Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 160012
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1712 MST Monday, December 15, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, December 16, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 50.7 F/10.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 3 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 7196 ft MSL (1909 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 40.0 F/4.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast opaque high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 6382 ft MSL (1095 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 12/17.... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Fair
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1700 MST)......... Little change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1700 MST)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 34641 ft MSL (29354 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 12/17....... Fair

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:14:06 / 16:36:22 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 22 min 16 sec (562 min 16 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:55:16 MST... 26.97 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 12/16/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 18819 ft MSL (13532 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 11974 ft MSL (6687 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +13.2
K index......................... -0.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -59.4 -74.9   260   39   20   4.1   2.2      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -53.3 -63.9   265   52   27   1.2   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -55.0 -67.0   270   69   35  -1.2  -0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -54.6 -66.3   270   76   39   3.0   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -52.8 -63.0   270   82   42   3.0   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -50.7 -59.3   270   87   45   3.7   2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -48.6 -55.5   270   81   42   3.6   2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -45.8 -50.4   270   73   38   8.6   4.7   30.2  86.3    19.3      M    M
 29000  -43.2 -45.8   270   68   35   8.5   4.7   29.6  85.2    19.1      M    M
 28000  -40.6 -41.1   275   63   33   8.5   4.7   29.1  84.4    19.0      M    M
 27000  -38.1 -36.6   275   58   30   8.0   4.4   28.8  83.9    18.9      M    M
 26000  -36.0 -32.8   275   51   26   7.0   3.8   27.7  81.8    18.3      M    M
 25000  -33.9 -29.0   275   44   23   7.0   3.8   26.6  79.9    17.6      M    M
 24000  -31.8 -25.2   275   38   19   7.1   3.9   25.7  78.2    17.1      M    M
 23000  -29.4 -20.9   275   34   18   8.2   4.5   25.0  77.0    16.7      M    M
 22000  -26.9 -16.4   275   32   17   8.2   4.5   24.4  76.0    16.5      M    M
 21000  -24.4 -11.9   275   30   15   8.4   4.6   24.0  75.1    16.3      M    M
 20000  -21.9  -7.4   280   29   15   8.5   4.6   23.4  74.2    16.0      M    M
 19500  -20.6  -5.1   280   28   15   8.5   4.6   23.2  73.7    15.9      M    M
