Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 271146
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0446 MST Saturday, December 27, 2014

This forecast is for Saturday, December 27, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 25.1 F/-3.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 288 ft/min (1.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10316 ft MSL (3558 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 24.0 F/-4.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1415 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8653 ft MSL (1895 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 12/28....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:16:31 / 16:43:55 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 27 min 24 sec (567 min 24 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:00:11 MST... 27.82 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 12/27/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 13927 ft MSL (7169 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 12632 ft MSL (5874 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +10.0
K index......................... -3.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -53.4 -64.1   250   29   15   2.1   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -50.2 -58.4   250   28   15   2.1   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -48.9 -56.0   250   35   18   0.6   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -48.6 -55.5   250   39   20   0.8   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -48.0 -54.4   250   39   20   1.0   0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -47.3 -53.1   250   40   21   1.0   0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -47.3 -53.1   250   39   20  -0.4  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -47.5 -53.5   250   38   19  -0.4  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -47.4 -53.3   255   37   19   2.4   1.3   21.8  71.3    20.1      M    M
 28000  -46.7 -52.1   250   34   18   2.2   1.2   18.8  65.8    18.0      M    M
 27000  -46.0 -50.8   250   32   17   2.2   1.2   15.9  60.7    16.0      M    M
 26000  -45.3 -49.5   250   30   16   2.8   1.6   13.2  55.8    14.1      M    M
 25000  -44.2 -47.6   250   27   14   3.7   2.0   10.8  51.5    12.3      M    M
 24000  -43.1 -45.6   255   25   13   3.7   2.0    8.6  47.4    10.6      M    M
 23000  -42.0 -43.6   255   22   11   5.1   2.8    6.5  43.7     9.0      M    M
 22000  -40.0 -40.0   255   19   10   6.7   3.7    5.3  41.5     8.1      M    M
 21000  -38.0 -36.4   260   17    9   6.8   3.7    4.2  39.6     7.3      M    M
 20000  -36.0 -32.8   265   15    8   6.5   3.6    3.2  37.7     6.5      M    M
 19500  -35.0 -31.0   265   14    7   6.6   3.6    2.6  36.7     6.1      M    M
 19000  -34.0 -29.2   270   13    7   6.6   3.6    2.0  35.6     5.6      M    M
 18500  -33.0 -27.4   280   12    6   6.6   3.6    1.5  34.7     5.2      M    M
 18000  -32.0 -25.6   285   12    6   6.6   3.6    1.0  33.8     4.8      M    M
 17500  -31.0 -23.8   285   12    6   6.7   3.7    0.5  32.9     4.3      M    M
