Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 070109
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1909 MDT Sunday, July 6, 2014

This forecast is for Monday, July 7, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 87.9 F/31.0 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1598 ft/min (8.1 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 19483 ft MSL (14196 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 94.0 F/34.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1030 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10247 ft MSL (4960 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 07/08...... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 21549 ft MSL (16262 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 07/08......... Poor

Remarks... None

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:38:37 / 20:30:17 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 51 min 40 sec (891 min 40 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:04:26 MDT... 72.73 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/07/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16469 ft MSL (11182 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16606 ft MSL (11319 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 17090 ft MSL (11803 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -3.8
K index......................... +25.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -66.0 -86.8   340   16    8   0.9   0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -62.3 -80.1   340   19   10   5.7   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.4 -64.1   330   23   12   7.6   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -48.8 -55.8   320   25   13   7.6   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -44.3 -47.7   310   28   15   7.6   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -39.5 -39.1   305   26   13   7.9   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -34.2 -29.6   300   22   12   7.8   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -29.9 -21.8   290   18    9   7.2   3.9   45.4 113.7     8.4      M    M
 29000  -27.8 -18.0   285   15    8   7.2   3.9   44.5 112.1     7.8      M    M
 28000  -25.6 -14.1   280   14    7   7.1   3.9   43.6 110.4     7.1      M    M
 27000  -23.5 -10.3   285   12    6   7.2   3.9   42.5 108.5     6.3      M    M
 26000  -21.3  -6.3   290   11    6   7.2   3.9   41.5 106.7     5.6      M    M
 25000  -19.2  -2.6   295   10    5   7.2   3.9   40.7 105.3     5.0      M    M
 24000  -17.1   1.2   305   11    6   7.1   3.9   39.6 103.3     4.1      M    M
 23000  -15.0   5.0   315   12    6   7.1   3.9   38.7 101.6     3.4      M    M
 22000  -12.8   9.0   320   14    7   6.7   3.7   37.8 100.1     2.7      M    M
 21000  -11.0  12.2   315   14    7   6.5   3.6   36.6  97.8     1.6      M    M
 20000   -9.1  15.6   305   15    8   6.6   3.6   35.4  95.8     0.6      M    M
 19500   -8.1  17.4   305   16    8   6.8   3.7   35.0  94.9     0.1      M    M
 19000   -7.0  19.4   300   15    8   8.8   4.8   34.6  94.4    -0.3   1358  6.9
 18500   -5.8  21.6   300   15    8   8.7   4.8   34.5  94.0    -0.5   1306  6.6
