Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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852
UXUS97 KBOU 241316
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0715 MDT Sunday, July 24, 2016

This forecast is for Sunday, July 24, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 84.6 F/29.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 537 ft/min (2.7 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 13708 ft MSL (8423 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 89.0 F/32.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast thin middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8528 ft MSL (3243 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 07/25....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 14398 ft MSL (9113 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 07/25.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:52:03 / 20:19:58 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 27 min 56 sec (867 min 56 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:06:01 MDT... 69.83 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 07/24/2016 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16081 ft MSL (10796 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 15553 ft MSL (10268 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15432 ft MSL (10147 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -4.0
K index......................... +24.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -64.9 -84.8   255   22   11  -6.7  -3.7   84.4 184.0    30.7      M    M
 45000  -60.5 -76.9   255   32   16   7.2   3.9   65.9 150.7    21.5      M    M
 40000  -52.8 -63.0   240   68   35   6.3   3.5   55.5 131.8    16.0      M    M
 38000  -47.6 -53.7   240   64   33   8.0   4.4   54.4 129.9    15.7      M    M
 36000  -42.4 -44.3   240   60   31   9.8   5.4   53.5 128.3    15.4      M    M
 34000  -36.9 -34.4   240   55   28   1.9   1.0   53.0 127.5    15.5      M    M
 32000  -32.5 -26.5   245   48   25   8.8   4.8   50.1 122.3    13.7      M    M
 30000  -27.8 -18.0   245   39   20   8.1   4.4   48.6 119.4    12.8      M    M
 29000  -25.6 -14.1   245   35   18   7.1   3.9   47.7 117.8    12.3      M    M
 28000  -23.5 -10.3   250   32   16   6.4   3.5   46.7 116.0    11.6      M    M
 27000  -22.1  -7.8   250   28   14   3.7   2.0   44.8 112.6    10.2      M    M
 26000  -20.7  -5.3   250   24   13   4.0   2.2   42.9 109.2     8.7      M    M
 25000  -19.6  -3.3   255   21   11   6.7   3.7   40.7 105.2     7.1      M    M
 24000  -18.2  -0.8   255   20   10  11.8   6.5   38.8 101.8     5.5      M    M
 23000  -15.6   3.9   260   19   10   6.6   3.6   38.4 101.1     5.3      M    M
 22000  -13.8   7.2   265   17    9   6.6   3.6   37.2  98.9     4.2      M    M
 21000  -11.6  11.1   265   16    8   8.2   4.5   36.3  97.4     3.6      M    M
 20000   -9.0  15.8   270   15    8   8.8   4.8   36.0  96.7     3.3      M    M
 19500   -7.7  18.1   270   14    7   8.7   4.8   35.8  96.4     3.1      M    M
 19000   -6.5  20.3   270   11    6   7.4   4.1   35.5  95.8     2.8      M    M
 18500   -5.5  22.1   265    9    5   6.4   3.5   35.0  95.0     2.4      M    M
