Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 240154
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1954 MDT Tuesday, June 23, 2015

This forecast is for Wednesday, June 24, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 90.3 F/32.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 143 ft/min (0.7 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 7985 ft MSL (2678 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 89.0 F/32.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1415 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 6474 ft MSL (1167 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Thursday 06/25..... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 16621 ft MSL (11314 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Thursday 06/25........ Poor

Remarks... None

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:32:29 / 20:31:14 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 58 min 46 sec (898 min 46 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:01:57 MDT... 73.60 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 06/24/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16664 ft MSL (11357 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18853 ft MSL (13546 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 18036 ft MSL (12729 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -0.2
K index......................... +20.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -65.9 -86.6   285   36   19   1.9   1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.7 -79.1   270   48   25   4.5   2.5      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -54.6 -66.3   265   48   25   6.5   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -50.6 -59.1   260   45   23   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -46.7 -52.1   260   43   22   6.4   3.5      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -41.4 -42.5   255   40   21   9.1   5.0      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -35.9 -32.6   255   37   19   9.1   5.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -30.9 -23.6   260   29   15   7.2   4.0   44.2 111.5     9.4      M    M
 29000  -28.7 -19.7   270   25   13   7.2   4.0   43.3 109.9     8.8      M    M
 28000  -26.6 -15.9   275   22   11   7.2   4.0   42.4 108.3     8.2      M    M
 27000  -24.4 -11.9   275   22   11   7.2   4.0   41.3 106.3     7.5      M    M
 26000  -22.3  -8.1   275   22   11   7.2   4.0   40.4 104.7     6.8      M    M
 25000  -20.2  -4.4   280   22   11   7.3   4.0   39.6 103.2     6.2      M    M
 24000  -18.0  -0.4   275   20   10   7.5   4.1   38.6 101.5     5.4      M    M
 23000  -15.8   3.6   275   18    9   7.5   4.1   37.8 100.0     4.7      M    M
 22000  -13.6   7.5   270   17    9   7.1   3.9   37.0  98.7     4.1      M    M
 21000  -11.6  11.1   265   17    9   6.8   3.7   35.9  96.6     3.2      M    M
 20000   -9.6  14.7   260   17    9   6.8   3.7   34.9  94.8     2.3      M    M
 19500   -8.6  16.5   260   17    9   7.2   3.9   34.4  93.9     1.9      M    M
 19000   -7.2  19.0   260   17    9  10.5   5.8   34.3  93.8     1.8      M    M
 18500   -5.7  21.7   265   18    9  10.3   5.7   34.4  93.9     1.9      M    M