 17000  -30.0 -22.0   290   11    6   6.6   3.6   -0.0  31.9     3.9      M    M
 16500  -28.3 -18.9   295   10    5   8.1   4.5   -0.6  30.9     3.4      M    M
 16000  -27.1 -16.8   300    9    5   8.2   4.5   -0.8  30.5     3.2      M    M
 15500  -25.9 -14.6   300    9    5   8.2   4.5   -1.1  30.0     3.0      M    M
 15000  -24.7 -12.5   300    9    4   8.3   4.5   -1.4  29.6     2.8      M    M
 14500  -23.5 -10.3   295   10    5   7.8   4.3   -1.6  29.0     2.5      M    M
 14000  -22.3  -8.1   290   11    6   7.8   4.3   -2.0  28.5     2.2      M    M
 13500  -21.1  -6.0   290   13    7   8.2   4.5   -2.2  28.0     2.0      M    M
 13000  -19.9  -3.8   290   14    7   8.0   4.4   -2.5  27.5     1.7      M    M
 12500  -18.5  -1.3   290   14    7   9.7   5.3   -2.6  27.3     1.6      M    M
 12000  -17.1   1.2   295   14    7   8.2   4.5   -2.6  27.3     1.6      M    M
 11750  -16.6   2.1   300   14    7   6.5   3.5   -2.9  26.8     1.4      M    M
 11500  -16.1   3.0   300   13    7   7.2   4.0   -3.1  26.4     1.2      M    M
 11250  -15.6   3.9   300   13    7   6.9   3.8   -3.3  26.1     0.9      M    M
 11000  -15.0   5.0   305   12    6   7.5   4.1   -3.5  25.7     0.7      M    M
 10750  -14.5   5.9   305   12    6   6.4   3.5   -3.7  25.3     0.5      M    M
 10500  -14.1   6.6   310   12    6   4.8   2.6   -4.1  24.7     0.2      M    M
 10250  -13.7   7.3   315   11    6   5.6   3.1   -4.4  24.1    -0.1    280  1.4
 10000  -13.3   8.1   315   11    6   4.0   2.2   -4.8  23.4    -0.5    261  1.3
  9750  -13.1   8.4   320   11    5   3.1   1.7   -5.3  22.5    -1.0    246  1.3
  9500  -12.8   9.0   325   10    5   4.0   2.2   -5.7  21.7    -1.5    231  1.2
  9250  -12.5   9.5   330   10    5   4.0   2.2   -6.2  20.8    -1.9    214  1.1
  9000  -12.2  10.0   335   10    5   3.3   1.8   -6.6  20.0    -2.3    198  1.0
  8750  -12.0  10.4   335   10    5   3.2   1.8   -7.2  19.1    -2.9    184  0.9
  8500  -11.7  10.9   340   10    5   4.7   2.6   -7.6  18.3    -3.3    168  0.9
  8250  -11.4  11.5   340   10    5   3.6   2.0   -8.0  17.6    -3.7    150  0.8
  8000  -11.2  11.8   340   10    5  -0.1  -0.1   -8.6  16.5    -4.3    139  0.7
  7750  -11.2  11.8   335   10    5   1.7   1.0   -9.4  15.2    -5.1    132  0.7
  7500  -10.9  12.4   330   10    5   4.8   2.6   -9.8  14.4    -5.5    115  0.6
  7250  -11.1  12.0   320    9    5 -13.9  -7.6  -10.5  13.1    -6.3    112  0.6
  7000  -13.3   8.1   315    8    4 -42.2 -23.1  -12.9   8.8    -8.6    170  0.9
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           12/27/2014 at 0800 MST          |       12/27/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -6.3  LI... +3.0                | K index... -16.2  LI... +4.6
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -53.4 -64.1  255  28 15   1.9   1.0 | -53.7 -64.7  255  28 14   1.9   1.1
 45000 -50.6 -59.1  260  30 15   1.9   1.0 | -50.8 -59.4  260  29 15   1.9   1.1
 40000 -49.1 -56.4  255  31 16   0.8   0.5 | -49.5 -57.1  255  30 15   0.6   0.3
 38000 -48.6 -55.5  255  31 16   0.3   0.2 | -49.2 -56.6  255  30 15  -0.2  -0.1
 36000 -48.4 -55.1  255  31 16   0.3   0.2 | -49.3 -56.7  260  28 14  -0.1  -0.1
