Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 310124
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1924 MDT Wednesday, July 30, 2014

This forecast is for Thursday, July 31, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 72.7 F/22.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 511 ft/min (2.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 11956 ft MSL (6669 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 78.0 F/26.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast thin middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9203 ft MSL (3916 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 08/01....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 40555 ft MSL (35268 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Friday 08/01.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:57:35 / 20:14:25 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 16 min 50 sec (856 min 50 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:47 MDT... 68.35 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/31/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14626 ft MSL (9339 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 11971 ft MSL (6684 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 12011 ft MSL (6724 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -2.0
K index......................... +28.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -62.5 -80.5   305   23   12   1.7   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -59.3 -74.7   295   41   21   3.3   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.7 -64.7   290   69   35   7.4   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.1 -56.4   295   64   33   7.6   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -44.6 -48.3   295   60   31   7.5   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -39.3 -38.7   300   54   28   7.9   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -34.5 -30.1   305   49   25   7.9   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -29.9 -21.8   305   43   22   7.6   4.2   46.6 115.9    16.0      M    M
 29000  -27.6 -17.7   300   40   21   7.6   4.2   45.8 114.5    15.6      M    M
 28000  -25.3 -13.5   300   37   19   6.8   3.7   45.1 113.2    15.2      M    M
 27000  -23.4 -10.1   305   34   17   6.5   3.5   43.7 110.7    14.3      M    M
 26000  -21.5  -6.7   305   30   16   6.5   3.6   42.5 108.4    13.4      M    M
 25000  -19.6  -3.3   305   27   14   6.7   3.7   41.4 106.5    12.6      M    M
 24000  -17.6   0.3   310   25   13   6.8   3.7   40.2 104.4    11.7      M    M
 23000  -15.6   3.9   310   22   12   6.8   3.8   39.1 102.4    10.9      M    M
 22000  -13.6   7.5   315   20   10   6.8   3.7   38.2 100.7    10.2      M    M
 21000  -11.8  10.8   315   19   10   6.2   3.4   36.8  98.3     9.1      M    M
 20000  -10.0  14.0   310   17    9   6.2   3.4   35.6  96.0     8.1      M    M
 19500   -9.2  15.4   310   16    8   6.2   3.4   35.0  95.0     7.6      M    M
 19000   -8.3  17.1   305   15    8   5.9   3.2   34.4  93.9     7.0      M    M
 18500   -7.4  18.7   305   15    8   5.9   3.2   33.7  92.6     6.5      M    M
