  70.0   340   12    6  -6.0  -3.3   25.7  78.3    -4.3     86  0.4
  6000   20.7  69.3   335   11    6  -2.3  -1.3   24.6  76.3    -5.4     91  0.5
  5750   20.5  68.9   325   11    6  -6.0  -3.3   23.7  74.7    -6.3     89  0.4
  5500   19.3  66.7   310    7    4 -24.3 -13.4   21.9  71.5    -8.3    119  0.6

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/02/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       07/02/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +30.4  LI... -2.1               | K index... +32.6  LI... -4.8
CAPE... +290.1  CIN... -137.7              | CAPE... +1555.4  CIN... -19.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.4 -87.5  310  36 19   0.1   0.0 | -66.0 -86.8  320  34 18   0.1   0.0
 45000 -63.2 -81.8  310  53 27   6.5   3.6 | -63.0 -81.4  315  48 25   6.2   3.4
 40000 -52.3 -62.1  300  56 29   8.8   4.8 | -52.7 -62.9  305  48 25   8.3   4.6
 38000 -47.0 -52.6  305  53 27   8.8   4.8 | -47.7 -53.9  305  48 25   8.3   4.6
 36000 -41.8 -43.2  310  51 26   8.3   4.6 | -42.8 -45.0  310  48 25   8.4   4.6
 34000 -37.1 -34.8  315  49 25   7.8   4.3 | -37.7 -35.9  310  47 24   8.4   4.6
 32000 -32.4 -26.3  320  47 24   8.1   4.4 | -32.7 -26.9  315  46 24   8.9   4.9
 30000 -28.0 -18.4  325  44 23   7.4   4.1 | -28.1 -18.6  320  42 21   7.6   4.1
 29000 -25.8 -14.4  325  42 22   7.4   4.1 | -25.3 -13.5  320  39 20   7.6   4.1
 28000 -23.0  -9.4  330  40 20   7.3   4.0 | -23.1  -9.6  325  37 19   6.8   3.7
 27000 -20.8  -5.4  325  36 19   7.3   4.0 | -21.0  -5.8  320  33 17   6.9   3.8
 26000 -18.6  -1.5  325  33 17   7.3   4.0 | -19.0  -2.2  320  30 16   6.9   3.8
 25000 -16.4   2.5  325  30 15   6.6   3.6 | -16.9   1.6  320  27 14   6.7   3.7
 24000 -14.6   5.7  320  28 14   6.1   3.4 | -14.9   5.2  315  27 14   6.5   3.6
 23000 -12.8   9.0  320  26 13   6.1   3.4 | -13.0   8.6  315  27 14   6.5   3.6
 22000 -10.9  12.4  315  24 13   6.1   3.4 | -11.1  12.0  315  27 14   6.2   3.4
 21000  -9.1  15.6  310  23 12   6.2   3.4 |  -9.3  15.3  315  27 14   6.1   3.4
 20000  -7.3  18.9  310  22 11   6.5   3.6 |  -7.5  18.5  315  27 14   6.2   3.4
 19500  -6.4  20.5  310  21 11   6.7   3.7 |  -6.6  20.1  315  27 14   6.2   3.4
 19000  -5.6  21.9  310  20 10   5.0   2.8 |  -5.8  21.6  315  26 13   5.3   2.9
 18500  -4.9  23.2  310  19 10   5.3   2.9 |  -5.0  23.0  315  25 13   5.6   3.1
 18000  -4.2  24.4  315  18  9   5.6   3.1 |  -4.3  24.3  315  24 12   6.1   3.4
 17500  -3.4  25.9  320  18 10   5.9   3.2 |  -3.4  25.9  315  22 11   6.6   3.6
 17000  -2.6  27.3  320  19 10   5.9   3.3 |  -2.6  27.3  315  21 11   7.0   3.8
