Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 011203
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0503 MST Sunday, February 1, 2015

This forecast is for Sunday, February 1, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 28.3 F/-2.1 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 249 ft/min (1.3 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 9830 ft MSL (3072 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 26.0 F/-3.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 02/02....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:05:16 / 17:18:56 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 13 min 40 sec (613 min 40 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:12:28 MST... 34.07 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 02/01/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 10346 ft MSL (3588 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 9654 ft MSL (2896 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +15.6
K index......................... -8.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -56.6 -69.9   275   40   21   4.4   2.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -49.8 -57.6   285   49   25   4.8   2.6      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -51.1 -60.0   290   63   32  -1.3  -0.7      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -51.8 -61.2   295   68   35  -0.5  -0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -52.1 -61.8   305   71   37  -0.5  -0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -52.5 -62.5   310   76   39  -0.8  -0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -49.7 -57.5   325   84   43   4.9   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -46.8 -52.2   335   93   48   6.1   3.3      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -44.3 -47.7   335   96   49   8.6   4.7   23.6  74.5    20.8      M    M
 28000  -41.7 -43.1   335   97   50   8.6   4.7   23.1  73.7    20.7      M    M
 27000  -39.1 -38.4   330   99   51   8.6   4.7   22.8  73.0    20.7      M    M
 26000  -36.6 -33.9   330  101   52   8.5   4.6   22.4  72.2    20.6      M    M
 25000  -34.0 -29.2   330  103   53   8.5   4.6   21.8  71.2    20.4      M    M
 24000  -31.5 -24.7   330  106   54   8.4   4.6   21.4  70.5    20.3      M    M
 23000  -29.4 -20.9   330  105   54   3.3   1.8   20.4  68.6    19.7      M    M
 22000  -28.3 -18.9   330   96   50   3.7   2.0   18.1  64.6    18.0      M    M
 21000  -27.2 -17.0   330   88   45   3.6   2.0   16.0  60.8    16.5      M    M
 20000  -26.4 -15.5   330   80   41   1.9   1.0   13.5  56.4    14.5      M    M
 19500  -26.1 -15.0   330   76   39   1.8   1.0   12.1  53.8    13.4      M    M
 19000  -25.8 -14.4   330   72   37   1.8   1.0   10.8  51.4    12.3      M    M
 18500  -25.6 -14.1   330   68   35   1.8   1.0    9.4  49.0    11.2      M    M
 18000  -25.3 -13.5   325   63   33   2.1   1.2    8.1  46.7    10.1      M    M
 17500  -24.9 -12.8   325   61   31   2.4   1.3    6.9  44.4     9.0      M    M
