Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1918 MDT Wednesday, October 29, 2014

This forecast is for Thursday, October 30, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 57.8 F/14.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 555 ft/min (2.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 12420 ft MSL (7133 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 64.0 F/18.2 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10090 ft MSL (4803 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 10/31....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Little change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 34828 ft MSL (29541 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Friday 10/31.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:26:04 / 17:59:53 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 33 min 50 sec (633 min 50 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:43:14 MDT... 36.33 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 10/30/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 10348 ft MSL (5061 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18710 ft MSL (13423 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14679 ft MSL (9392 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +7.8
K index......................... +6.5

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -64.5 -84.1   270   29   15   3.4   1.9      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.2 -72.8   275   36   18   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -49.0 -56.2   285   42   22   4.8   2.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -47.9 -54.2   305   45   23   1.5   0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -47.0 -52.6   320   52   27   1.5   0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -44.8 -48.6   320   57   29   5.6   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -41.4 -42.5   320   57   29   5.6   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -37.0 -34.6   320   57   30   7.4   4.1   39.2 102.6    16.2      M    M
 29000  -34.8 -30.6   320   58   30   7.4   4.1   38.3 101.0    15.7      M    M
 28000  -32.6 -26.7   325   59   30   7.4   4.0   37.5  99.5    15.3      M    M
 27000  -30.3 -22.5   325   58   30   7.9   4.3   36.7  98.0    14.8      M    M
 26000  -27.9 -18.2   320   57   29   7.9   4.3   35.9  96.7    14.4      M    M
 25000  -25.6 -14.1   320   56   29   7.9   4.3   35.3  95.5    14.0      M    M
 24000  -23.3  -9.9   320   56   29   7.2   4.0   34.5  94.1    13.5      M    M
 23000  -21.1  -6.0   320   56   29   7.3   4.0   33.5  92.4    12.9      M    M
 22000  -19.0  -2.2   315   57   29   7.3   4.0   32.7  90.8    12.3      M    M
 21000  -16.9   1.6   315   57   29   7.0   3.8   31.7  89.1    11.6      M    M
 20000  -14.8   5.4   315   56   29   7.0   3.8   30.7  87.3    10.8      M    M
 19500  -13.8   7.2   315   56   29   7.0   3.8   30.3  86.5    10.5      M    M
 19000  -12.8   9.0   315   56   29   6.7   3.7   29.9  85.7    10.1      M    M
 18500  -11.9  10.6   315   56   29   5.3   2.9   29.2  84.5     9.6      M    M
