Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 170035
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1835 MDT Saturday, August 16, 2014

This forecast is for Sunday, August 17, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 84.2 F/29.0 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1324 ft/min (6.7 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 17380 ft MSL (12093 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 92.0 F/33.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1045 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11858 ft MSL (6571 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 08/18....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Little change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 46180 ft MSL (40893 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 08/18.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:13:26 / 19:54:05 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 40 min 40 sec (820 min 40 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:03:25 MDT... 63.48 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/17/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15763 ft MSL (10476 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 17519 ft MSL (12232 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 17536 ft MSL (12248 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -2.7
K index......................... +25.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -64.1 -83.4   280   22   11  -0.1  -0.1      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.5 -78.7   280   33   17   5.8   3.2      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.7 -62.9   280   36   19   6.1   3.3      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.1 -56.4   280   35   18   6.1   3.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -45.4 -49.7   275   33   17   6.0   3.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -41.5 -42.7   275   30   15   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -37.0 -34.6   275   26   14   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -32.2 -26.0   280   24   12   8.2   4.5   42.8 109.1     7.2      M    M
 29000  -29.7 -21.5   285   23   12   8.2   4.5   42.3 108.1     6.9      M    M
 28000  -27.3 -17.1   285   21   11   7.5   4.1   41.7 107.1     6.5      M    M
 27000  -25.1 -13.2   285   19   10   7.5   4.1   40.7 105.3     5.8      M    M
 26000  -22.9  -9.2   280   18    9   7.5   4.1   39.9 103.7     5.2      M    M
 25000  -20.6  -5.1   280   16    8   7.6   4.2   39.1 102.4     4.7      M    M
 24000  -18.2  -0.8   285   14    7   8.0   4.4   38.4 101.0     4.1      M    M
 23000  -15.8   3.6   295   13    7   8.0   4.4   37.7  99.9     3.6      M    M
 22000  -13.4   7.9   305   12    6   8.1   4.4   37.2  98.9     3.2      M    M
 21000  -11.0  12.2   310   12    6   8.2   4.5   36.5  97.8     2.7      M    M
 20000   -8.5  16.7   315   12    6   8.2   4.5   36.0  96.8     2.3      M    M
 19500   -7.3  18.9   320   12    6   8.2   4.5   35.8  96.4     2.1      M    M
 19000   -6.1  21.0   320   12    6   7.4   4.0   35.5  95.8     1.8      M    M
 18500   -5.1  22.8   320   12    6   7.5   4.1   35.1  95.1     1.4      M    M