 18000   -6.6  20.1   305   15    8   5.9   3.3   33.0  91.5     5.9      M    M
 17500   -5.7  21.7   305   14    7   6.0   3.3   32.4  90.3     5.3      M    M
 17000   -4.4  24.1   300   13    7   6.1   3.4   31.4  88.6     4.5      M    M
 16500   -3.5  25.7   300   12    6   6.2   3.4   30.8  87.5     3.9      M    M
 16000   -2.6  27.3   300   11    6   6.2   3.4   30.2  86.4     3.4      M    M
 15500   -1.6  29.1   300   10    5   7.2   4.0   29.7  85.5     2.9      M    M
 15000   -0.6  30.9   305    9    5   7.1   3.9   29.3  84.7     2.5      M    M
 14500    0.5  32.9   305    8    4   7.4   4.1   28.9  84.0     2.1      M    M
 14000    1.6  34.9   305    7    4   7.5   4.1   28.5  83.3     1.7      M    M
 13500    2.6  36.7   305    6    3   7.1   3.9   28.1  82.6     1.4      M    M
 13000    3.6  38.5   310    6    3   6.8   3.7   27.6  81.8     0.9      M    M
 12500    4.6  40.3   310    5    2   6.9   3.8   27.2  80.9     0.5      M    M
 12000    5.6  42.1   310    3    2   6.9   3.8   26.7  80.1    -0.0    510  2.6
 11500    6.6  43.9   310    2    1   6.8   3.8   26.3  79.3    -0.5    466  2.4
 11000    7.6  45.7   320    1    1   6.6   3.6   25.8  78.4    -1.0    422  2.1
 10500    8.6  47.5   025    1    0   4.4   2.4   25.3  77.6    -1.5    378  1.9
 10250    8.8  47.8   040    1    0   3.6   2.0   24.8  76.6    -2.0    364  1.9
 10000    9.2  48.6   050    1    0   7.9   4.4   24.5  76.1    -2.3    344  1.7
  9750    9.9  49.8   055    1    1  10.1   5.5   24.4  76.0    -2.4    317  1.6
  9500   10.5  50.9   055    2    1   6.3   3.5   24.4  75.9    -2.5    290  1.5
  9250   10.8  51.4   050    2    1   2.5   1.4   23.9  75.0    -2.9    275  1.4
  9000   11.0  51.8   045    2    1   4.3   2.4   23.4  74.1    -3.4    261  1.3
  8750   11.3  52.3   040    3    1   5.1   2.8   23.0  73.4    -3.8    243  1.2
  8500   11.6  52.9   035    3    1   2.8   1.6   22.6  72.7    -4.3    227  1.2
  8250   11.7  53.1   030    3    1   1.4   0.8   22.0  71.5    -4.9    217  1.1
  8000   11.8  53.2   030    3    1   1.6   0.9   21.3  70.4    -5.6    207  1.0
  7750   11.9  53.4   030    3    2   1.6   0.9   20.7  69.3    -6.2    197  1.0
  7500   12.0  53.6   025    4    2   2.5   1.4   20.1  68.2    -6.9    186  0.9
  7250   12.2  54.0   015    4    2   3.1   1.7   19.6  67.2    -7.5    174  0.9
  7000   12.3  54.1   010    5    3   1.9   1.0   19.0  66.3    -8.1    162  0.8
  6750   12.4  54.3   005    6    3   2.6   1.4   18.4  65.2    -8.7    152  0.8
  6500   12.6  54.7   360    6    3   4.0   2.2   18.0  64.4    -9.2    137  0.7
  6250   12.9  55.2   360    6    3   4.4   2.4   17.5  63.6    -9.7    122  0.6
  6000   13.1  55.6   360    6    3   1.5   0.8   17.1  62.8   -10.2    107  0.5
  5750   13.0  55.4   355    6    3  -4.8  -2.6   16.2  61.2   -11.2    106  0.5
  5500   12.5  54.5   340    4    2  -5.9  -3.3   15.1  59.2   -12.3    111  0.6

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/31/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/31/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.5  LI... -0.4               | K index... +26.5  LI... -2.0
CAPE... +6.9  CIN... -51.4                 | CAPE... +283.0  CIN... -3.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -61.6 -78.9  300  20 10   1.7   0.9 | -61.6 -78.9  295  22 11   2.2   1.2