 17000  -24.6 -12.3   325   58   30   2.5   1.4    5.7  42.2     8.0      M    M
 16500  -24.1 -11.4   325   54   28   4.2   2.3    4.6  40.3     7.1      M    M
 16000  -23.5 -10.3   325   51   26   3.9   2.2    3.6  38.5     6.2      M    M
 15500  -22.4  -8.3   325   46   24   5.8   3.2    2.5  36.4     5.2      M    M
 15000  -21.5  -6.7   325   43   22   6.0   3.3    1.8  35.2     4.6      M    M
 14500  -20.5  -4.9   325   41   21   7.9   4.3    1.4  34.5     4.2      M    M
 14000  -19.4  -2.9   325   39   20   7.8   4.3    1.0  33.9     3.9      M    M
 13500  -18.2  -0.8   320   38   19   7.8   4.3    0.7  33.3     3.6      M    M
 13000  -17.1   1.2   320   36   18   7.8   4.3    0.4  32.7     3.3      M    M
 12500  -16.0   3.2   320   33   17   6.7   3.7   -0.0  32.0     2.9      M    M
 12000  -15.0   5.0   315   30   15   6.7   3.7   -0.5  31.1     2.4      M    M
 11750  -14.5   5.9   315   27   14   6.3   3.4   -0.7  30.7     2.2      M    M
 11500  -14.1   6.6   315   25   13   6.1   3.4   -1.0  30.1     1.9      M    M
 11250  -13.6   7.5   320   23   12   5.9   3.2   -1.3  29.6     1.6      M    M
 11000  -13.2   8.2   320   22   11   6.9   3.8   -1.6  29.1     1.4      M    M
 10750  -12.7   9.1   325   19   10   6.5   3.6   -1.8  28.8     1.2      M    M
 10500  -12.3   9.9   330   19   10   5.1   2.8   -2.1  28.2     0.8      M    M
 10250  -11.9  10.6   335   19   10   5.6   3.1   -2.5  27.6     0.5      M    M
 10000  -11.4  11.5   340   19   10   5.0   2.7   -2.8  27.0     0.2      M    M
  9750  -11.1  12.0   345   20   10   5.2   2.8   -3.2  26.3    -0.2    241  1.2
  9500  -10.7  12.7   350   20   10   5.8   3.2   -3.5  25.7    -0.5    221  1.1
  9250  -10.3  13.5   350   20   10   5.7   3.1   -3.8  25.1    -0.8    201  1.0
  9000   -9.8  14.4   355   20   11   5.7   3.1   -4.1  24.6    -1.1    181  0.9
  8750   -9.4  15.1   355   20   10   7.2   4.0   -4.4  24.1    -1.4    160  0.8
  8500   -8.8  16.2   355   19   10   8.7   4.8   -4.5  23.9    -1.5    134  0.7
  8250   -8.1  17.4   355   19   10   8.7   4.8   -4.6  23.8    -1.6    108  0.5
  8000   -7.5  18.5   360   18    9   9.3   5.1   -4.6  23.6    -1.7     81  0.4
  7750   -6.8  19.8   360   17    9   8.9   4.9   -4.7  23.6    -1.8     53  0.3
  7500   -6.2  20.8   360   16    8   8.2   4.5   -4.8  23.4    -1.9     27  0.1
  7250   -5.6  21.9   360   15    7   6.7   3.7   -4.9  23.2    -2.0      3  0.0
  7000   -5.2  22.6   360   13    7   3.9   2.1   -4.6  23.7    -1.8      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           02/01/2015 at 0800 MST          |       02/01/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -21.4  LI... +7.1               | K index... -28.5  LI... +7.3
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -4.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -57.3 -71.1  275  36 19   4.5   2.5 | -57.7 -71.9  275  41 21   3.2   1.7
 45000 -50.2 -58.4  290  37 19   5.1   2.8 | -52.7 -62.9  280  44 23   3.6   2.0