 18000   -4.6  23.7   265    7    3   6.2   3.4   34.4  93.9     1.8      M    M
 17500   -3.7  25.3   260    5    2   6.2   3.4   33.8  92.8     1.3      M    M
 17000   -2.8  27.0   245    2    1   7.9   4.3   33.2  91.8     0.8      M    M
 16500   -1.4  29.5   260    2    1   8.9   4.9   33.1  91.7     0.7      M    M
 16000   -0.1  31.8   280    3    1   9.0   4.9   33.1  91.5     0.6      M    M
 15500    1.9  35.4   290    5    2   9.0   5.0   32.9  91.1     0.4      M    M
 15000    3.2  37.8   295    6    3   9.0   5.0   32.7  90.9     0.3      M    M
 14500    4.6  40.3   295    8    4   9.0   5.0   32.6  90.8     0.2      M    M
 14000    5.9  42.6   295    9    5   9.0   5.0   32.6  90.6     0.1      M    M
 13500    7.2  45.0   300   10    5   9.0   5.0   32.4  90.3    -0.1    704  3.6
 13000    8.6  47.5   300   11    6   9.0   5.0   32.3  90.1    -0.2    649  3.3
 12500    9.9  49.8   295   14    7   9.0   4.9   32.1  89.9    -0.4    594  3.0
 12000   11.2  52.2   295   17    9   8.1   4.4   31.9  89.5    -0.6    541  2.8
 11500   12.4  54.3   295   18    9   8.1   4.5   31.7  89.0    -0.8    490  2.5
 11000   13.6  56.5   295   19   10   8.1   4.5   31.4  88.6    -1.1    439  2.2
 10500   14.8  58.6   295   18    9   7.8   4.3   31.2  88.1    -1.3    388  2.0
 10250   15.3  59.5   295   18    9   7.3   4.0   31.0  87.8    -1.6    365  1.9
 10000   15.9  60.6   290   18    9   7.5   4.1   30.8  87.4    -1.8    342  1.7
  9750   16.4  61.5   290   18    9   7.4   4.1   30.6  87.1    -2.0    319  1.6
  9500   16.9  62.4   290   18    9   7.5   4.1   30.4  86.8    -2.2    296  1.5
  9250   17.4  63.3   285   18    9   7.5   4.1   30.3  86.5    -2.4    273  1.4
  9000   17.9  64.2   285   18    9   7.4   4.0   30.1  86.2    -2.6    250  1.3
  8750   18.5  65.3   265   15    7   8.1   4.4   29.9  85.9    -2.8    227  1.2
  8500   19.0  66.2   240   14    7   5.4   3.0   29.8  85.6    -3.0    204  1.0
  8250   19.0  66.2   215   15    8  -2.5  -1.4   29.1  84.4    -3.7    195  1.0
  8000   18.7  65.7   200   19   10   0.5   0.3   28.2  82.7    -4.8    198  1.0
  7750   19.1  66.4   200   20   10   8.4   4.6   27.8  82.1    -5.2    179  0.9
  7500   19.7  67.5   200   21   11   7.8   4.3   27.7  81.9    -5.3    153  0.8
  7250   20.3  68.5   200   22   11  10.6   5.8   27.6  81.7    -5.4    127  0.6
  7000   20.9  69.6   200   23   12   0.0   0.0   27.5  81.5    -5.5    100  0.5
  6750   20.3  68.5   205   20   10  -9.9  -5.4   26.2  79.1    -6.9    112  0.6
  6500   20.0  68.0   215   17    8   2.3   1.3   25.1  77.2    -8.0    116  0.6
  6250   20.4  68.7   225   14    7   8.1   4.4   24.9  76.8    -8.3     94  0.5
  6000   20.7  69.3   245   12    6  -1.3  -0.7   24.5  76.0    -8.7     78  0.4
  5750   20.3  68.5   240   10    5  -6.5  -3.6   23.3  74.0    -9.9     84  0.4
  5500   19.8  67.6   235    7    4  -6.0  -3.3   22.2  71.9   -11.1     90  0.5

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/24/2016 at 0900 MDT          |       07/24/2016 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
CAPE...  +614.2    LI...       -2.9        | CAPE... +1201.8    LI...       -4.4
CINH...  -184.8    K Index... +28.6        | CINH...   -35.0    K Index... +30.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.8 -82.8  250  10  5   1.9   1.0 | -63.6 -82.5  250  11  6   1.4   0.8