 45000 -58.8 -73.8  290  42 22   2.4   1.3 | -58.4 -73.1  290  45 23   2.2   1.2
 40000 -54.0 -65.2  290  67 35   7.7   4.2 | -54.0 -65.2  285  66 34   7.2   3.9
 38000 -49.3 -56.7  290  65 33   7.8   4.3 | -49.7 -57.5  290  61 31   7.2   4.0
 36000 -44.7 -48.5  295  62 32   7.8   4.3 | -45.3 -49.5  290  55 28   7.2   3.9
 34000 -40.0 -40.0  300  53 27   7.9   4.3 | -40.5 -40.9  295  47 24   8.1   4.4
 32000 -35.2 -31.4  305  44 23   7.8   4.3 | -35.7 -32.3  295  39 20   8.0   4.4
 30000 -30.5 -22.9  305  39 20   7.9   4.4 | -30.9 -23.6  295  35 18   7.8   4.3
 29000 -28.1 -18.6  305  37 19   7.9   4.4 | -28.6 -19.5  295  34 17   7.8   4.3
 28000 -25.2 -13.4  305  35 18   6.4   3.5 | -26.3 -15.3  295  32 17   7.5   4.1
 27000 -23.3  -9.9  305  31 16   6.3   3.5 | -23.7 -10.7  295  29 15   6.9   3.8
 26000 -21.5  -6.7  305  27 14   6.4   3.5 | -21.7  -7.1  295  26 13   7.0   3.8
 25000 -19.6  -3.3  310  23 12   6.5   3.5 | -19.6  -3.3  295  23 12   7.0   3.9
 24000 -17.7   0.1  310  22 11   6.7   3.7 | -17.7   0.1  300  21 11   6.9   3.8
 23000 -15.7   3.7  310  21 11   6.8   3.7 | -15.7   3.7  300  19 10   6.9   3.8
 22000 -13.8   7.2  310  20 10   6.7   3.7 | -13.7   7.3  300  18  9   6.8   3.7
 21000 -12.0  10.4  310  19 10   6.3   3.5 | -11.7  10.9  305  17  9   6.7   3.7
 20000 -10.1  13.8  310  18  9   6.4   3.5 |  -9.8  14.4  310  16  8   6.7   3.7
 19500  -9.2  15.4  310  18  9   6.4   3.5 |  -8.8  16.2  315  15  8   6.7   3.7
 19000  -8.4  16.9  310  17  9   5.6   3.1 |  -7.9  17.8  315  15  8   6.2   3.4
 18500  -7.5  18.5  310  16  8   5.7   3.1 |  -7.0  19.4  320  14  7   6.2   3.4
 18000  -6.7  19.9  305  16  8   5.9   3.3 |  -6.1  21.0  325  14  7   6.1   3.4
 17500  -5.8  21.6  305  15  8   6.2   3.4 |  -5.2  22.6  330  13  7   6.0   3.3
 17000  -4.9  23.2  305  14  7   6.2   3.4 |  -4.3  24.3  330  12  6   6.0   3.3
 16500  -4.0  24.8  310  13  7   6.3   3.5 |  -3.5  25.7  335  11  6   5.4   3.0
 16000  -3.1  26.4  310  12  6   6.3   3.5 |  -2.7  27.1  345  10  5   5.5   3.0
 15500  -2.2  28.0  315  11  6   6.6   3.6 |  -1.9  28.6  350   9  5   5.7   3.1
 15000  -1.3  29.7  320  10  5   6.6   3.6 |  -1.1  30.0  355   8  4   5.8   3.2
 14500  -0.3  31.5  325   8  4   6.5   3.6 |  -0.2  31.6  360   7  3   5.9   3.2
 14000   1.0  33.8  340   7  3   6.2   3.4 |   1.1  34.0  015   5  3   5.9   3.2
 13500   1.9  35.4  350   6  3   6.6   3.6 |   1.9  35.4  025   5  2   6.2   3.4
 13000   2.9  37.2  360   5  3   6.7   3.7 |   2.8  37.0  040   4  2   6.3   3.5
 12500   3.9  39.0  015   5  2   6.9   3.8 |   3.7  38.7  050   4  2   6.5   3.6
 12000   4.9  40.8  030   4  2   7.1   3.9 |   4.7  40.5  065   5  2   6.6   3.6
 11500   5.9  42.6  050   4  2   7.1   3.9 |   5.6  42.1  070   5  3   6.6   3.6
 11000   6.9  44.4  060   5  3   7.0   3.9 |   6.5  43.7  080   6  3   6.5   3.6
 10500   8.0  46.4  070   6  3   4.0   2.2 |   7.4  45.3  090   7  3   3.7   2.0
 10250   8.1  46.6  070   6  3   3.3   1.8 |   7.6  45.7  090   7  4   4.0   2.2
 10000   8.6  47.5  070   6  3   8.7   4.8 |   8.1  46.6  090   7  4   8.6   4.7
  9750   9.2  48.6  075   7  4   9.6   5.3 |   8.7  47.7  095   8  4   8.6   4.7