 16500  -1.6  29.1  325  19 10   7.9   4.4 |  -1.6  29.1  320  19 10   8.5   4.7
 16000  -0.5  31.1  330  18  9   7.8   4.3 |  -0.5  31.1  320  18 10   8.7   4.8
 15500   0.6  33.1  335  18  9   8.2   4.5 |   0.6  33.1  325  17  9   6.9   3.8
 15000   2.3  36.1  340  18  9   8.3   4.5 |   2.0  35.6  335  16  8   6.5   3.6
 14500   3.5  38.3  345  18 10   9.2   5.1 |   3.0  37.4  340  16  8   6.9   3.8
 14000   4.9  40.8  345  19 10   9.2   5.1 |   4.0  39.2  345  15  8   6.8   3.8
 13500   6.2  43.2  350  19 10   9.5   5.2 |   5.1  41.2  355  16  8   8.2   4.5
 13000   7.6  45.7  350  19 10   9.6   5.3 |   6.3  43.3  360  16  8   8.5   4.6
 12500   9.0  48.2  355  19 10   9.4   5.1 |   7.6  45.7  005  16  8   8.7   4.8
 12000  10.4  50.7  355  19 10   9.2   5.0 |   8.9  48.0  010  16  8   8.8   4.9
 11500  11.8  53.2  355  20 10   9.0   4.9 |  10.2  50.4  015  17  9   8.4   4.6
 11000  13.0  55.4  355  20 10   8.5   4.7 |  11.3  52.3  015  17  9   7.6   4.2
 10500  14.3  57.7  360  20 10   4.2   2.3 |  12.5  54.5  020  17  9   3.7   2.0
 10250  14.5  58.1  360  19 10   4.9   2.7 |  12.6  54.7  020  17  9   4.4   2.4
 10000  15.2  59.4  360  19 10  11.2   6.1 |  13.2  55.8  020  17  9  10.0   5.5
  9750  15.9  60.6  360  19 10  10.1   5.5 |  13.9  57.0  020  17  9   9.1   5.0
  9500  16.6  61.9  360  19 10   8.1   4.5 |  14.5  58.1  020  17  9   6.9   3.8
  9250  17.0  62.6  360  18  9   5.3   2.9 |  14.8  58.6  020  16  8   4.5   2.5
  9000  17.4  63.3  360  18  9   6.4   3.5 |  15.2  59.4  020  15  8   6.8   3.7
  8750  17.9  64.2  360  17  9   7.1   3.9 |  15.6  60.1  020  15  7   7.4   4.0
  8500  18.4  65.1  360  17  9   6.1   3.3 |  16.1  61.0  020  14  7   7.7   4.2
  8250  18.8  65.8  360  17  9   5.2   2.9 |  16.6  61.9  020  13  7   8.0   4.4
  8000  19.2  66.6  360  16  8   5.2   2.9 |  17.1  62.8  015  13  7   8.3   4.5
  7750  19.5  67.1  005  16  8   5.1   2.8 |  17.7  63.9  015  13  7   8.9   4.9
  7500  19.8  67.6  005  15  8   2.8   1.6 |  18.3  64.9  015  12  6   9.6   5.3
  7250  19.9  67.8  005  15  8   1.2   0.7 |  19.1  66.4  015  12  6   9.9   5.4
  7000  20.0  68.0  005  15  8   1.3   0.7 |  19.8  67.6  015  12  6  10.1   5.6
  6750  20.0  68.0  005  15  8   2.1   1.1 |  20.5  68.9  015  12  6  10.4   5.7
  6500  20.2  68.4  005  14  7   4.9   2.7 |  21.3  70.3  015  12  6  10.1   5.5
  6250  20.6  69.1  005  12  6   6.7   3.7 |  22.0  71.6  015  12  6   9.8   5.4
  6000  21.0  69.8  360  10  5   3.9   2.1 |  22.8  73.0  010  11  6  10.6   5.8