 18000  -11.1  12.0   320   55   28   5.5   3.0   28.4  83.1     8.9      M    M
 17500  -10.4  13.3   320   54   28   4.8   2.6   27.6  81.7     8.3      M    M
 17000   -9.7  14.5   320   53   27   4.7   2.6   26.7  80.1     7.5      M    M
 16500   -9.0  15.8   320   51   26   5.1   2.8   25.9  78.6     6.8      M    M
 16000   -8.2  17.2   320   49   25   5.7   3.1   25.2  77.3     6.2      M    M
 15500   -6.9  19.6   315   46   23   4.3   2.4   24.1  75.4     5.3      M    M
 15000   -6.4  20.5   315   43   22   3.6   2.0   23.1  73.5     4.4      M    M
 14500   -5.8  21.6   315   41   21   3.6   2.0   22.1  71.7     3.6      M    M
 14000   -5.3  22.5   315   37   19   3.7   2.0   21.0  69.9     2.7      M    M
 13500   -4.7  23.5   315   33   17   3.7   2.0   20.1  68.1     1.8      M    M
 13000   -4.1  24.6   315   30   15   3.9   2.1   19.1  66.3     0.9      M    M
 12500   -3.6  25.5   320   26   13   4.0   2.2   18.1  64.6     0.0      M    M
 12000   -2.8  27.0   320   23   12   5.7   3.1   17.4  63.3    -0.7    518  2.6
 11500   -2.0  28.4   320   20   10   5.7   3.1   16.7  62.1    -1.4    479  2.4
 11000   -1.1  30.0   325   17    9   6.6   3.6   16.1  61.0    -1.9    437  2.2
 10500   -0.2  31.6   325   15    8   6.2   3.4   15.6  60.1    -2.5    394  2.0
 10250    0.2  32.4   325   14    7   4.2   2.3   15.3  59.5    -2.8    375  1.9
 10000    0.6  33.1   330   14    7   7.5   4.1   14.9  58.8    -3.2    357  1.8
  9750    1.3  34.3   330   13    7  11.2   6.2   14.9  58.9    -3.2    327  1.7
  9500    2.1  35.8   335   12    6   9.1   5.0   15.0  59.0    -3.2    297  1.5
  9250    2.7  36.9   335   12    6   7.2   3.9   14.8  58.7    -3.3    272  1.4
  9000    3.2  37.8   335   11    6   7.9   4.3   14.6  58.4    -3.5    249  1.3
  8750    3.9  39.0   340   11    6   9.8   5.4   14.6  58.3    -3.6    222  1.1
  8500    4.6  40.3   340   11    5   8.9   4.9   14.6  58.3    -3.6    193  1.0
  8250    5.2  41.4   340   10    5   7.6   4.2   14.4  58.0    -3.8    167  0.9
  8000    5.8  42.4   345   10    5   8.1   4.5   14.3  57.7    -3.9    142  0.7
  7750    6.4  43.5   345   10    5   8.6   4.7   14.2  57.6    -4.0    116  0.6
  7500    7.0  44.6   345   10    5   8.5   4.7   14.1  57.4    -4.1     89  0.5
  7250    7.7  45.9   345    9    5   8.0   4.4   14.0  57.2    -4.3     63  0.3
  7000    8.3  46.9   345    9    4   8.8   4.8   13.9  57.0    -4.4     38  0.2
  6750    8.9  48.0   345    8    4   7.2   4.0   13.8  56.8    -4.5     11  0.1
  6500    9.3  48.7   340    9    5   4.5   2.5   13.5  56.2    -4.8      M    M
  6250    9.8  49.6   335   10    5   7.7   4.2   13.1  55.6    -5.1      M    M
  6000   10.2  50.4   330   11    6  -2.4  -1.3   12.8  55.1    -5.4      M    M
  5750    9.1  48.4   320    9    4 -24.1 -13.2   11.0  51.9    -7.3      M    M
  5500    6.8  44.2   290    5    2 -30.0 -16.4    8.2  46.7   -10.2     36  0.2

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           10/30/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       10/30/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +7.2  LI... +8.9                | K index... +6.3  LI... +9.2