 18000   -4.2  24.4   270   19   10  10.1   5.5   34.5  94.1     2.0      M    M
 17500   -2.7  27.1   275   20   10  10.0   5.5   34.5  94.2     2.0      M    M
 17000   -1.2  29.8   275   21   11   9.9   5.4   34.6  94.2     2.0      M    M
 16500    0.1  32.2   275   22   11   8.9   4.9   34.5  94.1     1.9      M    M
 16000    2.1  35.8   280   22   12   9.2   5.0   34.3  93.8     1.7      M    M
 15500    3.5  38.3   280   22   11   9.7   5.3   34.3  93.7     1.7      M    M
 15000    5.0  41.0   280   22   11   9.7   5.3   34.3  93.7     1.7      M    M
 14500    6.4  43.5   280   22   11   9.3   5.1   34.2  93.6     1.6      M    M
 14000    7.8  46.0   280   21   11   9.3   5.1   34.1  93.4     1.6      M    M
 13500    9.2  48.6   280   21   11   9.5   5.2   34.1  93.4     1.5      M    M
 13000   10.6  51.1   280   21   11   9.6   5.3   34.1  93.3     1.5      M    M
 12500   12.0  53.6   285   20   10   9.3   5.1   34.0  93.3     1.5      M    M
 12000   13.4  56.1   285   20   10   9.1   5.0   33.9  93.0     1.4      M    M
 11500   14.7  58.5   285   20   10   8.9   4.9   33.8  92.9     1.3      M    M
 11000   16.1  61.0   285   19   10   8.5   4.7   33.7  92.6     1.2      M    M
 10500   17.4  63.3   285   18    9   5.4   3.0   33.5  92.3     1.0      M    M
 10250   17.7  63.9   285   17    9   6.5   3.6   33.0  91.5     0.6      M    M
 10000   18.4  65.1   290   17    9  11.5   6.3   33.1  91.6     0.7      M    M
  9750   19.2  66.6   290   16    8  10.6   5.8   33.2  91.7     0.7      M    M
  9500   20.0  68.0   290   16    8   9.1   5.0   33.2  91.8     0.8      M    M
  9250   20.6  69.1   290   15    8   7.3   4.0   33.1  91.5     0.6      M    M
  9000   21.2  70.2   290   14    7   8.3   4.6   32.9  91.2     0.5      M    M
  8750   21.8  71.2   290   14    7   8.7   4.7   32.8  91.1     0.4      M    M
  8500   22.4  72.3   295   13    7   8.3   4.5   32.7  90.9     0.3      M    M
  8250   23.0  73.4   295   12    6   8.2   4.5   32.6  90.7     0.2      M    M
  8000   23.6  74.5   295   12    6   7.4   4.1   32.5  90.4     0.0      M    M
  7750   24.1  75.4   300   11    6   6.9   3.8   32.2  90.0    -0.2    122  0.6
  7500   24.6  76.3   300   11    6   5.4   2.9   32.0  89.6    -0.4    100  0.5
  7250   24.9  76.8   300   10    5   3.7   2.0   31.6  88.8    -0.9     84  0.4
  7000   25.2  77.4   305    9    5   4.4   2.4   31.1  88.1    -1.3     68  0.3
  6750   25.5  77.9   305    9    4   2.0   1.1   30.7  87.2    -1.8     52  0.3
  6500   25.4  77.7   305    8    4  -5.1  -2.8   29.8  85.7    -2.6     48  0.2
  6250   24.6  76.3   300    7    4 -10.4  -5.7   28.5  83.2    -4.1     63  0.3
  6000   23.9  75.0   295    6    3  -2.7  -1.5   27.1  80.8    -5.6     78  0.4
  5750   23.6  74.5   290    6    3 -11.6  -6.4   26.2  79.1    -6.6     80  0.4
  5500   21.0  69.8   265    4    2 -49.9 -27.4   23.2  73.7    -9.9    149  0.8

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           06/24/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       06/24/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +22.2  LI... -0.1               | K index... +22.0  LI... -2.1