 18000   -4.5  23.9   300   14    7   9.1   5.0   34.3  93.7    -0.7   1254  6.4
 17500   -3.2  26.2   300   14    7   9.3   5.1   34.2  93.6    -0.9   1199  6.1
 17000   -1.8  28.8   300   14    7   9.3   5.1   34.1  93.4    -1.0   1144  5.8
 16500   -0.4  31.3   300   14    7   9.7   5.3   34.1  93.4    -1.0   1087  5.5
 16000    1.7  35.1   300   14    7   9.6   5.3   34.1  93.3    -1.1   1001  5.1
 15500    3.1  37.6   300   13    7   9.5   5.2   34.0  93.3    -1.2    944  4.8
 15000    4.5  40.1   295   13    7   9.5   5.2   34.0  93.2    -1.2    887  4.5
 14500    5.9  42.6   290   13    7   9.3   5.1   33.9  93.1    -1.3    830  4.2
 14000    7.3  45.1   285   13    7   9.4   5.1   33.9  92.9    -1.4    774  3.9
 13500    8.6  47.5   280   13    7   8.8   4.8   33.8  92.8    -1.5    719  3.7
 13000    9.9  49.8   275   13    7   8.7   4.8   33.6  92.5    -1.7    665  3.4
 12500   11.2  52.2   265   13    7   8.5   4.7   33.4  92.2    -1.8    611  3.1
 12000   12.5  54.5   260   13    7   8.4   4.6   33.2  91.8    -2.0    559  2.8
 11500   13.8  56.8   255   13    7   8.6   4.7   33.0  91.4    -2.2    506  2.6
 11000   15.1  59.2   250   13    7   8.6   4.7   32.9  91.1    -2.4    452  2.3
 10500   16.4  61.5   250   12    6   5.0   2.7   32.7  90.9    -2.5    397  2.0
 10250   16.6  61.9   250   13    6   5.7   3.1   32.2  90.0    -3.1    384  1.9
 10000   17.3  63.1   245   12    6  10.9   6.0   32.2  90.0    -3.1    354  1.8
  9750   18.1  64.6   245   12    6  10.1   5.5   32.2  90.0    -3.1    325  1.7
  9500   18.8  65.8   245   12    6   8.2   4.5   32.2  90.0    -3.1    296  1.5
  9250   19.3  66.7   240   12    6   6.4   3.5   32.0  89.6    -3.3    273  1.4
  9000   19.8  67.6   240   11    6   8.2   4.5   31.8  89.3    -3.5    249  1.3
  8750   20.5  68.9   240   11    6   9.0   4.9   31.7  89.1    -3.6    223  1.1
  8500   21.1  70.0   235   10    5   7.2   4.0   31.6  89.0    -3.7    197  1.0
  8250   21.5  70.7   235   10    5   5.4   3.0   31.3  88.4    -4.1    177  0.9
  8000   21.9  71.4   235    9    5   6.2   3.4   31.0  87.9    -4.4    157  0.8
  7750   22.4  72.3   235    9    5   6.4   3.5   30.8  87.4    -4.7    137  0.7
  7500   22.7  72.9   240    8    4   4.8   2.6   30.5  86.9    -5.1    119  0.6
  7250   22.9  73.2   245    8    4   3.5   1.9   30.0  86.0    -5.6    105  0.5
  7000   23.1  73.6   250    8    4   4.4   2.4   29.6  85.2    -6.1     91  0.5
  6750   23.4  74.1   255    8    4   2.1   1.1   29.1  84.4    -6.7     77  0.4
  6500   23.3  73.9   260    7    4  -3.0  -1.7   28.3  83.0    -7.5     73  0.4
  6250   22.9  73.2   265    6    3  -4.9  -2.7   27.3  81.1    -8.7     78  0.4
  6000   22.4  72.3   270    4    2  -3.5  -1.9   26.2  79.2    -9.8     83  0.4
  5750   22.0  71.6   305    3    2  -6.2  -3.4   25.2  77.3   -11.0     88  0.4
  5500   21.3  70.3   255    2    1 -13.2  -7.2   23.7  74.7   -12.4    101  0.5

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/07/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/07/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +21.3  LI... -1.7               | K index... +15.8  LI... -2.0
CAPE... +291.4  CIN... -198.5              | CAPE... +409.8  CIN... -29.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.6 -87.9  335  15  8   1.9   1.1 | -66.7 -88.1  325  12  6   0.6   0.4