 40000 -52.8 -63.0  290  63 32  -2.1  -1.1 | -53.4 -64.1  300  64 33  -0.8  -0.4
 38000 -53.6 -64.5  295  71 37   1.0   0.6 | -53.7 -64.7  305  72 37   0.5   0.3
 36000 -53.0 -63.4  305  74 38   1.0   0.6 | -53.4 -64.1  320  77 39   0.5   0.3
 34000 -52.4 -62.3  315  80 41   0.7   0.4 | -53.1 -63.6  330  85 44  -0.1  -0.1
 32000 -49.7 -57.5  325  89 46   5.1   2.8 | -49.9 -57.8  335  91 47   6.2   3.4
 30000 -46.3 -51.3  335 102 53   6.1   3.4 | -45.7 -50.3  340  98 50   7.0   3.8
 29000 -44.0 -47.2  335 103 53   7.5   4.1 | -43.4 -46.1  340  99 51   7.7   4.2
 28000 -41.8 -43.2  335 103 53   7.5   4.1 | -41.1 -42.0  340 101 52   7.7   4.2
 27000 -39.5 -39.1  335 104 53   7.5   4.1 | -38.8 -37.8  340 102 53   7.6   4.2
 26000 -37.2 -35.0  335 103 53   7.6   4.2 | -36.7 -34.1  340 103 53   6.6   3.6
 25000 -35.0 -31.0  330 101 52   7.6   4.2 | -34.7 -30.5  340 102 53   6.6   3.6
 24000 -32.7 -26.9  330  99 51   7.6   4.2 | -32.7 -26.9  340 102 53   6.6   3.6
 23000 -30.7 -23.3  330  97 50   5.4   3.0 | -30.8 -23.4  335 100 52   6.2   3.4
 22000 -29.0 -20.2  330  95 49   5.5   3.0 | -28.9 -20.0  335  96 50   6.2   3.4
 21000 -27.3 -17.1  330  93 48   5.6   3.1 | -27.0 -16.6  335  92 47   6.3   3.5
 20000 -26.1 -15.0  330  89 46   3.0   1.6 | -25.8 -14.4  335  87 45   2.7   1.5
 19500 -25.6 -14.1  330  85 44   2.9   1.6 | -25.4 -13.7  335  84 43   2.6   1.4
 19000 -25.2 -13.4  330  82 42   2.9   1.6 | -25.0 -13.0  335  81 42   2.6   1.4
 18500 -24.8 -12.6  330  78 40   2.9   1.6 | -24.7 -12.5  335  78 40   2.6   1.4
 18000 -24.3 -11.7  330  74 38   2.4   1.3 | -24.2 -11.6  335  75 39   3.3   1.8
 17500 -24.0 -11.2  330  70 36   2.0   1.1 | -23.7 -10.7  335  72 37   3.6   2.0
 17000 -23.7 -10.7  330  66 34   2.1   1.2 | -23.1  -9.6  335  69 36   3.5   1.9
 16500 -23.3  -9.9  330  62 32   3.5   1.9 | -22.7  -8.9  335  66 34   2.6   1.4
 16000 -22.8  -9.0  330  59 30   3.3   1.8 | -22.3  -8.1  335  62 32   2.7   1.5
 15500 -22.2  -8.0  330  55 28   4.3   2.3 | -21.9  -7.4  330  59 30   2.9   1.6
 15000 -21.3  -6.3  330  50 26   4.6   2.5 | -21.5  -6.7  330  55 29   2.9   1.6
 14500 -20.5  -4.9  330  48 25   6.1   3.3 | -20.7  -5.3  330  51 26   4.0   2.2
 14000 -19.6  -3.3  330  46 23   6.0   3.3 | -20.2  -4.4  330  48 25   4.2   2.3
 13500 -18.7  -1.7  325  43 22   6.9   3.8 | -19.3  -2.7  325  45 23   6.9   3.8
 13000 -17.7   0.1  325  41 21   6.8   3.7 | -18.3  -0.9  325  42 22   6.9   3.8
 12500 -16.5   2.3  325  39 20   9.0   4.9 | -17.1   1.2  325  39 20   9.9   5.4
 12000 -15.2   4.6  320  36 19   6.0   3.3 | -15.7   3.7  325  37 19   7.0   3.8
 11750 -14.9   5.2  320  34 17   5.8   3.2 | -15.3   4.5  325  34 18   7.0   3.8
 11500 -14.3   6.3  320  32 17   8.3   4.5 | -14.6   5.7  320  33 17   8.9   4.9
 11250 -13.8   7.2  315  31 16   7.7   4.2 | -14.0   6.8  320  31 16   8.4   4.6
 11000 -13.2   8.2  315  29 15   7.5   4.1 | -13.4   7.9  320  29 15   8.5   4.6
 10750 -12.7   9.1  315  27 14   6.5   3.6 | -12.8   9.0  320  27 14   7.9   4.3