 18000   -4.0  24.8   320   13    6   6.4   3.5   34.7  94.4     1.0      M    M
 17500   -3.2  26.2   315   13    7   5.7   3.1   33.9  93.1     0.3      M    M
 17000   -2.4  27.7   315   13    7   5.8   3.2   33.3  91.9    -0.4   1103  5.6
 16500   -1.6  29.1   310   13    7   6.8   3.8   32.7  90.8    -1.0   1063  5.4
 16000   -0.3  31.5   300   12    6   7.5   4.1   32.0  89.5    -1.9   1000  5.1
 15500    1.0  33.8   300   11    6   9.3   5.1   31.8  89.2    -2.2    949  4.8
 15000    2.3  36.1   300   11    5   9.3   5.1   31.7  89.0    -2.3    895  4.5
 14500    3.6  38.5   305   10    5   9.3   5.1   31.6  88.9    -2.4    840  4.3
 14000    5.0  41.0   305   10    5   9.3   5.1   31.5  88.8    -2.5    784  4.0
 13500    6.4  43.5   310    9    5   9.2   5.0   31.5  88.6    -2.6    728  3.7
 13000    7.7  45.9   310    9    5   9.1   5.0   31.4  88.4    -2.7    671  3.4
 12500    9.1  48.4   310    9    5   8.9   4.9   31.3  88.3    -2.8    616  3.1
 12000   10.4  50.7   305    9    5   8.8   4.8   31.1  88.0    -3.0    561  2.9
 11500   11.8  53.2   305    9    5   8.6   4.7   31.0  87.7    -3.1    507  2.6
 11000   13.0  55.4   300    8    4   8.2   4.5   30.8  87.4    -3.3    454  2.3
 10500   14.3  57.7   290    8    4   3.6   1.9   30.6  87.0    -3.5    401  2.0
 10250   14.4  57.9   290    8    4   5.2   2.9   29.9  85.8    -4.2    391  2.0
 10000   15.2  59.4   290    8    4  12.4   6.8   30.0  86.0    -4.1    359  1.8
  9750   16.0  60.8   285    8    4  11.3   6.2   30.1  86.2    -4.0    327  1.7
  9500   16.8  62.2   285    7    4   8.7   4.7   30.2  86.4    -3.9    295  1.5
  9250   17.3  63.1   285    7    4   6.3   3.4   29.9  85.9    -4.2    273  1.4
  9000   17.9  64.2   285    7    4   9.0   5.0   29.8  85.6    -4.4    248  1.3
  8750   18.6  65.5   285    7    4   9.6   5.2   29.8  85.6    -4.4    220  1.1
  8500   19.3  66.7   285    7    4   8.9   4.9   29.7  85.5    -4.4    192  1.0
  8250   19.9  67.8   290    7    4   8.6   4.7   29.7  85.4    -4.5    165  0.8
  8000   20.6  69.1   290    7    4   8.5   4.7   29.6  85.2    -4.7    139  0.7
  7750   21.2  70.2   295    8    4   8.1   4.5   29.5  85.0    -4.8    113  0.6
  7500   21.8  71.2   300    8    4   8.0   4.4   29.3  84.8    -4.9     87  0.4
  7250   22.4  72.3   305    8    4   7.6   4.1   29.2  84.5    -5.1     63  0.3
  7000   22.9  73.2   310    9    4   8.6   4.7   29.0  84.3    -5.2     38  0.2
  6750   23.5  74.3   310    9    5   3.4   1.9   28.8  83.9    -5.4     15  0.1
  6500   23.4  74.1   310    9    5  -2.6  -1.4   28.0  82.5    -6.3     10  0.1
  6250   23.0  73.4   310    9    5  -7.1  -3.9   27.0  80.6    -7.4     13  0.1
  6000   22.7  72.9   310   10    5   7.5   4.1   26.0  78.8    -8.5     17  0.1
  5750   23.3  73.9   315   11    6 -11.4  -6.3   25.8  78.5    -8.6      M    M
  5500   19.3  66.7   290    5    3 -83.7 -45.9   21.5  70.7   -13.4    104  0.5

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/17/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/17/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +22.8  LI... +0.3               | K index... +13.2  LI... -0.6