CAPE... +42.6  CIN... -178.3               | CAPE... +488.5  CIN... -47.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.3 -85.5  280  36 19   1.8   1.0 | -65.0 -85.0  280  35 18   0.9   0.5
 45000 -61.3 -78.3  270  50 26   4.4   2.4 | -61.9 -79.4  270  52 27   4.4   2.4
 40000 -54.4 -65.9  270  48 25   6.1   3.4 | -54.8 -66.6  265  50 26   6.9   3.8
 38000 -50.7 -59.3  265  46 24   6.2   3.4 | -50.6 -59.1  265  47 24   7.0   3.8
 36000 -47.0 -52.6  265  44 23   5.9   3.2 | -46.4 -51.5  265  44 23   6.9   3.8
 34000 -41.8 -43.2  265  42 22   9.1   5.0 | -41.9 -43.4  260  41 21   7.6   4.2
 32000 -35.6 -32.1  260  40 21   9.3   5.1 | -36.7 -34.1  260  37 19   8.4   4.6
 30000 -31.2 -24.2  260  31 16   7.3   4.0 | -31.4 -24.5  260  33 17   8.9   4.9
 29000 -29.1 -20.4  255  26 13   7.3   4.0 | -28.8 -19.8  260  31 16   9.0   4.9
 28000 -26.9 -16.4  255  22 11   7.7   4.2 | -26.2 -15.2  260  29 15   6.9   3.8
 27000 -24.6 -12.3  260  21 11   7.7   4.2 | -24.1 -11.4  260  26 13   7.1   3.9
 26000 -22.3  -8.1  270  21 11   7.7   4.2 | -22.0  -7.6  265  23 12   7.1   3.9
 25000 -20.0  -4.0  280  21 11   7.8   4.3 | -19.9  -3.8  270  20 10   7.0   3.9
 24000 -17.7   0.1  285  19 10   7.8   4.3 | -17.9  -0.2  265  21 11   6.9   3.8
 23000 -15.4   4.3  290  18  9   7.9   4.3 | -15.8   3.6  260  21 11   6.9   3.8
 22000 -13.1   8.4  290  16  8   7.3   4.0 | -13.8   7.2  255  22 11   7.3   4.0
 21000 -11.1  12.0  290  17  9   7.0   3.9 | -11.6  11.1  255  20 11   7.5   4.1
 20000  -9.0  15.8  290  18  9   7.1   3.9 |  -9.4  15.1  250  19 10   7.6   4.2
 19500  -8.0  17.6  290  18  9   7.1   3.9 |  -8.3  17.1  250  18  9   7.8   4.3
 19000  -7.0  19.4  290  19 10   6.9   3.8 |  -7.0  19.4  255  17  9   9.3   5.1
 18500  -6.0  21.2  285  20 10   7.5   3.8 |  -5.6  21.9  255  16  8   9.2   5.0
 18000  -4.9  23.2  285  21 11   7.8   4.3 |  -4.3  24.3  260  16  8   9.3   5.1
 17500  -3.7  25.3  285  21 11   8.2   4.5 |  -2.9  26.8  265  15  8   9.4   5.1
 17000  -2.5  27.5  285  21 11   8.3   4.6 |  -0.8  30.6  270  14  7   8.6   4.7
 16500  -0.5  31.1  280  21 11   9.2   5.1 |   0.4  32.7  280  14  7   8.4   4.6
 16000   0.9  33.6  280  20 10   9.4   5.2 |   1.7  35.1  285  14  7   8.7   4.8
 15500   2.3  36.1  280  19 10  10.0   5.5 |   3.1  37.6  290  14  7   9.5   5.2
 15000   3.8  38.8  280  18  9   9.9   5.4 |   4.5  40.1  290  14  7   9.5   5.2
 14500   5.4  41.7  280  18  9  10.4   5.7 |   5.9  42.6  295  14  7   9.1   5.0
 14000   6.9  44.4  280  18  9  10.4   5.7 |   7.2  45.0  300  14  7   9.1   5.0
 13500   8.4  47.1  280  17  9  10.0   5.5 |   8.6  47.5  305  14  7   9.3   5.1
 13000   9.9  49.8  285  17  9  10.0   5.5 |  10.0  50.0  305  14  7   9.3   5.1
 12500  11.4  52.5  290  17  9   9.8   5.4 |  11.4  52.5  310  15  8   9.5   5.2
 12000  12.9  55.2  290  18  9   9.7   5.3 |  12.8  55.0  310  16  8   9.5   5.2
 11500  14.3  57.7  295  19 10   9.2   5.1 |  14.2  57.6  310  17  9   8.8   4.9
 11000  15.6  60.1  295  20 10   8.6   4.7 |  15.4  59.7  315  17  9   8.1   4.4
 10500  16.9  62.4  300  21 11   5.4   3.0 |  16.7  62.1  315  17  9   4.8   2.6
 10250  17.2  63.0  300  21 11   6.6   3.6 |  16.9  62.4  315  17  9   5.9   3.2
 10000  18.0  64.4  300  22 11  11.6   6.4 |  17.6  63.7  320  17  9  10.9   6.0