 45000 -61.7 -79.1  330  16  8   5.9   3.2 | -62.7 -80.9  315  17  9   6.5   3.6
 40000 -52.7 -62.9  330  20 10   7.3   4.0 | -52.6 -62.7  320  20 10   7.7   4.2
 38000 -48.3 -54.9  325  22 11   7.3   4.0 | -48.0 -54.4  330  19 10   7.7   4.2
 36000 -43.9 -47.0  320  25 13   7.3   4.0 | -43.3 -45.9  335  18  9   7.7   4.2
 34000 -39.5 -39.1  315  24 12   7.3   4.0 | -39.0 -38.2  325  19 10   7.1   3.9
 32000 -34.6 -30.3  310  23 12   7.5   4.1 | -34.2 -29.6  310  22 11   7.3   4.0
 30000 -30.1 -22.2  305  20 10   7.5   4.1 | -30.0 -22.0  310  20 11   7.1   3.9
 29000 -27.9 -18.2  300  19 10   7.5   4.1 | -27.8 -18.0  305  20 10   7.1   3.9
 28000 -25.6 -14.1  295  18  9   7.0   3.9 | -25.7 -14.3  305  19 10   7.2   3.9
 27000 -23.5 -10.3  295  16  8   7.1   3.9 | -23.6 -10.5  300  18 10   7.2   3.9
 26000 -21.4  -6.5  295  15  8   7.1   3.9 | -21.4  -6.5  300  18  9   7.2   3.9
 25000 -19.3  -2.7  290  13  7   7.3   4.0 | -19.3  -2.7  295  17  9   7.5   4.1
 24000 -17.1   1.2  300  12  6   7.5   4.1 | -17.0   1.4  295  16  8   7.8   4.3
 23000 -14.8   5.4  305  12  6   7.5   4.1 | -14.6   5.7  290  15  8   7.8   4.3
 22000 -12.6   9.3  310  12  6   7.0   3.8 | -12.3   9.9  285  14  7   7.2   3.9
 21000 -10.7  12.7  310  12  6   6.7   3.7 | -10.3  13.5  285  13  7   6.9   3.8
 20000  -8.7  16.3  310  13  6   6.8   3.7 |  -8.3  17.1  285  13  7   7.0   3.8
 19500  -7.7  18.1  310  13  7   6.9   3.8 |  -7.3  18.9  285  13  6   7.1   3.9
 19000  -6.5  20.3  310  13  7   8.6   4.7 |  -6.2  20.8  290  13  6   8.1   4.5
 18500  -5.3  22.5  305  13  7   8.5   4.7 |  -5.0  23.0  290  13  7   8.0   4.4
 18000  -4.0  24.8  300  13  7   8.5   4.7 |  -3.8  25.2  295  13  7   8.8   4.9
 17500  -2.8  27.0  295  13  7   8.5   4.7 |  -2.4  27.7  300  14  7   9.2   5.0
 17000  -1.5  29.3  295  14  7   8.6   4.7 |  -1.0  30.2  300  15  8   9.1   5.0
 16500  -0.2  31.6  295  14  7   9.2   5.1 |   0.3  32.5  300  16  8   8.6   4.7
 16000   1.8  35.2  295  14  7   9.3   5.1 |   1.5  34.7  300  16  8   8.6   4.7
 15500   3.1  37.6  295  14  7   9.5   5.2 |   3.5  38.3  300  15  8   9.1   5.0
 15000   4.5  40.1  295  13  7   9.5   5.2 |   4.8  40.6  300  15  8   9.1   5.0
 14500   5.9  42.6  295  13  7   9.9   5.4 |   6.2  43.2  300  14  7   9.1   5.0
 14000   7.4  45.3  300  13  7   9.9   5.4 |   7.5  45.5  300  13  7   9.1   5.0
 13500   8.8  47.8  300  13  7   9.4   5.2 |   8.9  48.0  305  12  6   9.4   5.1
 13000  10.2  50.4  300  13  7   9.3   5.1 |  10.3  50.5  305  12  6   9.4   5.2
 12500  11.6  52.9  305  13  7   9.4   5.1 |  11.7  53.1  305  11  6   9.2   5.1
 12000  13.0  55.4  305  13  7   9.4   5.2 |  13.0  55.4  310  11  6   9.1   5.0
 11500  14.4  57.9  305  13  7   9.2   5.0 |  14.4  57.9  315  11  5   9.0   4.9
 11000  15.7  60.3  305  13  7   8.7   4.8 |  15.7  60.3  320  11  5   8.6   4.7
 10500  17.1  62.8  305  13  7   5.3   2.9 |  17.0  62.6  320  10  5   5.3   2.9
 10250  17.3  63.1  300  13  6   6.0   3.3 |  17.3  63.1  320  10  5   6.8   3.7
 10000  18.0  64.4  300  12  6  10.9   6.0 |  18.1  64.6  325  10  5  12.1   6.6
  9750  18.8  65.8  295  12  6  10.1   5.5 |  18.9  66.0  325  11  5  11.5   6.3