  9500   9.9  49.8  075   7  4   6.5   3.6 |   9.2  48.6  095   8  4   5.8   3.2
  9250  10.2  50.4  075   7  4   3.9   2.2 |   9.5  49.1  090   8  4   3.7   2.0
  9000  10.5  50.9  070   7  4   5.5   3.0 |   9.9  49.8  090   8  4   6.5   3.6
  8750  10.9  51.6  065   7  4   5.5   3.0 |  10.4  50.7  080   7  4   7.9   4.4
  8500  11.2  52.2  060   7  4   3.1   1.7 |  10.8  51.4  070   6  3   6.7   3.7
  8250  11.4  52.5  055   7  3   1.8   1.0 |  11.3  52.3  055   6  3   6.0   3.3
  8000  11.5  52.7  045   6  3   2.6   1.4 |  11.7  53.1  040   6  3   7.9   4.3
  7750  11.7  53.1  035   6  3   2.7   1.5 |  12.3  54.1  035   6  3  10.2   5.6
  7500  11.8  53.2  030   6  3   2.1   1.2 |  13.1  55.6  035   6  3  10.1   5.5
  7250  11.9  53.4  020   7  3   2.1   1.2 |  13.8  56.8  035   6  3   9.9   5.4
  7000  12.0  53.6  010   7  4   1.8   1.0 |  14.5  58.1  030   6  3  10.2   5.6
  6750  12.2  54.0  005   8  4   5.0   2.7 |  15.3  59.5  030   6  3  10.4   5.7
  6500  12.7  54.9  360   7  4   7.8   4.3 |  16.1  61.0  030   6  3  10.5   5.8
  6250  13.1  55.6  355   7  4   6.5   3.6 |  16.8  62.2  030   6  3  10.2   5.6
  6000  13.6  56.5  350   7  3   8.9   4.9 |  17.6  63.7  030   6  3  11.4   6.2
  5750  14.5  58.1  345   6  3  15.2   8.3 |  18.6  65.5  025   6  3  17.3   9.5
  5500  15.8  60.4  345   6  3  19.4  10.7 |  20.1  68.2  025   5  3  23.6  12.9

           07/31/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/31/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +21.8  LI... -1.7               | K index... +15.0  LI... -1.7
CAPE... +163.0  CIN... -16.8               | CAPE... +185.1  CIN... -21.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.5 -80.5  295  26 14   2.4   1.3 | -62.3 -80.1  295  30 15   3.1   1.7
 45000 -58.7 -73.7  290  49 25   2.8   1.6 | -58.0 -72.4  290  50 25   2.3   1.3
 40000 -53.4 -64.1  285  73 38   6.9   3.8 | -53.4 -64.1  285  72 37   7.0   3.9
 38000 -49.3 -56.7  285  65 34   7.0   3.8 | -49.2 -56.6  285  67 34   7.1   3.9
 36000 -45.1 -49.2  285  57 29   6.9   3.8 | -45.0 -49.0  285  62 32   7.0   3.9
 34000 -40.4 -40.7  290  50 26   8.0   4.4 | -40.2 -40.4  285  55 28   8.0   4.4
 32000 -35.6 -32.1  290  42 22   7.8   4.3 | -35.4 -31.7  285  47 24   7.9   4.3
 30000 -30.7 -23.3  290  39 20   8.3   4.5 | -30.7 -23.3  290  41 21   8.0   4.4
 29000 -28.2 -18.8  290  37 19   8.3   4.5 | -28.3 -18.9  295  38 19   8.0   4.4
 28000 -25.2 -13.4  295  36 18   6.8   3.7 | -25.4 -13.7  300  34 17   7.0   3.8
 27000 -23.2  -9.8  295  33 17   6.9   3.8 | -23.3  -9.9  300  31 16   7.0   3.9
 26000 -21.1  -6.0  300  31 16   6.9   3.8 | -21.1  -6.0  305  28 15   7.0   3.9
 25000 -19.1  -2.4  300  29 15   6.9   3.8 | -19.0  -2.2  310  25 13   6.9   3.8
 24000 -17.1   1.2  300  26 13   6.9   3.8 | -17.0   1.4  310  24 12   6.9   3.8
 23000 -15.1   4.8  305  23 12   7.0   3.8 | -15.0   5.0  310  22 11   7.0   3.9
 22000 -13.1   8.4  305  20 10   6.6   3.6 | -13.0   8.6  310  20 10   6.7   3.7
 21000 -11.4  11.5  310  17  9   5.9   3.2 | -11.3  11.7  315  17  9   6.1   3.3
 20000  -9.7  14.5  315  14  7   5.9   3.2 |  -9.5  14.9  320  14  7   6.2   3.4
 19500  -8.9  16.0  315  13  6   6.0   3.3 |  -8.7  16.3  325  12  6   6.2   3.4