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.7 -84.5  280  33 17   4.4   2.4 | -64.4 -83.9  270  34 17   4.4   2.4
 45000 -57.8 -72.0  280  38 19   4.6   2.5 | -57.9 -72.2  270  39 20   2.7   1.5
 40000 -50.9 -59.6  290  43 22   4.0   2.2 | -53.9 -65.0  290  41 21   3.2   1.7
 38000 -49.5 -57.1  305  45 23   2.4   1.3 | -51.4 -60.5  305  42 22   4.3   2.3
 36000 -48.0 -54.4  315  49 25   2.4   1.3 | -48.8 -55.8  320  46 23   4.3   2.3
 34000 -45.4 -49.7  325  53 27   6.2   3.4 | -45.6 -50.1  325  51 26   6.4   3.5
 32000 -41.2 -42.2  330  55 28   6.2   3.4 | -41.7 -43.1  330  57 29   6.4   3.5
 30000 -36.8 -34.2  330  55 28   7.9   4.3 | -36.8 -34.2  330  59 30   7.8   4.3
 29000 -34.4 -29.9  330  55 28   7.9   4.3 | -34.5 -30.1  330  59 30   7.8   4.3
 28000 -32.1 -25.8  325  55 28   8.0   4.4 | -32.1 -25.8  330  58 30   7.8   4.3
 27000 -29.9 -21.8  325  55 28   7.1   3.9 | -29.8 -21.6  330  57 30   7.9   4.3
 26000 -27.7 -17.9  325  56 29   7.1   3.9 | -27.4 -17.3  325  57 29   7.9   4.3
 25000 -25.6 -14.1  325  57 30   7.1   3.9 | -25.1 -13.2  325  56 29   7.9   4.3
 24000 -23.5 -10.3  325  58 30   7.1   3.9 | -22.9  -9.2  325  56 29   6.9   3.8
 23000 -21.4  -6.5  320  58 30   7.1   3.9 | -20.8  -5.4  325  56 29   6.9   3.8
 22000 -19.3  -2.7  320  58 30   7.1   3.9 | -18.8  -1.8  325  56 29   6.9   3.8
 21000 -17.2   1.0  320  56 29   7.3   4.0 | -16.7   1.9  320  55 28   7.2   4.0
 20000 -15.0   5.0  320  54 28   7.4   4.0 | -14.5   5.9  320  54 28   7.2   4.0
 19500 -13.9   7.0  320  53 27   7.3   4.0 | -13.4   7.9  320  53 27   7.2   4.0
 19000 -12.8   9.0  320  52 27   7.0   3.8 | -12.3   9.9  320  52 27   7.0   3.9
 18500 -11.9  10.6  320  50 26   6.0   3.3 | -11.3  11.7  320  51 26   6.7   3.7
 18000 -11.0  12.2  320  48 25   6.1   3.4 | -10.4  13.3  320  49 25   6.9   3.8
 17500 -10.2  13.6  325  47 24   5.0   2.8 |  -9.5  14.9  320  47 24   4.7   2.6
 17000  -9.5  14.9  325  47 24   5.0   2.7 |  -8.8  16.2  325  45 23   4.7   2.6
 16500  -8.8  16.2  325  47 24   4.7   2.6 |  -8.2  17.2  325  43 22   4.5   2.5
 16000  -8.1  17.4  325  47 24   4.4   2.4 |  -7.6  18.3  325  41 21   4.3   2.4
 15500  -7.1  19.2  325  46 24   4.5   2.5 |  -6.6  20.1  325  38 19   4.4   2.4
 15000  -6.4  20.5  325  41 21   4.6   2.5 |  -6.0  21.2  325  36 18   4.4   2.4
 14500  -5.7  21.7  325  37 19   4.4   2.4 |  -5.3  22.5  325  34 18   4.8   2.7
 14000  -5.1  22.8  325  35 18   4.1   2.2 |  -4.5  23.9  325  32 17   5.3   2.9
 13500  -4.5  23.9  325  34 18   3.9   2.1 |  -3.7  25.3  325  30 15   5.0   2.7
 13000  -3.9  25.0  320  31 16   3.4   1.9 |  -3.0  26.6  325  28 14   4.3   2.3
 12500  -3.4  25.9  320  26 14   3.5   1.9 |  -2.3  27.9  320  26 13   4.2   2.3
 12000  -2.9  26.8  320  23 12   4.3   2.4 |  -1.8  28.8  320  23 12   3.7   2.0
 11500  -2.2  28.0  320  19 10   4.6   2.5 |  -1.2  29.8  315  20 10   4.1   2.3
 11000  -1.5  29.3  320  16  8   5.9   3.2 |  -0.4  31.3  315  17  9   5.8   3.2
 10500  -0.6  30.9  320  14  7   5.7   3.1 |   0.4  32.7  315  14  7   5.5   3.0
 10250  -0.3  31.5  320  13  7   4.1   2.3 |   0.8  33.4  315  13  7   4.5   2.5
 10000   0.1  32.2  320  12  6   6.9   3.8 |   1.1  34.0  310  12  6   6.0   3.3
  9750   0.7  33.3  325  11  6  10.1   5.5 |   1.6  34.9  310  11  6   7.7   4.2