  5750  21.3  70.3  355   8  4   9.2   5.0 |  23.7  74.7  010  11  6  14.9   8.2
  5500  22.6  72.7  355   8  4  25.3  13.9 |  24.9  76.8  010  10  5  19.7  10.8

           07/02/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       07/02/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +30.6  LI... -4.2               | K index... +30.2  LI... -3.3
CAPE... +1375.0  CIN... -0.2               | CAPE... +903.4  CIN... -2.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.4 -85.7  330  27 14   0.3   0.2 | -64.9 -84.8  315  21 11   0.9   0.5
 45000 -62.4 -80.3  320  41 21   5.7   3.1 | -61.1 -78.0  310  34 17   5.2   2.8
 40000 -52.8 -63.0  310  48 25   8.5   4.6 | -52.5 -62.5  305  46 24   8.6   4.7
 38000 -47.7 -53.9  310  50 26   8.5   4.6 | -47.4 -53.3  310  48 25   8.6   4.7
 36000 -42.7 -44.9  310  53 27   8.4   4.6 | -42.2 -44.0  310  50 26   8.4   4.6
 34000 -37.7 -35.9  310  47 24   8.3   4.6 | -37.3 -35.1  315  49 25   8.2   4.5
 32000 -32.7 -26.9  310  41 21   9.0   4.9 | -32.4 -26.3  315  48 25   8.9   4.9
 30000 -27.6 -17.7  310  36 19   7.5   4.1 | -27.5 -17.5  310  42 22   7.2   4.0
 29000 -25.4 -13.7  310  34 18   7.5   4.1 | -25.3 -13.5  310  40 20   7.2   4.0
 28000 -23.1  -9.6  310  33 17   7.4   4.1 | -23.1  -9.6  310  38 20   7.8   4.3
 27000 -20.9  -5.6  310  32 17   7.4   4.1 | -20.8  -5.4  310  38 19   7.7   4.2
 26000 -18.7  -1.7  310  32 16   7.4   4.1 | -18.5  -1.3  310  37 19   7.7   4.2
 25000 -16.5   2.3  310  31 16   6.9   3.8 | -16.2   2.8  310  37 19   6.9   3.8
 24000 -14.6   5.7  310  30 16   6.5   3.6 | -14.3   6.3  310  35 18   6.3   3.4
 23000 -12.7   9.1  310  29 15   6.6   3.6 | -12.4   9.7  315  34 17   6.3   3.4
 22000 -10.8  12.6  315  28 15   6.2   3.4 | -10.6  12.9  315  32 17   6.1   3.3
 21000  -9.0  15.8  310  27 14   6.0   3.3 |  -8.8  16.2  320  32 16   5.9   3.2
 20000  -7.3  18.9  310  25 13   6.0   3.3 |  -7.0  19.4  320  31 16   5.9   3.2
 19500  -6.4  20.5  310  24 12   6.0   3.3 |  -6.1  21.0  325  31 16   5.9   3.2
 19000  -5.6  21.9  310  23 12   5.6   3.1 |  -5.3  22.5  325  30 16   6.1   3.3
 18500  -4.8  23.4  310  22 11   5.7   3.1 |  -4.4  24.1  325  30 15   6.2   3.4
 18000  -4.0  24.8  305  21 11   6.2   3.4 |  -3.6  25.5  325  29 15   6.3   3.4
 17500  -3.0  26.6  305  20 10   6.6   3.6 |  -2.7  27.1  325  28 14   6.4   3.5
 17000  -2.1  28.2  300  19 10   6.6   3.6 |  -1.9  28.6  325  27 14   6.7   3.7
 16500  -1.2  29.8  305  18  9   6.5   3.6 |  -1.0  30.2  320  25 13   7.2   3.9
 16000  -0.3  31.5  305  17  9   6.6   3.6 |  -0.0  32.0  320  23 12   7.2   4.0