 19000  -19.3  -2.7   280   28   14   8.4   4.6   23.0  73.4    15.8      M    M
 18500  -18.1  -0.6   280   28   14   7.9   4.4   22.8  73.1    15.8      M    M
 18000  -17.0   1.4   280   28   14   7.2   3.9   22.4  72.3    15.4      M    M
 17500  -15.9   3.4   280   28   15   7.2   4.0   21.9  71.5    15.1      M    M
 17000  -14.4   6.1   280   28   15   6.6   3.6   21.2  70.1    14.6      M    M
 16500  -13.4   7.9   280   28   15   6.6   3.6   20.6  69.2    14.2      M    M
 16000  -12.5   9.5   285   28   15   6.4   3.5   20.1  68.2    13.7      M    M
 15500  -11.5  11.3   285   28   14   6.5   3.6   19.5  67.2    13.3      M    M
 15000  -10.6  12.9   290   27   14   6.2   3.4   19.0  66.1    12.8      M    M
 14500   -9.7  14.5   290   26   13   6.1   3.4   18.4  65.0    12.3      M    M
 14000   -8.8  16.2   295   25   13   6.1   3.4   17.8  64.0    11.9      M    M
 13500   -7.8  18.0   295   23   12   6.1   3.4   17.2  62.9    11.4      M    M
 13000   -6.9  19.6   295   22   11   6.1   3.3   16.6  61.8    10.9      M    M
 12500   -6.0  21.2   295   20   10   6.1   3.3   16.0  60.7    10.4      M    M
 12000   -5.1  22.8   295   18    9   5.6   3.1   15.4  59.7    10.0      M    M
 11500   -4.3  24.3   295   16    8   5.2   2.8   14.6  58.3     9.3      M    M
 11000   -3.5  25.7   290   14    7   4.6   2.5   13.9  57.0     8.7      M    M
 10500   -2.9  26.8   285   12    6   4.2   2.3   13.0  55.4     7.9      M    M
 10250   -2.6  27.3   285   11    6   3.7   2.0   12.5  54.6     7.5      M    M
 10000   -2.3  27.9   285   10    5   2.6   1.5   12.0  53.7     7.0      M    M
  9750   -2.1  28.2   280   10    5   3.0   1.7   11.5  52.6     6.5      M    M
  9500   -1.9  28.6   275    8    4   3.8   2.1   11.0  51.8     6.1      M    M
  9250   -1.6  29.1   270    7    4   3.2   1.8   10.5  50.9     5.6      M    M
  9000   -1.4  29.5   265    7    3   2.5   1.4   10.0  49.9     5.1      M    M
  8750   -1.2  29.8   255    6    3   2.0   1.1    9.4  48.9     4.5      M    M
  8500   -1.1  30.0   250    5    3   2.4   1.3    8.8  47.8     4.0      M    M
  8250   -0.9  30.4   240    5    3   0.9   0.5    8.2  46.7     3.4      M    M
  8000   -1.0  30.2   225    4    2  -0.3  -0.2    7.4  45.3     2.6      M    M
  7750   -1.0  30.2   210    4    2  -0.5  -0.3    6.6  44.0     1.9      M    M
  7500   -1.1  30.0   200    4    2  -1.0  -0.5    5.8  42.5     1.0      M    M
  7250   -1.2  29.8   185    4    2  -0.2  -0.1    5.0  41.0     0.2      M    M
  7000   -1.2  29.8   170    3    2  -0.3  -0.2    4.3  39.7    -0.6    198  1.0
  6750   -1.3  29.7   160    4    2   0.7   0.4    3.5  38.3    -1.3    192  1.0
  6500   -1.4  29.5   150    4    2  -5.5  -3.0    2.7  36.9    -2.2    187  1.0
  6250   -2.1  28.2   165    3    2 -11.2  -6.1    1.2  34.1    -3.7    202  1.0
  6000   -2.8  27.0   180    2    1  -9.4  -5.2   -0.3  31.5    -5.1    217  1.1
  5750   -3.6  25.5   205    2    1 -10.9  -6.0   -1.8  28.8    -6.6    232  1.2
  5500   -4.5  23.9   210    3    1 -13.7  -7.5   -3.4  25.9    -8.3    252  1.3

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           12/16/2014 at 0800 MST          |       12/16/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +0.4  LI... +4.8                | K index... +13.2  LI... +2.3