  9500   1.4  34.5  325  10  5   8.1   4.5 |   2.2  36.0  310   9  5   6.6   3.6
  9250   1.9  35.4  330  10  5   6.8   3.7 |   2.6  36.7  305   9  4   5.8   3.2
  9000   2.5  36.5  330   9  5   7.7   4.2 |   3.1  37.6  305   8  4   6.4   3.5
  8750   3.1  37.6  335   9  4   9.0   4.9 |   3.5  38.3  305   7  4   7.2   3.9
  8500   3.7  38.7  340   8  4   8.2   4.5 |   4.0  39.2  305   6  3   6.7   3.7
  8250   4.3  39.7  340   8  4   7.2   3.9 |   4.5  40.1  305   5  3   6.1   3.3
  8000   4.9  40.8  345   8  4   7.9   4.3 |   5.0  41.0  310   4  2   6.7   3.7
  7750   5.5  41.9  350   7  4   8.5   4.7 |   5.5  41.9  315   3  2   7.2   4.0
  7500   6.1  43.0  350   7  4   7.9   4.4 |   6.0  42.8  330   2  1   6.6   3.6
  7250   6.7  44.1  355   7  3   7.6   4.2 |   6.4  43.5  010   1  1   5.8   3.2
  7000   7.2  45.0  360   6  3   7.3   4.0 |   6.9  44.4  060   2  1   7.4   4.0
  6750   7.7  45.9  005   6  3   5.8   3.2 |   7.5  45.5  070   2  1   9.5   5.2
  6500   8.1  46.6  005   6  3   4.3   2.4 |   8.3  46.9  075   2  1   9.8   5.4
  6250   8.5  47.3  005   6  3   6.9   3.8 |   9.0  48.2  080   3  1   9.4   5.1
  6000   8.9  48.0  360   6  3  -1.8  -1.0 |   9.7  49.5  085   3  1  10.7   5.9
  5750   8.1  46.6  340   4  2 -14.6  -8.0 |  10.6  51.1  085   3  1  15.2   8.3
  5500   7.0  44.6  300   1  1  -9.9  -5.4 |  11.9  53.4  080   3  1  18.5  10.1

           10/30/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       10/30/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +7.8  LI... +7.4                | K index... +9.7  LI... +5.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.6 -84.3  270  33 17   4.0   2.2 | -64.8 -84.6  275  38 20   3.7   2.0
 45000 -59.0 -74.2  280  38 19   1.7   0.9 | -59.7 -75.5  285  42 22   1.9   1.1
 40000 -56.5 -69.7  295  42 21   3.2   1.8 | -56.6 -69.9  305  43 22   3.3   1.8
 38000 -53.1 -63.6  305  42 22   5.8   3.2 | -53.6 -64.5  305  44 23   5.1   2.8
 36000 -49.6 -57.3  310  44 23   5.8   3.2 | -50.6 -59.1  305  45 23   5.0   2.8
 34000 -45.7 -50.3  320  47 24   6.9   3.8 | -46.5 -51.7  310  46 24   7.9   4.3
 32000 -41.6 -42.9  320  50 26   6.9   3.8 | -41.8 -43.2  320  46 24   7.9   4.3
 30000 -36.6 -33.9  320  51 26   7.7   4.2 | -37.2 -35.0  320  46 24   7.7   4.2
 29000 -34.3 -29.7  320  51 26   7.7   4.2 | -34.9 -30.8  320  46 24   7.7   4.2
 28000 -32.0 -25.6  320  50 26   7.7   4.2 | -32.0 -25.6  320  46 24   7.7   4.2
 27000 -29.7 -21.5  320  49 25   8.0   4.4 | -29.7 -21.5  320  46 24   7.7   4.3
 26000 -27.3 -17.1  320  49 25   8.0   4.4 | -27.4 -17.3  320  46 24   7.7   4.3
 25000 -24.9 -12.8  320  48 25   8.0   4.4 | -25.1 -13.2  320  46 24   7.8   4.3
 24000 -22.6  -8.7  320  48 25   7.1   3.9 | -22.8  -9.0  320  45 23   7.8   4.3
 23000 -20.5  -4.9  320  49 25   7.1   3.9 | -20.5  -4.9  320  45 23   7.8   4.3
 22000 -18.4  -1.1  320  51 26   7.2   3.9 | -18.2  -0.8  320  44 23   7.9   4.3
 21000 -16.3   2.7  320  51 26   7.2   3.9 | -16.0   3.2  320  44 22   6.9   3.8
 20000 -14.2   6.4  320  50 26   7.2   3.9 | -14.0   6.8  325  43 22   6.9   3.8
 19500 -13.1   8.4  320  49 25   7.1   3.9 | -13.0   8.6  325  42 22   6.9   3.8