  9750  18.8  65.8  300  22 11  10.9   6.0 |  18.4  65.1  320  16  8  10.3   5.7
  9500  19.6  67.3  300  23 12   8.9   4.9 |  19.1  66.4  325  16  8   7.7   4.2
  9250  20.2  68.4  300  23 12   7.5   4.1 |  19.5  67.1  325  16  8   6.3   3.5
  9000  20.8  69.4  305  23 12   9.7   5.3 |  20.2  68.4  330  15  8   9.5   5.2
  8750  21.6  70.9  305  23 12  10.1   5.5 |  20.9  69.6  330  15  8   9.9   5.4
  8500  22.3  72.1  305  23 12   9.5   5.2 |  21.6  70.9  335  15  7   9.2   5.1
  8250  23.0  73.4  305  23 12   9.1   5.0 |  22.2  72.0  340  14  7   8.7   4.8
  8000  23.7  74.7  305  23 12   9.1   5.0 |  22.9  73.2  345  13  7   9.0   4.9
  7750  24.4  75.9  305  22 12   8.9   4.9 |  23.5  74.3  345  12  6   9.1   5.0
  7500  25.0  77.0  305  22 11   8.5   4.7 |  24.1  75.4  350  11  6   9.5   5.2
  7250  25.6  78.1  305  21 11   8.0   4.4 |  24.8  76.6  350  10  5  10.0   5.5
  7000  26.2  79.2  305  20 10   8.6   4.7 |  25.5  77.9  355   9  5   9.3   5.1
  6750  26.8  80.2  305  19 10   5.4   2.9 |  26.2  79.2  355   8  4   9.1   5.0
  6500  26.8  80.2  305  17  9  -2.0  -1.1 |  26.9  80.4  355   8  4  10.4   5.7
  6250  26.4  79.5  305  14  7  -4.5  -2.5 |  27.7  81.9  360   7  4  11.5   6.3
  6000  26.0  78.8  300  11  6  -3.6  -2.0 |  28.5  83.3  360   7  4   9.2   5.1
  5750  25.7  78.3  295   8  4  -3.8  -2.1 |  29.2  84.6  360   7  4  13.1   7.2
  5500  25.2  77.4  280   5  3  -3.1  -1.7 |  30.6  87.1  360   7  4  25.7  14.1

           06/24/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       06/24/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +24.9  LI... -1.5               | K index... +24.2  LI... -0.8
CAPE... +204.5  CIN... -4.0                | CAPE... +30.7  CIN... -146.5
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.9 -84.8  270  38 20   1.6   0.9 | -64.9 -84.8  275  38 20   2.1   1.2
 45000 -61.7 -79.1  270  53 27   3.1   1.7 | -61.3 -78.3  275  50 26   2.9   1.6
 40000 -56.2 -69.2  255  46 24   8.3   4.6 | -55.9 -68.6  250  46 24   8.7   4.8
 38000 -51.1 -60.0  255  41 21   8.4   4.6 | -50.7 -59.3  250  41 21   8.8   4.8
 36000 -46.0 -50.8  250  37 19   8.4   4.6 | -44.7 -48.5  245  35 18   8.8   4.8
 34000 -40.0 -40.0  250  32 16   8.9   4.9 | -39.4 -38.9  245  31 16   8.9   4.9
 32000 -34.7 -30.5  245  27 14   9.3   5.1 | -34.1 -29.4  250  28 15   9.4   5.2
 30000 -29.9 -21.8  255  25 13   8.1   4.4 | -29.2 -20.6  255  25 13   8.1   4.5
 29000 -27.5 -17.5  255  23 12   8.1   4.4 | -26.8 -16.2  260  23 12   8.2   4.5
 28000 -25.1 -13.2  260  22 12   7.1   3.9 | -24.5 -12.1  265  22 11   6.7   3.7
 27000 -23.0  -9.4  260  22 11   7.2   3.9 | -22.5  -8.5  270  22 11   6.8   3.7
 26000 -20.9  -5.6  260  21 11   7.2   4.0 | -20.5  -4.9  275  23 12   6.8   3.7
 25000 -18.7  -1.7  260  21 11   7.0   3.9 | -18.5  -1.3  280  23 12   6.6   3.6
 24000 -16.7   1.9  265  19 10   6.8   3.7 | -16.6   2.1  285  23 12   6.3   3.4
 23000 -14.7   5.5  270  18  9   6.8   3.7 | -14.8   5.4  295  24 12   6.3   3.5
 22000 -12.7   9.1  275  17  9   6.7   3.7 | -12.9   8.8  300  24 13   6.6   3.6
 21000 -10.8  12.6  275  17  9   6.5   3.6 | -10.9  12.4  300  25 13   6.9   3.8
 20000  -8.9  16.0  270  16  8   6.6   3.6 |  -8.9  16.0  295  26 13   6.9   3.8