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.5                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.0 -76.0  255  35 18   3.4   1.9 | -60.0 -76.0  240  36 19   2.5   1.4
 45000 -55.0 -67.0  255  49 25   1.1   0.6 | -56.2 -69.2  245  51 26   1.4   0.8
 40000 -55.6 -68.1  265  67 35  -0.4  -0.2 | -54.9 -66.8  250  63 32   0.8   0.5
 38000 -54.7 -66.5  265  74 38   3.7   2.0 | -53.9 -65.0  255  69 35   2.7   1.5
 36000 -52.5 -62.5  265  78 40   3.7   2.0 | -52.3 -62.1  250  76 39   2.7   1.5
 34000 -49.9 -57.8  260  82 42   4.3   2.4 | -50.2 -58.4  250  82 42   4.5   2.5
 32000 -47.3 -53.1  260  79 41   4.3   2.3 | -47.5 -53.5  250  81 41   4.5   2.5
 30000 -44.4 -47.9  260  73 38   7.0   3.8 | -44.4 -47.9  250  76 39   7.3   4.0
 29000 -42.3 -44.1  260  66 34   7.0   3.9 | -42.3 -44.1  250  69 35   7.3   4.0
 28000 -40.2 -40.4  260  59 30   7.0   3.9 | -40.1 -40.2  245  61 31   7.3   4.0
 27000 -38.1 -36.6  260  52 27   7.4   4.0 | -37.9 -36.2  245  53 27   7.7   4.2
 26000 -35.7 -32.3  260  47 24   7.8   4.3 | -35.5 -31.9  240  46 24   8.2   4.5
 25000 -33.4 -28.1  260  41 21   7.8   4.3 | -33.0 -27.4  240  40 20   8.2   4.5
 24000 -31.1 -24.0  260  36 19   7.8   4.3 | -30.5 -22.9  235  33 17   8.0   4.4
 23000 -28.8 -19.8  260  34 17   7.4   4.1 | -28.6 -19.5  235  31 16   6.1   3.4
 22000 -26.6 -15.9  255  32 16   7.4   4.1 | -26.8 -16.2  240  29 15   6.2   3.4
 21000 -24.4 -11.9  255  30 15   7.6   4.2 | -25.0 -13.0  240  27 14   6.7   3.7
 20000 -22.1  -7.8  255  29 15   7.7   4.2 | -22.8  -9.0  250  28 15   7.2   3.9
 19500 -21.0  -5.8  250  29 15   7.7   4.2 | -21.8  -7.2  255  29 15   7.2   3.9
 19000 -19.8  -3.6  250  29 15   7.7   4.2 | -20.7  -5.3  255  29 15   7.2   4.0
 18500 -18.7  -1.7  250  28 15   8.0   4.4 | -19.6  -3.3  260  30 16   7.5   4.1
 18000 -17.4   0.7  250  28 14   8.4   4.6 | -18.5  -1.3  260  32 16   7.9   4.4
 17500 -16.2   2.8  250  27 14   8.5   4.7 | -17.3   0.9  260  33 17   7.9   4.3
 17000 -14.4   6.1  250  26 14   7.4   4.1 | -16.1   3.0  260  33 17   8.4   4.6
 16500 -13.3   8.1  250  26 13   7.4   4.1 | -14.3   6.3  260  33 17   8.3   4.6
 16000 -12.3   9.9  250  25 13   7.1   3.9 | -13.1   8.4  260  32 17   7.6   4.2
 15500 -11.2  11.8  255  23 12   7.2   3.9 | -12.0  10.4  255  31 16   7.7   4.2
 15000 -10.2  13.6  255  22 11   6.7   3.7 | -10.9  12.4  255  30 16   7.5   4.1
 14500  -9.2  15.4  260  21 11   6.7   3.7 |  -9.8  14.4  255  29 15   7.5   4.1
 14000  -8.2  17.2  265  20 10   6.7   3.7 |  -8.7  16.3  255  28 14   7.8   4.3
 13500  -7.2  19.0  265  19 10   6.7   3.7 |  -7.5  18.5  250  26 13   7.8   4.3
 13000  -6.2  20.8  270  18  9   6.5   3.6 |  -6.3  20.7  250  24 12   7.5   4.1
 12500  -5.2  22.6  270  16  8   6.4   3.5 |  -5.2  22.6  245  22 11   7.3   4.0
 12000  -4.3  24.3  270  15  8   6.3   3.4 |  -4.1  24.6  245  21 11   7.2   3.9
 11500  -3.3  26.1  270  14  7   6.2   3.4 |  -3.0  26.6  240  19 10   7.1   3.9
 11000  -2.4  27.7  265  12  6   5.4   3.0 |  -1.9  28.6  235  17  9   6.1   3.4
 10500  -1.6  29.1  260  11  6   5.2   2.9 |  -1.0  30.2  235  15  8   5.7   3.1
 10250  -1.3  29.7  260  10  5   3.7   2.0 |  -0.6  30.9  230  14  7   4.6   2.6