  9500  19.5  67.1  295  12  6   8.6   4.7 |  19.7  67.5  325  11  5   8.5   4.7
  9250  20.0  68.0  290  11  6   6.8   3.7 |  20.2  68.4  325  11  6   6.9   3.8
  9000  20.6  69.1  285  11  6   7.8   4.3 |  20.8  69.4  320  10  5  10.0   5.5
  8750  21.2  70.2  275  11  6   8.0   4.4 |  21.5  70.7  320  10  5  10.2   5.6
  8500  21.7  71.1  270  11  6   7.4   4.1 |  22.3  72.1  320  10  5   9.1   5.0
  8250  22.2  72.0  260  11  6   7.0   3.9 |  22.8  73.0  315   9  5   7.9   4.3
  8000  22.7  72.9  255  11  5   6.8   3.7 |  23.4  74.1  315   8  4   8.7   4.8
  7750  23.2  73.8  250  10  5   6.4   3.5 |  24.0  75.2  315   7  4   9.1   5.0
  7500  23.6  74.5  245   9  5   5.3   2.9 |  24.6  76.3  315   6  3  10.0   5.5
  7250  23.9  75.0  245   9  4   4.4   2.4 |  25.4  77.7  315   6  3  10.7   5.9
  7000  24.2  75.6  250   8  4   4.5   2.5 |  26.1  79.0  315   5  3  10.2   5.6
  6750  24.5  76.1  255   7  4   2.9   1.6 |  26.9  80.4  320   5  3  10.2   5.6
  6500  24.5  76.1  260   7  3   0.7   0.4 |  27.7  81.9  320   5  3  10.8   5.9
  6250  24.5  76.1  270   5  3   0.6   0.3 |  28.5  83.3  320   5  3  11.9   6.5
  6000  24.4  75.9  280   4  2  -0.8  -0.5 |  29.3  84.7  320   5  3   9.1   5.0
  5750  24.3  75.7  300   2  1   7.1   3.9 |  30.0  86.0  320   5  3  14.0   7.7
  5500  25.6  78.1  305   2  1  25.5  14.0 |  31.7  89.1  320   5  3  31.1  17.1

           07/07/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/07/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +23.7  LI... -0.8               | K index... +24.7  LI... -1.3
CAPE... +165.8  CIN... -24.7               | CAPE... +170.6  CIN... -10.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.2 -87.2  300  13  7   0.0   0.0 | -66.9 -88.4  305  19 10   0.5   0.3
 45000 -63.0 -81.4  310  20 10   6.4   3.5 | -63.1 -81.6  315  24 12   6.6   3.6
 40000 -53.0 -63.4  310  22 11   7.9   4.3 | -52.9 -63.2  315  22 12   7.8   4.3
 38000 -48.3 -54.9  315  20 10   7.9   4.3 | -48.2 -54.8  310  20 10   7.8   4.3
 36000 -43.5 -46.3  320  18  9   7.9   4.3 | -43.5 -46.3  305  17  9   7.8   4.3
 34000 -38.9 -38.0  315  18  9   7.7   4.2 | -38.0 -36.4  300  18  9   8.2   4.5
 32000 -33.7 -28.7  305  20 10   7.6   4.1 | -33.1 -27.6  295  19 10   7.9   4.3
 30000 -29.6 -21.3  305  21 11   6.7   3.7 | -29.0 -20.2  300  21 11   6.8   3.8
 29000 -27.6 -17.7  305  21 11   6.7   3.7 | -27.0 -16.6  300  22 11   6.9   3.8
 28000 -25.6 -14.1  305  21 11   7.2   4.0 | -24.9 -12.8  300  22 11   7.0   3.8
 27000 -23.4 -10.1  300  20 10   7.2   3.9 | -22.8  -9.0  300  22 11   7.0   3.8
 26000 -21.3  -6.3  300  18  9   7.2   3.9 | -20.8  -5.4  300  21 11   7.0   3.9
 25000 -19.2  -2.6  300  16  8   7.4   4.0 | -18.7  -1.7  300  21 11   7.1   3.9
 24000 -16.9   1.6  295  16  8   7.5   4.1 | -16.5   2.3  300  20 10   7.2   4.0
 23000 -14.7   5.5  295  16  8   7.5   4.1 | -14.4   6.1  295  19 10   7.2   4.0
 22000 -12.5   9.5  290  16  8   7.3   4.0 | -12.3   9.9  295  18  9   7.0   3.8
 21000 -10.3  13.5  290  16  8   7.3   4.0 | -10.3  13.5  295  18  9   6.9   3.8
 20000  -8.2  17.2  295  16  8   7.3   4.0 |  -8.3  17.1  300  19 10   6.9   3.8
 19500  -7.2  19.0  295  16  8   7.5   4.1 |  -7.3  18.9  300  19 10   7.1   3.9