 45000 -59.1 -74.4  250  17  9   5.3   2.9 | -59.4 -74.9  250  19 10   5.3   2.9
 40000 -50.9 -59.6  250  27 14   6.7   3.7 | -51.1 -60.0  250  27 14   6.9   3.8
 38000 -46.9 -52.4  250  28 15   6.7   3.7 | -47.0 -52.6  245  28 14   6.8   3.8
 36000 -42.9 -45.2  245  29 15   6.7   3.7 | -42.8 -45.0  245  28 14   6.9   3.8
 34000 -37.9 -36.2  245  27 14   7.3   4.0 | -37.8 -36.0  245  25 13   7.5   4.1
 32000 -33.6 -28.5  245  24 12   7.9   4.3 | -33.3 -27.9  250  22 11   8.0   4.4
 30000 -29.4 -20.9  250  22 11   7.0   3.9 | -29.1 -20.4  250  20 10   7.0   3.9
 29000 -27.3 -17.1  250  21 11   7.0   3.9 | -27.0 -16.6  250  19 10   7.1   3.9
 28000 -25.2 -13.4  250  20 10   6.1   3.4 | -25.0 -13.0  255  18  9   6.0   3.3
 27000 -23.4 -10.1  250  18  9   6.2   3.4 | -23.2  -9.8  255  18  9   6.1   3.4
 26000 -21.6  -6.9  255  17  9   6.3   3.4 | -21.3  -6.3  255  17  9   6.2   3.4
 25000 -19.7  -3.5  260  16  8   6.4   3.5 | -19.5  -3.1  260  16  8   6.4   3.5
 24000 -17.8  -0.0  260  14  7   6.6   3.6 | -17.5   0.5  260  14  7   6.8   3.7
 23000 -15.8   3.6  265  13  7   6.6   3.6 | -15.6   3.9  260  13  7   6.8   3.7
 22000 -13.9   7.0  270  12  6   7.3   4.0 | -13.6   7.5  265  11  6   7.3   4.0
 21000 -11.6  11.1  270  11  5   7.7   4.2 | -11.3  11.7  265  10  5   7.6   4.2
 20000  -9.3  15.3  270   9  5   7.8   4.3 |  -9.1  15.6  265   9  5   7.6   4.2
 19500  -8.2  17.2  275   9  5   7.8   4.3 |  -7.9  17.8  270   8  4   7.7   4.2
 19000  -7.0  19.4  275   8  4   8.2   4.5 |  -6.7  19.9  265   8  4   8.4   4.6
 18500  -5.8  21.6  270   8  4   8.2   4.5 |  -4.9  23.2  265   7  4   8.4   4.6
 18000  -4.0  24.8  270   7  4   8.6   4.7 |  -3.7  25.3  265   7  4   8.6   4.7
 17500  -2.7  27.1  270   7  4   8.6   4.7 |  -2.4  27.7  265   7  3   8.6   4.7
 17000  -1.5  29.3  265   7  3   8.7   4.8 |  -1.1  30.0  260   7  3   8.6   4.7
 16500  -0.2  31.6  265   6  3   8.7   4.8 |   0.1  32.2  260   6  3   8.6   4.7
 16000   1.1  34.0  260   6  3   8.8   4.8 |   1.4  34.5  255   6  3   8.6   4.7
 15500   2.4  36.3  255   6  3   8.9   4.9 |   2.6  36.7  255   6  3   8.6   4.7
 15000   3.7  38.7  250   6  3   8.9   4.9 |   3.9  39.0  250   6  3   8.6   4.7
 14500   5.0  41.0  245   5  3   8.6   4.7 |   5.1  41.2  245   6  3   8.9   4.9
 14000   6.2  43.2  240   5  3   8.7   4.8 |   6.4  43.5  245   6  3   8.9   4.9
 13500   7.5  45.5  235   6  3   8.2   4.5 |   7.7  45.9  240   6  3   8.6   4.7
 13000   8.6  47.5  225   6  3   8.2   4.5 |   8.9  48.0  235   6  3   8.6   4.7
 12500   9.8  49.6  220   6  3   7.9   4.3 |  10.1  50.2  230   6  3   8.2   4.5
 12000  10.9  51.6  215   6  3   7.7   4.2 |  11.3  52.3  225   6  3   8.1   4.4
 11500  12.0  53.6  210   7  3   7.6   4.2 |  12.5  54.5  220   6  3   7.9   4.4
 11000  13.1  55.6  205   7  4   7.6   4.2 |  13.5  56.3  215   6  3   7.9   4.3
 10500  14.2  57.6  200   8  4   8.4   4.6 |  14.6  58.3  210   6  3   8.8   4.8
 10250  14.7  58.5  195   8  4   7.7   4.2 |  15.3  59.5  205   6  3   8.0   4.4
 10000  15.2  59.4  195   8  4   5.9   3.3 |  15.7  60.3  200   6  3   6.4   3.5
  9750  15.7  60.3  195   8  4   6.6   3.6 |  16.2  61.2  195   5  3   6.6   3.6