 10000  -1.1  30.0  255  10  5   2.2   1.2 |  -0.3  31.5  230  14  7   3.5   1.9
  9750  -0.8  30.6  250   9  5   4.1   2.3 |  -0.0  32.0  230  13  7   4.4   2.4
  9500  -0.4  31.3  245   9  5   5.6   3.1 |   0.4  32.7  230  12  6   5.3   2.9
  9250  -0.0  32.0  240   8  4   4.2   2.3 |   0.8  33.4  225  11  6   4.2   2.3
  9000   0.2  32.4  240   8  4   2.2   1.2 |   1.0  33.8  225  10  5   2.1   1.2
  8750   0.3  32.5  235   7  4   1.8   1.0 |   1.1  34.0  225   9  5   1.1   0.6
  8500   0.5  32.9  235   7  3   2.8   1.5 |   1.2  34.2  225   8  4   1.7   0.9
  8250   0.7  33.3  230   6  3   0.7   0.4 |   1.3  34.3  220   7  3  -0.3  -0.1
  8000   0.6  33.1  230   5  3  -1.1  -0.6 |   1.2  34.2  225   6  3  -2.3  -1.3
  7750   0.5  32.9  235   4  2  -1.2  -0.6 |   1.0  33.8  230   5  2  -2.4  -1.3
  7500   0.3  32.5  235   4  2  -2.8  -1.6 |   0.8  33.4  240   4  2  -3.6  -2.0
  7250   0.0  32.0  245   3  2  -5.0  -2.7 |   0.4  32.7  250   4  2  -5.9  -3.3
  7000  -0.5  31.1  260   3  1  -6.3  -3.5 |  -0.1  31.8  265   3  2  -6.8  -3.7
  6750  -1.0  30.2  280   3  1  -4.8  -2.6 |  -0.7  30.7  280   3  2  -7.6  -4.2
  6500  -1.4  29.5  290   3  1  -7.3  -4.0 |  -1.3  29.7  295   4  2  -7.4  -4.1
  6250  -2.1  28.2  295   3  2 -10.2  -5.6 |  -1.8  28.8  305   4  2  -5.4  -3.0
  6000  -2.8  27.0  295   3  2  -9.4  -5.2 |  -2.3  27.9  315   3  2  -7.5  -4.1
  5750  -3.6  25.5  300   4  2  -9.6  -5.3 |  -2.8  27.0  325   3  2  -1.5  -0.8
  5500  -4.2  24.4  285   3  1  -8.0  -4.4 |  -2.3  27.9  330   3  1  15.6   8.6

           12/16/2014 at 1400 MST          |       12/16/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +16.2  LI... +1.8               | K index... +15.7  LI... +3.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.9 -74.0  235  36 18   2.3   1.2 | -58.4 -73.1  240  36 19   2.7   1.5
 45000 -55.3 -67.5  240  53 27   1.0   0.5 | -54.2 -65.6  240  60 31   1.2   0.6
 40000 -55.1 -67.2  245  71 37   0.2   0.1 | -54.9 -66.8  245  68 35  -0.5  -0.3
 38000 -54.5 -66.1  245  77 40   1.8   1.0 | -54.3 -65.7  245  72 37   3.0   1.6
 36000 -53.4 -64.1  245  81 42   1.8   1.0 | -52.5 -62.5  245  76 39   3.0   1.6
 34000 -52.2 -62.0  240  85 44   4.4   2.4 | -50.7 -59.3  240  80 41   3.0   1.7
 32000 -49.0 -56.2  240  71 37   4.7   2.6 | -48.9 -56.0  240  69 36   3.0   1.7
 30000 -45.6 -50.1  240  60 31   8.9   4.9 | -46.4 -51.5  240  58 30   7.4   4.1
 29000 -42.9 -45.2  235  55 28   8.9   4.9 | -44.2 -47.6  240  55 28   7.2   4.0
 28000 -40.3 -40.5  235  50 26   8.9   4.9 | -42.0 -43.6  235  51 26   7.2   4.0
 27000 -37.6 -35.7  235  45 23   8.8   4.8 | -39.9 -39.8  235  48 25   7.9   4.3
 26000 -35.0 -31.0  235  45 23   8.8   4.8 | -37.1 -34.8  235  47 24   9.6   5.3
 25000 -32.4 -26.3  240  45 23   8.8   4.8 | -34.2 -29.6  240  46 24   9.6   5.3
 24000 -29.8 -21.6  245  45 23   8.5   4.7 | -31.3 -24.3  240  45 23   9.6   5.2
 23000 -27.8 -18.0  245  44 23   6.3   3.5 | -29.0 -20.2  245  41 21   7.5   4.1
 22000 -25.9 -14.6  250  42 22   6.3   3.5 | -26.8 -16.2  250  37 19   7.5   4.1
 21000 -24.0 -11.2  250  41 21   6.5   3.6 | -24.5 -12.1  255  34 18   7.5   4.1
 20000 -22.0  -7.6  250  39 20   6.6   3.6 | -22.3  -8.1  255  32 17   7.5   4.1