CAPE... +120.4  CIN... -93.8               | CAPE... +247.5  CIN... -34.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.7 -82.7  285  19 10   0.1   0.1 | -63.4 -82.1  270  19 10   0.3   0.1
 45000 -61.0 -77.8  280  29 15   5.7   3.1 | -60.5 -76.9  270  28 14   5.5   3.0
 40000 -52.4 -62.3  275  34 18   5.6   3.0 | -52.3 -62.1  275  31 16   5.3   2.9
 38000 -49.1 -56.4  280  34 18   5.5   3.0 | -49.1 -56.4  280  33 17   5.3   2.9
 36000 -45.7 -50.3  280  34 18   5.5   3.0 | -45.9 -50.6  280  36 19   5.1   2.8
 34000 -41.3 -42.3  280  33 17   6.8   3.7 | -41.2 -42.2  280  35 18   7.3   4.0
 32000 -37.2 -35.0  285  31 16   6.9   3.8 | -36.9 -34.4  280  33 17   7.4   4.1
 30000 -32.4 -26.3  285  27 14   8.2   4.5 | -32.5 -26.5  280  30 15   7.4   4.0
 29000 -29.9 -21.8  280  25 13   8.2   4.5 | -30.2 -22.4  280  28 14   7.4   4.0
 28000 -27.5 -17.5  280  23 12   6.7   3.6 | -28.1 -18.6  280  26 14   6.6   3.6
 27000 -25.5 -13.9  280  22 11   6.6   3.6 | -26.1 -15.0  280  26 13   6.5   3.6
 26000 -23.6 -10.5  280  21 11   6.6   3.6 | -24.2 -11.6  275  26 13   6.5   3.6
 25000 -21.6  -6.9  275  20 10   7.1   3.9 | -22.2  -8.0  275  26 13   7.3   4.0
 24000 -19.2  -2.6  275  18  9   8.2   4.5 | -19.6  -3.3  275  24 13   8.8   4.8
 23000 -16.7   1.9  275  16  8   8.2   4.5 | -17.0   1.4  270  23 12   8.8   4.8
 22000 -14.3   6.3  275  15  7   8.1   4.5 | -14.3   6.3  270  21 11   8.2   4.5
 21000 -11.9  10.6  280  14  7   8.1   4.4 | -12.0  10.4  270  20 10   7.7   4.3
 20000  -9.5  14.9  285  13  7   8.1   4.5 |  -9.7  14.5  275  18  9   7.8   4.3
 19500  -8.2  17.2  285  12  6   8.1   4.4 |  -8.5  16.7  275  17  9   7.7   4.2
 19000  -7.1  19.2  290  12  6   7.6   4.2 |  -7.5  18.5  275  16  8   6.6   3.6
 18500  -5.9  21.4  295  13  7   7.7   4.2 |  -6.5  20.3  280  16  8   6.7   3.7
 18000  -4.8  23.4  295  13  7   6.8   3.7 |  -5.5  22.1  285  15  8   7.5   4.1
 17500  -3.9  25.0  295  14  7   6.4   3.5 |  -4.3  24.3  290  15  8   7.9   4.3
 17000  -3.1  26.4  290  15  8   6.6   3.6 |  -3.2  26.2  295  16  8   8.0   4.4
 16500  -1.4  29.5  290  14  7   8.0   4.4 |  -1.3  29.7  300  16  8   8.7   4.7
 16000  -0.3  31.5  290  13  7   8.3   4.6 |  -0.0  32.0  305  17  9   8.6   4.7
 15500   1.0  33.8  295  13  6   9.0   4.9 |   1.2  34.2  305  17  9   8.5   4.6
 15000   2.3  36.1  295  12  6   9.0   4.9 |   2.4  36.3  310  18  9   8.5   4.7
 14500   3.6  38.5  300  11  6   9.1   5.0 |   3.7  38.7  310  19 10   9.3   5.1
 14000   4.9  40.8  300  11  6   9.1   5.0 |   5.0  41.0  310  18  9   9.3   5.1
 13500   6.3  43.3  305  11  6   9.4   5.1 |   6.3  43.3  315  18  9   9.1   5.0
 13000   7.6  45.7  310  11  5   9.4   5.2 |   7.7  45.9  315  17  9   9.1   5.0
 12500   9.0  48.2  310  10  5   8.9   4.9 |   9.0  48.2  315  16  8   9.1   5.0
 12000  10.2  50.4  315  10  5   8.7   4.8 |  10.4  50.7  310  15  8   9.1   5.0
 11500  11.5  52.7  315  10  5   9.0   4.9 |  11.8  53.2  310  14  7   9.1   5.0
 11000  12.9  55.2  315  10  5   9.1   5.0 |  13.1  55.6  310  13  6   9.1   5.0
 10500  14.1  57.4  320  10  5   3.8   2.1 |  14.3  57.7  310  12  6   4.1   2.2
 10250  14.3  57.7  320  10  5   5.9   3.2 |  14.6  58.3  310  11  6   6.6   3.6
 10000  15.1  59.2  320  10  5  12.5   6.8 |  15.4  59.7  310  11  5  12.6   6.9