 19000  -8.1  17.4  320  11  6   5.5   3.0 |  -7.8  18.0  325  11  6   5.5   3.0
 18500  -7.2  19.0  330  10  5   5.6   3.1 |  -6.9  19.6  335  10  5   5.6   3.1
 18000  -6.4  20.5  335  10  5   6.1   3.4 |  -6.1  21.0  340   9  4   6.2   3.4
 17500  -5.4  22.3  345   9  5   6.7   3.7 |  -5.0  23.0  350   8  4   6.8   3.7
 17000  -4.4  24.1  350   8  4   6.8   3.7 |  -4.0  24.8  355   7  4   6.9   3.8
 16500  -3.5  25.7  360   7  4   5.5   3.0 |  -3.0  26.6  005   6  3   6.0   3.3
 16000  -2.7  27.1  005   6  3   5.6   3.1 |  -2.1  28.2  010   6  3   6.1   3.4
 15500  -1.9  28.6  015   6  3   5.7   3.1 |  -1.2  29.8  015   5  3   6.1   3.3
 15000  -1.0  30.2  025   5  3   5.8   3.2 |  -0.3  31.5  020   5  2   6.1   3.4
 14500  -0.2  31.6  035   5  3   6.3   3.4 |   0.6  33.1  025   4  2   6.4   3.5
 14000   1.3  34.3  045   5  2   7.0   3.8 |   2.0  35.6  045   4  2   6.7   3.7
 13500   2.3  36.1  050   5  2   6.9   3.8 |   3.0  37.4  055   4  2   6.9   3.8
 13000   3.3  37.9  055   5  2   6.9   3.8 |   4.0  39.2  065   5  2   6.9   3.8
 12500   4.3  39.7  060   5  3   6.7   3.7 |   5.0  41.0  070   5  3   7.2   4.0
 12000   5.2  41.4  065   5  3   6.6   3.6 |   6.1  43.0  080   5  3   7.4   4.1
 11500   6.2  43.2  070   5  3   6.8   3.7 |   7.1  44.8  085   6  3   7.2   4.0
 11000   7.2  45.0  075   5  3   6.9   3.8 |   8.1  46.6  095   6  3   6.9   3.8
 10500   8.1  46.6  080   5  3   3.8   2.1 |   9.1  48.4  100   6  3   3.3   1.8
 10250   8.3  46.9  085   5  3   4.2   2.3 |   9.3  48.7  100   6  3   4.2   2.3
 10000   8.8  47.8  085   5  2   8.8   4.8 |   9.8  49.6  105   5  3   9.7   5.3
  9750   9.4  48.9  090   4  2   8.7   4.8 |  10.4  50.7  115   4  2   9.2   5.0
  9500  10.0  50.0  100   4  2   6.2   3.4 |  11.0  51.8  125   3  2   7.4   4.0
  9250  10.3  50.5  110   4  2   4.4   2.4 |  11.4  52.5  130   3  1   5.8   3.2
  9000  10.7  51.3  120   4  2   6.6   3.6 |  11.9  53.4  140   2  1   8.6   4.7
  8750  11.1  52.0  125   3  2   7.6   4.2 |  12.6  54.7  160   2  1   9.6   5.2
  8500  11.6  52.9  130   2  1   7.0   3.9 |  13.1  55.6  185   2  1   7.2   4.0
  8250  12.0  53.6  130   2  1   6.4   3.5 |  13.5  56.3  205   2  1   6.3   3.4
  8000  12.5  54.5  130   1  0   8.6   4.7 |  13.9  57.0  220   2  1   7.0   3.9
  7750  13.1  55.6  000   0  0  10.5   5.8 |  14.4  57.9  225   3  1   8.6   4.7
  7500  13.9  57.0  000   0  0   9.5   5.2 |  15.0  59.0  225   3  1   9.9   5.4
  7250  14.5  58.1  000   0  0   9.3   5.1 |  15.8  60.4  225   3  1   9.9   5.4
  7000  15.2  59.4  000   0  0   9.9   5.4 |  16.5  61.7  225   3  1  10.2   5.6
  6750  16.0  60.8  000   0  0  10.3   5.7 |  17.3  63.1  225   3  2  10.4   5.7
  6500  16.7  62.1  280   1  0  10.1   5.6 |  18.0  64.4  225   3  2  10.1   5.6
  6250  17.5  63.5  280   1  0  10.0   5.5 |  18.8  65.8  230   3  2  10.2   5.6
  6000  18.2  64.8  285   1  0  10.6   5.8 |  19.5  67.1  230   3  2  10.2   5.6
  5750  19.1  66.4  290   1  0  12.7   7.0 |  20.3  68.5  230   3  2  13.2   7.2
  5500  20.1  68.2  290   1  1  14.6   8.0 |  21.5  70.7  230   3  2  17.8   9.7
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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