  9500  16.1  61.0  190   8  4   5.7   3.1 |  16.7  62.1  190   5  3   7.4   4.1
  9250  16.5  61.7  190   8  4   5.0   2.8 |  17.2  63.0  190   5  3   8.4   4.6
  9000  16.8  62.2  185   8  4   5.3   2.9 |  17.8  64.0  185   5  2   8.4   4.6
  8750  17.2  63.0  185   8  4   5.5   3.0 |  18.4  65.1  180   5  2   8.4   4.6
  8500  17.6  63.7  180   7  4   4.5   2.5 |  19.0  66.2  175   5  2   9.9   5.5
  8250  17.8  64.0  175   7  4   3.8   2.1 |  19.8  67.6  175   4  2  12.0   6.6
  8000  18.0  64.4  170   7  4   3.9   2.2 |  20.7  69.3  175   4  2   9.4   5.2
  7750  18.3  64.9  165   7  3   4.0   2.2 |  21.3  70.3  170   4  2   7.8   4.3
  7500  18.6  65.5  160   6  3   5.0   2.7 |  21.9  71.4  170   4  2  10.3   5.7
  7250  19.0  66.2  155   6  3   5.6   3.1 |  22.8  73.0  170   4  2  12.0   6.6
  7000  19.3  66.7  150   6  3   5.2   2.8 |  23.6  74.5  170   4  2   9.7   5.3
  6750  19.7  67.5  150   5  3   6.4   3.5 |  24.2  75.6  165   4  2   7.9   4.4
  6500  20.3  68.5  145   5  2   8.1   4.5 |  24.9  76.8  165   4  2  10.0   5.5
  6250  20.9  69.6  140   4  2   8.5   4.7 |  25.7  78.3  165   4  2  11.6   6.3
  6000  21.5  70.7  135   4  2   7.7   4.2 |  26.5  79.7  170   4  2   9.4   5.1
  5750  22.1  71.8  130   4  2  12.2   6.7 |  27.3  81.1  160   3  2  16.5   9.0
  5500  23.4  74.1  130   3  2  22.1  12.1 |  29.2  84.6  165   3  2  33.4  18.3

           07/24/2016 at 1500 MDT          |       07/24/2016 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
CAPE... +1015.9    LI...       -3.4        | CAPE...  +704.5    LI...       -3.0
CINH...    -5.3    K Index... +33.7        | CINH...   -27.3    K Index... +32.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.6 -82.5  255  13  7   1.8   1.0 | -64.3 -83.7  260  12  6   2.3   1.2
 45000 -59.2 -74.6  250  20 10   5.0   2.8 | -59.2 -74.6  255  19 10   5.3   2.9
 40000 -51.2 -60.2  250  28 14   7.0   3.9 | -50.8 -59.4  250  25 13   7.2   3.9
 38000 -47.0 -52.6  245  28 14   7.0   3.8 | -46.5 -51.7  245  26 13   7.2   3.9
 36000 -42.2 -44.0  245  28 15   7.3   4.0 | -41.7 -43.1  245  27 14   7.4   4.0
 34000 -37.8 -36.0  245  25 13   7.3   4.0 | -37.2 -35.0  245  24 12   7.4   4.1
 32000 -33.4 -28.1  250  22 11   8.0   4.4 | -32.7 -26.9  245  21 11   8.1   4.4
 30000 -29.0 -20.2  255  20 10   7.3   4.0 | -28.4 -19.1  250  19 10   7.2   4.0
 29000 -26.9 -16.4  255  19 10   7.3   4.0 | -26.3 -15.3  255  18  9   7.2   4.0
 28000 -24.7 -12.5  255  19 10   6.6   3.6 | -24.2 -11.6  255  17  9   6.6   3.6
 27000 -22.8  -9.0  260  18  9   6.7   3.7 | -22.2  -8.0  260  16  8   6.7   3.7
 26000 -20.8  -5.4  260  17  9   6.7   3.7 | -20.2  -4.4  265  15  8   6.7   3.7
 25000 -18.8  -1.8  265  16  8   6.8   3.7 | -18.2  -0.8  270  14  7   6.7   3.7
 24000 -16.8   1.8  265  14  7   6.9   3.8 | -16.3   2.7  275  13  7   6.7   3.7
 23000 -14.8   5.4  265  13  7   6.9   3.8 | -14.3   6.3  280  11  6   6.7   3.7
 22000 -12.7   9.1  270  12  6   6.9   3.8 | -12.3   9.9  285  10  5   7.3   4.0
 21000 -10.7  12.7  270  10  5   7.0   3.8 | -10.1  13.8  285  10  5   7.6   4.2
 20000  -8.7  16.3  270   9  5   7.0   3.8 |  -7.9  17.8  290  10  5   7.7   4.2
 19500  -7.7  18.1  270   9  5   7.1   3.9 |  -6.8  19.8  290  10  5   7.7   4.2