  9750  15.9  60.6  325  10  5  10.9   6.0 |  16.2  61.2  310  10  5  11.1   6.1
  9500  16.7  62.1  325  10  5   8.2   4.5 |  16.9  62.4  310   9  5   7.8   4.3
  9250  17.2  63.0  325  10  5   6.2   3.4 |  17.4  63.3  310   9  4   6.0   3.3
  9000  17.7  63.9  325  10  5   8.8   4.8 |  17.9  64.2  315   8  4   8.9   4.9
  8750  18.4  65.1  325  10  5   9.2   5.1 |  18.6  65.5  315   7  4   9.3   5.1
  8500  19.1  66.4  325  10  5   7.9   4.3 |  19.2  66.6  325   7  3   9.0   5.0
  8250  19.6  67.3  330  10  5   7.1   3.9 |  19.8  67.6  330   6  3   8.9   4.9
  8000  20.2  68.4  330  10  5   7.6   4.2 |  20.4  68.7  340   5  3   9.5   5.2
  7750  20.8  69.4  330  10  5   7.6   4.2 |  21.1  70.0  340   5  3   9.9   5.4
  7500  21.3  70.3  335  10  5   7.0   3.9 |  21.9  71.4  345   5  3   9.7   5.3
  7250  21.8  71.2  335  10  5   7.1   3.9 |  22.6  72.7  345   5  3   9.7   5.3
  7000  22.3  72.1  335  10  5   6.3   3.4 |  23.3  73.9  345   5  3   9.8   5.4
  6750  22.7  72.9  340   9  5   4.7   2.6 |  24.1  75.4  345   5  3  10.2   5.6
  6500  23.0  73.4  335   9  5   4.1   2.3 |  24.8  76.6  345   5  3  10.6   5.8
  6250  23.3  73.9  330   9  5   5.5   3.0 |  25.6  78.1  345   5  2  10.2   5.6
  6000  23.6  74.5  330   9  5   0.8   0.4 |  26.4  79.5  345   5  2  11.3   6.2
  5750  23.3  73.9  320   7  3  -1.3  -0.7 |  27.4  81.3  345   5  2  16.7   9.2
  5500  23.4  74.1  305   5  2   9.1   5.0 |  28.8  83.8  345   5  2  22.4  12.3

           08/17/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/17/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +22.1  LI... -0.9               | K index... +21.4  LI... -1.0
CAPE... +228.3  CIN... -34.7               | CAPE... +240.0  CIN... -39.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.9 -81.2  265  17  9  -0.3  -0.2 | -62.3 -80.1  280  19 10   0.0   0.0
 45000 -60.7 -77.3  260  29 15   5.5   3.0 | -60.2 -76.4  275  34 17   4.7   2.6
 40000 -52.5 -62.5  270  35 18   5.2   2.9 | -53.0 -63.4  270  41 21   5.5   3.0
 38000 -49.3 -56.7  275  38 20   5.2   2.9 | -49.7 -57.5  275  41 21   5.5   3.0
 36000 -46.2 -51.2  280  42 22   5.1   2.8 | -46.4 -51.5  280  41 21   5.4   2.9
 34000 -41.3 -42.3  280  40 21   7.6   4.2 | -41.4 -42.5  280  40 21   7.7   4.2
 32000 -36.8 -34.2  280  38 20   7.7   4.2 | -36.8 -34.2  280  40 20   7.9   4.4
 30000 -32.7 -26.9  280  35 18   6.7   3.7 | -32.2 -26.0  280  38 19   7.7   4.2
 29000 -30.7 -23.3  280  33 17   6.7   3.7 | -29.9 -21.8  280  37 19   7.7   4.2
 28000 -28.6 -19.5  280  31 16   7.3   4.0 | -27.6 -17.7  280  36 18   7.4   4.0
 27000 -26.4 -15.5  280  31 16   7.4   4.0 | -25.4 -13.7  280  35 18   7.3   4.0
 26000 -24.2 -11.6  280  31 16   7.4   4.0 | -23.2  -9.8  280  35 18   7.3   4.0
 25000 -22.0  -7.6  275  31 16   7.8   4.3 | -21.0  -5.8  280  35 18   7.4   4.0
 24000 -19.4  -2.9  275  31 16   8.7   4.8 | -18.8  -1.8  285  34 17   7.4   4.1
 23000 -16.8   1.8  275  31 16   8.7   4.8 | -16.6   2.1  285  33 17   7.5   4.1
 22000 -14.2   6.4  275  31 16   7.8   4.3 | -14.3   6.3  285  32 16   7.5   4.1
 21000 -12.1  10.2  280  29 15   7.2   3.9 | -12.1  10.2  285  30 16   7.5   4.1
 20000 -10.0  14.0  280  27 14   7.3   4.0 |  -9.9  14.2  290  29 15   7.5   4.1