 10500 -12.2  10.0  310  25 13   6.0   3.3 | -12.2  10.0  320  26 13   7.4   4.0
 10250 -11.8  10.8  310  24 12   7.0   3.8 | -11.6  11.1  315  24 12   8.4   4.6
 10000 -11.3  11.7  305  22 11   3.6   2.0 | -11.1  12.0  315  22 11   5.0   2.7
  9750 -11.2  11.8  310  20 10   1.6   0.9 | -10.9  12.4  310  20 10   4.5   2.5
  9500 -11.0  12.2  315  19 10   3.5   1.9 | -10.4  13.3  310  18  9   7.5   4.1
  9250 -10.8  12.6  315  17  9   3.1   1.7 |  -9.9  14.2  310  17  9   6.8   3.7
  9000 -10.5  13.1  320  16  8   2.8   1.5 |  -9.4  15.1  310  15  7   5.0   2.7
  8750 -10.3  13.5  330  16  8   4.4   2.4 |  -9.1  15.6  315  12  6   6.0   3.3
  8500  -9.9  14.2  335  15  8   6.3   3.5 |  -8.5  16.7  330  10  5   8.6   4.7
  8250  -9.4  15.1  345  15  8   6.9   3.8 |  -7.9  17.8  345   9  5   9.0   4.9
  8000  -8.9  16.0  350  14  7   8.0   4.4 |  -7.2  19.0  350   9  4  10.1   5.6
  7750  -8.3  17.1  355  13  7   8.1   4.4 |  -6.4  20.5  355   8  4   9.5   5.2
  7500  -7.7  18.1  360  12  6   7.8   4.3 |  -5.7  21.7  355   8  4   8.8   4.8
  7250  -7.1  19.2  360  12  6   7.1   3.9 |  -5.1  22.8  360   8  4  10.1   5.5
  7000  -6.6  20.1  360  11  6   6.2   3.4 |  -4.3  24.3  360   8  4  11.5   6.3
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           02/01/2015 at 1400 MST          |       02/01/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -22.9  LI... +8.1               | K index... -25.5  LI... +9.7
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -2.1                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -57.9 -72.2  285  44 23   2.8   1.5 | -59.0 -74.2  285  40 20   2.3   1.3
 45000 -53.7 -64.7  285  47 24   2.7   1.5 | -55.5 -67.9  290  46 24   2.2   1.2
 40000 -54.2 -65.6  305  58 30  -0.7  -0.4 | -56.0 -68.8  315  59 31  -0.6  -0.3
 38000 -54.6 -66.3  315  63 32  -0.0  -0.0 | -56.2 -69.2  325  66 34   0.3   0.2
 36000 -54.6 -66.3  330  69 36  -0.0  -0.0 | -56.0 -68.8  330  70 36   0.3   0.2
 34000 -54.6 -66.3  340  79 41   0.1   0.0 | -55.8 -68.4  335  75 39   1.9   1.0
 32000 -50.6 -59.1  340  85 44   7.4   4.1 | -51.5 -60.7  340  77 39   7.6   4.2
 30000 -46.2 -51.2  345  90 46   7.4   4.1 | -47.0 -52.6  340  78 40   7.9   4.3
 29000 -43.6 -46.5  345  91 47   6.9   3.8 | -43.9 -47.0  340  81 42   8.3   4.5
 28000 -41.5 -42.7  345  91 47   6.9   3.8 | -41.4 -42.5  340  83 43   8.3   4.5
 27000 -39.4 -38.9  340  91 47   6.8   3.7 | -39.0 -38.2  345  86 44   8.3   4.6
 26000 -37.2 -35.0  340  92 47   7.9   4.3 | -36.6 -33.9  345  86 44   7.6   4.2
 25000 -34.8 -30.6  340  93 48   7.9   4.3 | -34.4 -29.9  345  85 44   7.6   4.2
 24000 -32.5 -26.5  340  95 49   7.9   4.3 | -32.1 -25.8  345  85 44   7.6   4.2
 23000 -30.3 -22.5  340  94 49   6.6   3.6 | -29.9 -21.8  345  82 42   7.2   3.9
 22000 -28.4 -19.1  340  93 48   6.5   3.6 | -27.8 -18.0  345  79 41   7.2   3.9
 21000 -26.4 -15.5  340  91 47   6.7   3.7 | -25.6 -14.1  345  76 39   7.2   3.9
 20000 -24.9 -12.8  340  86 44   4.3   2.4 | -23.6 -10.5  340  74 38   6.6   3.6