 19500  -8.0  17.6  270  16  8   6.6   3.6 |  -7.9  17.8  295  26 13   6.9   3.8
 19000  -7.0  19.4  275  16  8   6.5   3.6 |  -6.9  19.6  295  26 13   6.6   3.6
 18500  -6.1  21.0  280  16  8   6.5   3.6 |  -5.4  22.3  300  26 14   6.5   3.6
 18000  -4.6  23.7  285  15  8   6.7   3.7 |  -4.3  24.3  300  26 13   8.4   4.6
 17500  -3.6  25.5  285  15  7   6.6   3.6 |  -3.1  26.4  300  24 13   8.2   4.5
 17000  -2.6  27.3  285  14  7   7.4   4.1 |  -1.9  28.6  300  23 12   8.4   4.6
 16500  -1.5  29.3  285  13  7   7.8   4.3 |  -0.6  30.9  305  20 10   8.5   4.7
 16000  -0.4  31.3  285  12  6   8.2   4.5 |   0.6  33.1  305  17  9   8.5   4.7
 15500   1.1  34.0  285  11  6   9.9   5.5 |   1.9  35.4  305  14  7   8.5   4.7
 15000   2.5  36.5  285  10  5   9.8   5.4 |   3.1  37.6  305  11  6   8.5   4.7
 14500   4.1  39.4  280  10  5  10.5   5.8 |   4.4  39.9  305   8  4   8.7   4.8
 14000   5.6  42.1  280   9  5  10.5   5.8 |   5.7  42.3  300   5  3   8.7   4.8
 13500   7.2  45.0  280   9  5  10.1   5.5 |   7.0  44.6  285   3  2   8.8   4.8
 13000   8.7  47.7  280   9  5  10.0   5.5 |   8.3  46.9  245   2  1   8.8   4.8
 12500  10.2  50.4  280   9  5  10.1   5.5 |   9.6  49.3  205   3  2   8.9   4.9
 12000  11.7  53.1  280   9  5  10.1   5.5 |  10.9  51.6  195   5  3   8.9   4.9
 11500  13.2  55.8  280   9  5   9.8   5.4 |  12.3  54.1  190   7  4   8.6   4.7
 11000  14.6  58.3  285   8  4   9.3   5.1 |  13.5  56.3  195   9  5   7.8   4.3
 10500  16.1  61.0  285   6  3   5.7   3.1 |  14.7  58.5  195  11  6   3.6   2.0
 10250  16.3  61.3  285   6  3   6.9   3.8 |  14.8  58.6  195  11  6   5.1   2.8
 10000  17.2  63.0  290   5  3  12.6   6.9 |  15.6  60.1  200  12  6  11.6   6.4
  9750  18.0  64.4  295   4  2  12.0   6.6 |  16.3  61.3  200  13  7  10.5   5.8
  9500  18.8  65.8  305   3  2   8.8   4.8 |  17.1  62.8  200  14  7   8.4   4.6
  9250  19.3  66.7  305   3  1   6.8   3.7 |  17.6  63.7  200  15  8   6.1   3.4
  9000  20.0  68.0  310   2  1  10.3   5.6 |  18.1  64.6  205  16  8   8.6   4.7
  8750  20.7  69.3  315   2  1  10.7   5.9 |  18.8  65.8  205  18  9   9.6   5.3
  8500  21.5  70.7  320   2  1  10.0   5.5 |  19.5  67.1  205  19 10   8.4   4.6
  8250  22.2  72.0  325   2  1   9.4   5.1 |  20.0  68.0  210  20 10   7.4   4.1
  8000  22.9  73.2  325   2  1   9.9   5.5 |  20.6  69.1  210  21 11   8.0   4.4
  7750  23.6  74.5  325   2  1  10.3   5.7 |  21.2  70.2  210  22 12   8.2   4.5
  7500  24.4  75.9  325   2  1  10.0   5.5 |  21.7  71.1  215  24 12   7.2   3.9
  7250  25.1  77.2  325   2  1  10.1   5.6 |  22.2  72.0  215  25 13   6.3   3.4
  7000  25.8  78.4  320   2  1   9.6   5.3 |  22.7  72.9  220  27 14   7.2   4.0
  6750  26.6  79.9  320   2  1   9.4   5.1 |  23.3  73.9  220  28 15   7.3   4.0
  6500  27.3  81.1  320   2  1  10.2   5.6 |  23.7  74.7  220  28 15   5.4   3.0
  6250  28.1  82.6  320   2  1  11.0   6.0 |  24.0  75.2  225  27 14   5.0   2.8
  6000  28.8  83.8  320   2  1   9.5   5.2 |  24.3  75.7  225  26 14   4.0   2.2
  5750  29.6  85.3  320   2  1  11.1   6.1 |  24.5  76.1  225  26 13   6.4   3.5
  5500  30.6  87.1  325   2  1  17.8   9.8 |  25.3  77.5  230  21 11  14.2   7.8
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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