 19500  -8.9  16.0  280  26 13   7.4   4.1 |  -8.8  16.2  290  29 15   7.6   4.2
 19000  -7.7  18.1  285  25 13   8.9   4.9 |  -7.6  18.3  290  28 14   9.4   5.2
 18500  -6.4  20.5  285  25 13   8.8   4.8 |  -6.2  20.8  290  26 14   9.2   5.1
 18000  -5.1  22.8  290  24 12   8.6   4.7 |  -4.8  23.4  290  25 13   8.8   4.8
 17500  -3.9  25.0  290  23 12   8.6   4.7 |  -3.6  25.5  290  23 12   8.5   4.7
 17000  -2.6  27.3  290  23 12   8.6   4.7 |  -1.7  28.9  290  19 10   8.6   4.7
 16500  -0.7  30.7  295  20 10   9.0   4.9 |  -0.5  31.1  290  17  9   8.6   4.7
 16000   0.6  33.1  295  19 10   8.9   4.9 |   0.8  33.4  290  15  8   8.7   4.8
 15500   1.8  35.2  295  17  9   8.5   4.7 |   2.1  35.8  285  13  6   8.9   4.9
 15000   3.0  37.4  290  15  8   8.6   4.7 |   3.4  38.1  280  11  5   8.9   4.9
 14500   4.3  39.7  290  13  7   8.6   4.7 |   4.7  40.5  270   9  4   8.9   4.9
 14000   5.5  41.9  290  12  6   8.6   4.7 |   6.0  42.8  255   7  3   8.9   4.9
 13500   6.8  44.2  290  10  5   9.0   4.9 |   7.3  45.1  240   5  3   8.6   4.7
 13000   8.1  46.6  295   9  4   9.0   5.0 |   8.5  47.3  220   4  2   8.6   4.7
 12500   9.5  49.1  300   7  4   9.1   5.0 |   9.8  49.6  200   4  2   8.6   4.7
 12000  10.9  51.6  305   6  3   9.2   5.0 |  11.1  52.0  185   3  2   8.6   4.7
 11500  12.3  54.1  315   4  2   8.7   4.8 |  12.3  54.1  165   3  1   8.8   4.8
 11000  13.5  56.3  330   4  2   8.3   4.5 |  13.7  56.7  140   2  1   8.7   4.8
 10500  14.6  58.3  345   3  2   4.7   2.6 |  15.0  59.0  095   2  1   5.3   2.9
 10250  14.9  58.8  345   3  2   7.0   3.9 |  15.3  59.5  090   2  1   6.6   3.6
 10000  15.7  60.3  350   3  2  12.2   6.7 |  16.1  61.0  065   2  1  12.1   6.7
  9750  16.5  61.7  350   3  2  11.1   6.1 |  16.9  62.4  045   2  1  11.3   6.2
  9500  17.3  63.1  355   4  2   9.0   4.9 |  17.7  63.9  035   2  1   9.1   5.0
  9250  17.9  64.2  355   4  2   8.2   4.5 |  18.2  64.8  030   3  1   7.8   4.3
  9000  18.6  65.5  355   4  2  10.8   5.9 |  18.9  66.0  025   3  1  10.6   5.8
  8750  19.4  66.9  350   4  2  11.1   6.1 |  19.7  67.5  025   3  1  10.9   6.0
  8500  20.2  68.4  350   4  2  10.2   5.6 |  20.5  68.9  020   3  2  10.2   5.6
  8250  21.0  69.8  350   4  2   9.6   5.3 |  21.2  70.2  015   3  2   9.8   5.4
  8000  21.7  71.1  350   4  2  10.2   5.6 |  22.0  71.6  015   3  2   9.6   5.3
  7750  22.5  72.5  350   4  2  10.5   5.7 |  22.7  72.9  010   4  2   9.4   5.1
  7500  23.2  73.8  350   4  2  10.2   5.6 |  23.4  74.1  010   4  2  10.0   5.5
  7250  24.0  75.2  350   4  2  10.2   5.6 |  24.2  75.6  005   4  2  10.5   5.8
  7000  24.8  76.6  350   4  2  10.1   5.5 |  24.9  76.8  005   4  2   9.7   5.3
  6750  25.5  77.9  350   4  2  10.1   5.6 |  25.6  78.1  360   4  2   9.3   5.1
  6500  26.3  79.3  350   4  2  10.4   5.7 |  26.4  79.5  360   4  2  10.2   5.6
  6250  27.1  80.8  345   4  2  10.6   5.8 |  27.1  80.8  360   4  2  10.9   6.0
  6000  27.9  82.2  345   4  2  10.1   5.6 |  27.9  82.2  355   4  2   9.6   5.3
  5750  28.7  83.7  345   4  2  15.5   8.5 |  28.6  83.5  355   4  2  11.0   6.0
  5500  30.2  86.4  345   4  2  25.5  14.0 |  29.6  85.3  355   4  2  16.7   9.2
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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