 19500 -24.2 -11.6  340  84 43   4.3   2.4 | -22.6  -8.7  340  73 37   6.6   3.6
 19000 -23.6 -10.5  340  81 42   4.3   2.4 | -21.6  -6.9  340  72 37   6.6   3.6
 18500 -22.9  -9.2  340  78 40   4.4   2.4 | -20.6  -5.1  340  71 37   6.8   3.7
 18000 -22.3  -8.1  340  75 39   3.3   1.8 | -19.8  -3.6  340  70 36   4.6   2.5
 17500 -21.9  -7.4  335  72 37   3.2   1.7 | -19.0  -2.2  340  68 35   4.7   2.6
 17000 -21.4  -6.5  335  69 36   2.8   1.6 | -18.3  -0.9  340  67 34   3.8   2.1
 16500 -21.0  -5.8  335  66 34   2.2   1.2 | -17.9  -0.2  340  64 33   3.0   1.7
 16000 -20.7  -5.3  335  63 33   2.2   1.2 | -17.4   0.7  340  62 32   2.8   1.5
 15500 -20.5  -4.9  335  60 31   1.2   0.7 | -17.1   1.2  340  59 30   1.5   0.8
 15000 -20.3  -4.5  330  56 29   1.2   0.7 | -16.9   1.6  340  56 29   1.6   0.9
 14500 -19.8  -3.6  325  51 26   3.3   1.8 | -16.6   2.1  335  51 26   1.6   0.9
 14000 -19.3  -2.7  320  47 24   4.2   2.3 | -16.3   2.7  335  47 24   2.1   1.2
 13500 -18.4  -1.1  320  44 23   7.3   4.0 | -15.9   3.4  330  42 22   3.3   1.8
 13000 -17.3   0.9  315  41 21   7.5   4.1 | -15.5   4.1  325  39 20   4.2   2.3
 12500 -16.1   3.0  315  38 19   9.1   5.0 | -14.6   5.7  320  35 18   7.3   4.0
 12000 -14.9   5.2  315  35 18   6.8   3.8 | -13.6   7.5  315  32 16   5.6   3.1
 11750 -14.4   6.1  310  32 17   7.0   3.8 | -13.2   8.2  310  29 15   6.7   3.7
 11500 -13.8   7.2  310  31 16   8.0   4.4 | -12.7   9.1  310  27 14   7.6   4.2
 11250 -13.2   8.2  310  29 15   8.1   4.5 | -12.1  10.2  305  25 13   7.8   4.3
 11000 -12.7   9.1  310  27 14   6.7   3.7 | -11.6  11.1  305  24 12   6.3   3.4
 10750 -12.2  10.0  315  26 13   6.2   3.4 | -11.2  11.8  305  22 12   5.7   3.1
 10500 -11.7  10.9  315  24 12   7.3   4.0 | -10.7  12.7  300  21 11   6.8   3.7
 10250 -11.2  11.8  315  22 11   7.4   4.1 | -10.2  13.6  300  19 10   6.9   3.8
 10000 -10.7  12.7  315  20 10   5.7   3.1 |  -9.8  14.4  300  18  9   4.8   2.7
  9750 -10.3  13.5  315  18  9   6.1   3.3 |  -9.5  14.9  300  16  8   4.7   2.6
  9500  -9.8  14.4  320  16  8   8.1   4.4 |  -9.0  15.8  300  14  7   6.7   3.7
  9250  -9.2  15.4  325  14  7   7.6   4.2 |  -8.6  16.5  300  13  7   6.0   3.3
  9000  -8.6  16.5  330  12  6   7.5   4.1 |  -8.2  17.2  300  11  6   5.4   2.9
  8750  -8.1  17.4  335  11  5   8.6   4.7 |  -7.8  18.0  300   9  5   5.8   3.2
  8500  -7.4  18.7  345   9  5   9.7   5.3 |  -7.3  18.9  310   7  4   6.3   3.5
  8250  -6.7  19.9  355   9  5   9.9   5.4 |  -6.9  19.6  320   6  3   7.3   4.0
  8000  -5.9  21.4  355   9  4  10.7   5.9 |  -6.2  20.8  330   5  3   8.6   4.7
  7750  -5.1  22.8  360   8  4   9.7   5.3 |  -5.6  21.9  340   4  2   8.5   4.7
  7500  -4.5  23.9  360   8  4   8.8   4.8 |  -5.0  23.0  360   4  2   7.5   4.1
  7250  -3.8  25.2  360   8  4   9.7   5.3 |  -4.6  23.7  010   4  2   5.1   2.8
  7000  -3.0  26.6  005   8  4  10.3   5.7 |  -4.2  24.4  010   4  2   3.9   2.2
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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