 19000  -6.1  21.0  265   8  4   7.7   4.2 |  -5.1  22.8  290   9  5   7.8   4.3
 18500  -5.0  23.0  265   7  4   7.7   4.3 |  -4.0  24.8  290   9  5   7.8   4.3
 18000  -3.8  25.2  265   7  3   7.9   4.4 |  -2.9  26.8  290   9  5   7.5   4.1
 17500  -2.7  27.1  260   6  3   7.9   4.3 |  -1.8  28.8  290   9  4   7.5   4.1
 17000  -1.5  29.3  260   6  3   8.4   4.6 |  -0.7  30.7  290   8  4   7.6   4.2
 16500  -0.2  31.6  255   5  3   8.6   4.7 |   0.5  32.9  290   7  4   7.7   4.2
 16000   1.0  33.8  255   5  3   8.6   4.7 |   1.6  34.9  285   7  3   7.7   4.2
 15500   2.3  36.1  250   5  2   8.7   4.8 |   2.7  36.9  280   6  3   7.8   4.3
 15000   3.6  38.5  245   4  2   8.7   4.8 |   3.8  38.8  275   5  3   7.8   4.3
 14500   4.9  40.8  240   4  2   9.1   5.0 |   5.0  41.0  270   4  2   8.4   4.6
 14000   6.2  43.2  240   3  2   9.0   5.0 |   6.2  43.2  260   4  2   8.4   4.6
 13500   7.5  45.5  235   3  2   9.5   5.2 |   7.4  45.3  250   3  2   8.8   4.9
 13000   8.9  48.0  235   3  2   9.6   5.2 |   8.7  47.7  240   3  2   8.9   4.9
 12500  10.3  50.5  230   3  2   9.5   5.2 |  10.0  50.0  230   3  1   9.0   5.0
 12000  11.7  53.1  225   3  2   9.5   5.2 |  11.3  52.3  215   3  1   9.1   5.0
 11500  13.1  55.6  225   3  2   9.4   5.2 |  12.7  54.9  205   3  1   9.2   5.0
 11000  14.5  58.1  220   3  2   9.4   5.2 |  14.0  57.2  200   3  1   9.3   5.1
 10500  15.8  60.4  215   3  1   9.7   5.3 |  15.4  59.7  190   3  2   9.6   5.2
 10250  16.6  61.9  215   3  2   9.7   5.3 |  16.1  61.0  190   3  2   9.7   5.3
 10000  17.2  63.0  215   3  2   9.2   5.0 |  16.8  62.2  185   3  2   9.2   5.1
  9750  17.9  64.2  210   3  2   9.5   5.2 |  17.5  63.5  185   3  2   9.6   5.3
  9500  18.6  65.5  210   3  2   8.7   4.8 |  18.2  64.8  180   3  2   8.4   4.6
  9250  19.2  66.6  205   3  2   8.8   4.8 |  18.8  65.8  175   3  2   8.2   4.5
  9000  19.9  67.8  205   3  2  10.3   5.6 |  19.5  67.1  175   3  2  10.0   5.5
  8750  20.7  69.3  205   3  2  10.5   5.8 |  20.2  68.4  170   3  2  10.4   5.7
  8500  21.5  70.7  205   3  2  10.3   5.7 |  21.0  69.8  165   3  2  10.0   5.5
  8250  22.3  72.1  200   3  2  10.3   5.7 |  21.7  71.1  160   3  2   9.9   5.4
  8000  23.0  73.4  200   3  2  10.0   5.5 |  22.5  72.5  155   3  2   9.7   5.3
  7750  23.7  74.7  200   3  2   9.8   5.4 |  23.2  73.8  150   3  2   9.4   5.2
  7500  24.5  76.1  200   3  1  10.2   5.6 |  23.9  75.0  145   3  2   9.8   5.4
  7250  25.3  77.5  200   3  2  10.6   5.8 |  24.6  76.3  145   3  2  10.1   5.5
  7000  26.0  78.8  195   3  2   9.9   5.5 |  25.4  77.7  140   3  2   9.6   5.2
  6750  26.7  80.1  195   3  1   9.5   5.2 |  26.0  78.8  135   3  2   9.0   4.9
  6500  27.5  81.5  195   3  1  10.0   5.5 |  26.7  80.1  130   3  2   9.4   5.1
  6250  28.3  82.9  195   3  1  11.0   6.0 |  27.4  81.3  130   3  2   9.9   5.4
  6000  29.0  84.2  195   3  1   8.7   4.8 |  28.2  82.8  130   3  2   9.0   5.0
  5750  29.8  85.6  195   2  1  15.7   8.6 |  28.9  84.0  120   3  2  11.9   6.5
  5500  31.6  88.9  195   2  1  33.8  18.6 |  30.0  86.0  120   3  1  18.9  10.3
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CINH (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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