 19000 -12.0  10.4  325  49 25   6.7   3.7 | -11.9  10.6  325  42 22   6.6   3.6
 18500 -11.1  12.0  325  47 24   6.2   3.4 | -11.0  12.2  325  41 21   6.4   3.5
 18000 -10.2  13.6  325  46 24   6.2   3.4 | -10.1  13.8  325  40 20   6.4   3.5
 17500  -9.3  15.3  325  44 23   5.6   3.0 |  -9.2  15.4  325  38 20   5.4   3.0
 17000  -8.5  16.7  325  42 22   5.6   3.1 |  -8.4  16.9  325  37 19   5.5   3.0
 16500  -7.7  18.1  325  40 21   5.3   2.9 |  -7.6  18.3  325  36 19   5.2   2.8
 16000  -7.0  19.4  325  38 20   5.0   2.8 |  -6.9  19.6  325  34 18   5.1   2.8
 15500  -6.2  20.8  325  37 19   4.9   2.7 |  -6.2  20.8  325  33 17   5.2   2.9
 15000  -5.3  22.5  320  34 18   4.3   2.4 |  -5.4  22.3  325  31 16   5.4   3.0
 14500  -4.7  23.5  320  33 17   4.8   2.6 |  -4.6  23.7  325  29 15   5.4   3.0
 14000  -3.9  25.0  320  30 15   5.1   2.8 |  -3.6  25.5  320  26 13   4.8   2.6
 13500  -3.1  26.4  320  27 14   5.3   2.9 |  -2.9  26.8  315  24 12   5.3   2.9
 13000  -2.3  27.9  320  25 13   5.7   3.1 |  -2.0  28.4  310  21 11   6.1   3.3
 12500  -1.5  29.3  320  24 12   5.8   3.2 |  -1.1  30.0  305  19 10   6.4   3.5
 12000  -0.5  31.1  315  22 11   6.3   3.5 |  -0.1  31.8  300  18  9   7.1   3.9
 11500   0.4  32.7  315  20 10   6.3   3.5 |   1.0  33.8  295  17  9   6.3   3.5
 11000   1.4  34.5  310  18  9   6.4   3.5 |   1.7  35.1  295  15  8   4.3   2.4
 10500   2.3  36.1  305  16  8   5.7   3.1 |   2.4  36.3  290  13  7   3.5   1.9
 10250   2.7  36.9  305  15  8   4.2   2.3 |   2.6  36.7  290  12  6   2.0   1.1
 10000   3.0  37.4  305  15  7   5.2   2.9 |   2.7  36.9  285  11  6   3.3   1.8
  9750   3.5  38.3  305  12  6   6.7   3.7 |   3.0  37.4  285   9  5   4.3   2.4
  9500   3.9  39.0  310  10  5   4.7   2.6 |   3.3  37.9  275   6  3   3.9   2.1
  9250   4.1  39.4  310   9  4   2.6   1.4 |   3.6  38.5  270   5  2   3.4   1.9
  9000   4.4  39.9  315   7  4   3.5   1.9 |   3.9  39.0  260   3  1   4.4   2.4
  8750   4.7  40.5  320   4  2   4.5   2.5 |   4.2  39.6  200   1  1   5.9   3.2
  8500   5.0  41.0  355   2  1   5.8   3.2 |   4.7  40.5  125   2  1   8.0   4.4
  8250   5.4  41.7  030   2  1   6.4   3.5 |   5.4  41.7  115   3  1   9.0   4.9
  8000   5.9  42.6  055   3  1   7.1   3.9 |   6.0  42.8  105   3  2   9.4   5.1
  7750   6.5  43.7  065   3  2   9.6   5.3 |   6.7  44.1  100   4  2  10.4   5.7
  7500   7.2  45.0  065   4  2  10.2   5.6 |   7.5  45.5  095   4  2   9.9   5.4
  7250   8.0  46.4  065   4  2   9.5   5.2 |   8.2  46.8  090   4  2   9.5   5.2
  7000   8.7  47.7  065   4  2  10.2   5.6 |   8.9  48.0  085   5  2   9.8   5.4
  6750   9.5  49.1  065   4  2  10.5   5.8 |   9.7  49.5  085   5  3   9.6   5.3
  6500  10.2  50.4  065   4  2  10.2   5.6 |  10.4  50.7  080   5  3   9.4   5.1
  6250  11.0  51.8  065   4  2  10.5   5.8 |  11.1  52.0  080   6  3   9.4   5.2
  6000  11.8  53.2  065   4  2   9.6   5.2 |  11.8  53.2  080   6  3   9.5   5.2
  5750  12.5  54.5  065   3  2  12.8   7.0 |  12.4  54.3  075   6  3   7.5   4.1
  5500  13.8  56.8  065   4  2  20.7  11.3 |  12.8  55.0  075   5  2   3.8   2.1
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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