 15500   1.1  34.0  315  16  8   6.8   3.7 |   1.6  34.9  320  21 11   8.1   4.4
 15000   2.1  35.8  320  15  8   6.8   3.7 |   2.8  37.0  320  19 10   8.2   4.5
 14500   3.1  37.6  330  14  7   6.6   3.6 |   3.8  38.8  320  17  9   6.3   3.4
 14000   4.0  39.2  335  12  6   6.6   3.6 |   4.7  40.5  320  15  8   6.3   3.5
 13500   5.0  41.0  345  10  5   6.3   3.4 |   5.6  42.1  325  13  7   5.1   2.8
 13000   5.8  42.4  360   8  4   6.2   3.4 |   6.1  43.0  325   8  4   4.8   2.7
 12500   6.7  44.1  030   7  3   6.3   3.5 |   6.7  44.1  340   4  2   6.1   3.4
 12000   7.5  45.5  040   7  4   6.6   3.6 |   7.7  45.9  025   2  1   7.2   4.0
 11500   8.3  46.9  050   8  4   7.8   4.3 |   8.6  47.5  080   3  2   8.2   4.5
 11000   9.5  49.1  050   8  4   8.8   4.8 |   9.9  49.8  080   3  2   8.9   4.9
 10500  10.7  51.3  045   8  4   4.2   2.3 |  11.2  52.2  075   4  2   4.5   2.5
 10250  10.9  51.6  045   8  4   6.5   3.6 |  11.4  52.5  075   4  2   6.7   3.6
 10000  11.8  53.2  045   8  4  14.5   7.9 |  12.3  54.1  075   4  2  14.0   7.7
  9750  12.8  55.0  045   8  4  13.2   7.2 |  13.3  55.9  075   4  2  12.8   7.0
  9500  13.7  56.7  045   7  4  10.2   5.6 |  14.2  57.6  070   4  2  10.1   5.5
  9250  14.3  57.7  045   7  4   7.5   4.1 |  14.7  58.5  070   4  2   7.3   4.0
  9000  15.0  59.0  045   7  4  11.2   6.1 |  15.4  59.7  070   4  2  10.3   5.7
  8750  15.8  60.4  045   7  4  12.1   6.7 |  16.2  61.2  070   4  2  11.3   6.2
  8500  16.7  62.1  045   7  4  10.3   5.7 |  17.0  62.6  070   4  2  10.4   5.7
  8250  17.4  63.3  040   7  4   8.9   4.9 |  17.8  64.0  070   4  2   9.8   5.4
  8000  18.1  64.6  040   7  4   9.9   5.5 |  18.5  65.3  065   4  2  10.0   5.5
  7750  18.8  65.8  040   7  4  10.5   5.8 |  19.2  66.6  065   4  2  10.0   5.5
  7500  19.6  67.3  040   7  4  10.1   5.5 |  20.0  68.0  065   4  2  10.0   5.5
  7250  20.3  68.5  040   7  4   9.9   5.4 |  20.7  69.3  065   4  2  10.2   5.6
  7000  21.1  70.0  040   7  4  10.3   5.6 |  21.5  70.7  065   4  2   9.7   5.3
  6750  21.9  71.4  035   7  3  10.7   5.8 |  22.2  72.0  065   4  2   9.4   5.1
  6500  22.6  72.7  035   7  3  10.5   5.7 |  22.9  73.2  060   4  2  10.0   5.5
  6250  23.4  74.1  035   7  3  10.1   5.6 |  23.7  74.7  060   3  2  10.5   5.8
  6000  24.1  75.4  035   6  3  10.9   6.0 |  24.5  76.1  060   3  2   9.9   5.4
  5750  25.1  77.2  035   6  3  16.5   9.0 |  25.2  77.4  055   3  2  12.4   6.8
  5500  26.6  79.9  035   6  3  23.4  12.8 |  26.3  79.3  060   3  2  18.2  10.0
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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