 19500 -21.1  -6.0  250  38 19   6.6   3.6 | -21.2  -6.2  255  31 16   7.5   4.1
 19000 -20.1  -4.2  250  37 19   6.6   3.6 | -20.1  -4.2  255  30 16   7.5   4.1
 18500 -19.1  -2.4  250  36 18   6.4   3.5 | -19.0  -2.2  255  29 15   7.0   3.8
 18000 -18.2  -0.8  245  35 18   5.8   3.2 | -18.1  -0.6  255  28 15   5.5   3.0
 17500 -17.4   0.7  245  33 17   5.7   3.1 | -17.3   0.9  255  27 14   5.4   3.0
 17000 -16.5   2.3  245  32 17   6.6   3.6 | -16.4   2.5  255  26 13   6.9   3.8
 16500 -15.5   4.1  240  31 16   6.6   3.6 | -15.4   4.3  250  24 13   6.9   3.8
 16000 -14.5   5.9  235  29 15   7.4   4.1 | -14.3   6.3  245  23 12   7.0   3.9
 15500 -12.8   9.0  235  28 14   8.0   4.4 | -12.8   9.0  245  21 11   7.2   3.9
 15000 -11.6  11.1  240  27 14   8.2   4.5 | -11.7  10.9  245  20 10   6.9   3.8
 14500 -10.4  13.3  240  25 13   8.2   4.5 | -10.7  12.7  250  18  9   6.9   3.8
 14000  -9.2  15.4  245  24 12   7.3   4.0 |  -9.8  14.4  255  16  8   5.7   3.1
 13500  -8.2  17.2  245  22 11   7.0   3.8 |  -9.0  15.8  255  13  7   5.2   2.9
 13000  -7.1  19.2  250  20 10   7.3   4.0 |  -8.3  17.1  260  10  5   6.6   3.6
 12500  -6.0  21.2  250  17  9   7.6   4.2 |  -7.1  19.2  255   8  4   7.9   4.3
 12000  -4.9  23.2  255  15  8   7.2   4.0 |  -5.9  21.4  255   5  3   7.0   3.9
 11500  -3.9  25.0  260  12  6   6.9   3.8 |  -5.0  23.0  245   2  1   6.0   3.3
 11000  -2.9  26.8  265   8  4   7.2   3.9 |  -4.2  24.4  120   1  1   6.9   3.8
 10500  -1.7  28.9  270   7  4   7.8   4.3 |  -3.0  26.6  085   1  0   8.1   4.4
 10250  -1.2  29.8  275   7  3   6.0   3.3 |  -2.4  27.7  065   1  0   6.9   3.8
 10000  -0.8  30.6  280   6  3   3.8   2.1 |  -1.9  28.6  045   1  0   4.8   2.6
  9750  -0.5  31.1  280   6  3   5.3   2.9 |  -1.5  29.3  040   1  1   5.9   3.3
  9500   0.0  32.0  285   5  3   6.4   3.5 |  -1.0  30.2  040   2  1   7.2   4.0
  9250   0.5  32.9  290   5  2   5.6   3.1 |  -0.5  31.1  040   3  1   6.5   3.6
  9000   0.9  33.6  295   4  2   3.7   2.0 |  -0.0  32.0  040   3  1   5.1   2.8
  8750   1.1  34.0  295   4  2   2.5   1.4 |   0.3  32.5  045   3  1   4.0   2.2
  8500   1.3  34.3  295   3  2   3.1   1.7 |   0.7  33.3  045   3  1   4.6   2.5
  8250   1.6  34.9  300   3  1   1.5   0.8 |   1.0  33.8  045   2  1   2.9   1.6
  8000   1.6  34.9  310   2  1  -0.5  -0.3 |   1.1  34.0  050   2  1   0.6   0.4
  7750   1.6  34.9  320   2  1  -1.1  -0.6 |   1.2  34.2  045   2  1  -0.3  -0.2
  7500   1.4  34.5  335   2  1  -2.0  -1.1 |   1.1  34.0  035   1  1  -1.4  -0.8
  7250   1.2  34.2  340   2  1  -5.5  -3.0 |   0.9  33.6  020   1  1  -4.4  -2.4
  7000   0.6  33.1  340   2  1  -7.6  -4.1 |   0.4  32.7  015   1  0  -6.4  -3.5
  6750   0.0  32.0  345   2  1  -7.8  -4.3 |  -0.0  32.0  355   1  0  -6.6  -3.6
  6500  -0.6  30.9  345   2  1  -5.8  -3.2 |  -0.5  31.1  000   0  0  -3.8  -2.1
  6250  -0.9  30.4  355   2  1  -2.2  -1.2 |  -0.7  30.7  000   0  0   0.0   0.0
  6000  -1.1  30.0  005   2  1  -4.0  -2.2 |  -0.8  30.6  160   1  0  -0.9  -0.5
  5750  -1.4  29.5  025   1  1   2.4   1.3 |  -0.9  30.4  150   1  1   1.6   0.9
  5500  -0.7  30.7  035   2  1  17.2   9.4 |  -0.6  30.9  120   1  1   8.5   4.7
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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