 19000  -5.9  21.4  300  16  8   9.2   5.1 |  -6.1  21.0  300  18  9   8.7   4.8
 18500  -4.6  23.7  300  17  9   9.1   5.0 |  -4.9  23.2  300  17  9   8.6   4.7
 18000  -3.2  26.2  305  18  9   9.1   5.0 |  -3.6  25.5  300  15  8   8.8   4.8
 17500  -1.9  28.6  305  18  9   9.2   5.0 |  -2.3  27.9  305  13  7   8.9   4.9
 17000  -0.6  30.9  300  19 10   9.1   5.0 |  -1.1  30.0  305  11  6   9.0   4.9
 16500   1.3  34.3  305  18  9   8.6   4.7 |   1.1  34.0  315  10  5   9.8   5.4
 16000   2.6  36.7  305  17  9   8.6   4.7 |   2.5  36.5  320   9  5   9.7   5.3
 15500   3.8  38.8  305  16  8   8.8   4.8 |   3.9  39.0  325   8  4   9.3   5.1
 15000   5.1  41.2  305  15  8   8.7   4.8 |   5.3  41.5  330   8  4   9.4   5.1
 14500   6.5  43.7  310  14  7   9.4   5.2 |   6.7  44.1  335   7  4   9.0   4.9
 14000   7.9  46.2  310  12  6   9.4   5.1 |   8.0  46.4  345   7  4   9.0   4.9
 13500   9.3  48.7  315  11  6   9.5   5.2 |   9.4  48.9  350   7  3   9.2   5.1
 13000  10.7  51.3  315  10  5   9.5   5.2 |  10.7  51.3  355   7  4   9.3   5.1
 12500  12.1  53.8  320   9  5   9.1   5.0 |  12.1  53.8  360   7  4   9.2   5.1
 12000  13.4  56.1  320   8  4   8.8   4.9 |  13.4  56.1  360   7  4   9.2   5.1
 11500  14.7  58.5  325   7  3   9.0   4.9 |  14.8  58.6  360   7  4   9.3   5.1
 11000  16.0  60.8  330   6  3   9.0   5.0 |  16.2  61.2  360   8  4   9.1   5.0
 10500  17.4  63.3  335   6  3   5.9   3.2 |  17.6  63.7  360   8  4   5.4   3.0
 10250  17.7  63.9  335   6  3   7.3   4.0 |  17.9  64.2  360   8  4   6.8   3.7
 10000  18.6  65.5  335   6  3  12.4   6.8 |  18.7  65.7  360   8  4  12.6   6.9
  9750  19.4  66.9  335   6  3  11.8   6.5 |  19.6  67.3  360   8  4  11.6   6.4
  9500  20.3  68.5  335   6  3   9.2   5.1 |  20.4  68.7  355   8  4   9.8   5.4
  9250  20.9  69.6  335   5  3   8.3   4.5 |  21.1  70.0  355   8  4   8.8   4.8
  9000  21.6  70.9  335   5  3  11.1   6.1 |  21.8  71.2  355   8  4  10.8   5.9
  8750  22.4  72.3  335   5  3  11.1   6.1 |  22.6  72.7  355   8  4  10.7   5.9
  8500  23.2  73.8  335   6  3  10.4   5.7 |  23.4  74.1  355   9  4  10.5   5.7
  8250  24.0  75.2  335   6  3   9.5   5.2 |  24.2  75.6  355   9  4  10.1   5.6
  8000  24.7  76.5  330   6  3  10.1   5.6 |  24.9  76.8  355   9  5   9.5   5.2
  7750  25.5  77.9  330   6  3  10.5   5.8 |  25.6  78.1  355   9  5   8.8   4.8
  7500  26.2  79.2  330   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  26.3  79.3  355   9  5   9.9   5.4
  7250  27.0  80.6  330   6  3   9.6   5.3 |  27.1  80.8  355   9  5  10.9   6.0
  7000  27.7  81.9  330   6  3   9.7   5.3 |  27.8  82.0  355   9  5  10.3   5.7
  6750  28.5  83.3  330   6  3  10.1   5.5 |  28.6  83.5  355   9  5  10.0   5.5
  6500  29.2  84.6  330   6  3  10.8   5.9 |  29.4  84.9  350   9  5  10.2   5.6
  6250  30.1  86.2  330   6  3  11.8   6.5 |  30.1  86.2  350   9  5  10.8   5.9
  6000  30.9  87.6  330   6  3   9.7   5.3 |  30.9  87.6  350   9  5   9.5   5.2
  5750  31.7  89.1  330   6  3  14.1   7.7 |  31.7  89.1  350   9  5  12.0   6.6
  5500  33.3  91.9  330   6  3  28.9  15.9 |  32.9  91.2  350   9  4  21.1  11.6
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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