 34000 -48.2 -54.8  255  31 16   0.3   0.2 | -49.4 -56.9  265  26 13  -0.1  -0.1
 32000 -48.1 -54.6  260  30 16   0.1   0.1 | -49.0 -56.2  275  23 12   1.0   0.5
 30000 -48.0 -54.4  275  31 16   0.1   0.1 | -48.4 -55.1  290  21 11   1.0   0.6
 29000 -47.7 -53.9  275  31 16   3.3   1.8 | -47.5 -53.5  300  20 10   3.9   2.1
 28000 -46.5 -51.7  275  31 16   3.1   1.7 | -46.3 -51.3  310  20 10   3.9   2.2
 27000 -45.6 -50.1  275  31 16   3.1   1.7 | -45.1 -49.2  320  20 10   3.9   2.1
 26000 -44.7 -48.5  275  31 16   4.3   2.4 | -43.8 -46.8  325  20 10   5.9   3.2
 25000 -43.3 -45.9  275  28 14   4.5   2.5 | -42.1 -43.8  325  20 10   5.7   3.1
 24000 -42.0 -43.6  275  25 13   4.5   2.5 | -40.4 -40.7  325  20 11   5.7   3.1
 23000 -40.6 -41.1  280  22 11   5.6   3.1 | -38.7 -37.7  325  20 10   6.4   3.5
 22000 -38.8 -37.8  285  19 10   5.8   3.2 | -36.8 -34.2  320  19 10   6.4   3.5
 21000 -37.1 -34.8  290  16  8   5.9   3.2 | -34.8 -30.6  315  19 10   6.4   3.5
 20000 -35.2 -31.4  300  13  7   6.8   3.7 | -32.9 -27.2  310  17  9   6.4   3.5
 19500 -34.2 -29.6  305  12  6   6.8   3.7 | -32.0 -25.6  310  16  8   6.4   3.5
 19000 -33.2 -27.8  310  11  5   6.8   3.7 | -31.0 -23.8  310  15  8   6.4   3.5
 18500 -32.2 -26.0  315   9  5   6.8   3.7 | -30.1 -22.2  310  14  7   6.4   3.5
 18000 -31.1 -24.0  325   9  4   6.7   3.7 | -29.1 -20.4  305  13  7   6.5   3.6
 17500 -30.2 -22.4  330   8  4   6.5   3.6 | -28.1 -18.6  305  13  7   6.6   3.6
 17000 -29.2 -20.6  335   8  4   6.5   3.6 | -27.1 -16.8  305  12  6   6.5   3.6
 16500 -28.2 -18.8  335   8  4   7.3   4.0 | -26.2 -15.2  305  11  6   6.1   3.4
 16000 -27.1 -16.8  330   7  4   7.2   4.0 | -25.3 -13.5  310  10  5   6.1   3.4
 15500 -26.0 -14.8  325   7  3   7.9   4.4 | -24.4 -11.9  310   9  5   6.3   3.4
 15000 -24.8 -12.6  320   6  3   7.9   4.4 | -23.4 -10.1  305   9  5   6.2   3.4
 14500 -23.6 -10.5  310   6  3   7.9   4.3 | -22.0  -7.6  295   8  4   7.0   3.8
 14000 -21.8  -7.2  295   7  4   7.8   4.3 | -20.9  -5.6  290   8  4   6.9   3.8
 13500 -20.7  -5.3  295   8  4   7.5   4.1 | -19.9  -3.8  280   8  4   6.6   3.6
 13000 -19.6  -3.3  295  10  5   7.6   4.1 | -18.9  -2.0  275   9  5   6.7   3.7
 12500 -18.4  -1.1  295  10  5   8.1   4.5 | -17.9  -0.2  270   9  5   7.0   3.8
 12000 -17.2   1.0  300   9  5   7.1   3.9 | -16.9   1.6  265   9  5   5.6   3.1
 11750 -16.7   1.9  305   9  5   6.1   3.3 | -16.5   2.3  265   9  5   4.7   2.6
 11500 -16.3   2.7  305   9  5   6.4   3.5 | -16.1   3.0  265   8  4   6.0   3.3
 11250 -15.8   3.6  310   9  4   6.6   3.6 | -15.7   3.7  260   8  4   5.8   3.2
 11000 -15.3   4.5  315   8  4   5.5   3.0 | -15.3   4.5  260   7  4   5.4   3.0
 10750 -15.0   5.0  320   8  4   5.0   2.8 | -14.9   5.2  260   7  4   5.6   3.1
 10500 -14.5   5.9  320   8  4   5.8   3.2 | -14.4   6.1  260   7  3   6.0   3.3
 10250 -14.1   6.6  325   8  4   5.8   3.2 | -14.0   6.8  255   6  3   6.3   3.5
 10000 -13.7   7.3  330   8  4   4.8   2.7 | -13.6   7.5  255   6  3   4.5   2.5
  9750 -13.4   7.9  330   8  4   4.7   2.6 | -13.3   8.1  250   6  3   4.8   2.6
  9500 -13.0   8.6  330   8  4   5.6   3.1 | -12.8   9.0  245   6  3   7.0   3.8
  9250 -12.6   9.3  335   8  4   5.3   2.9 | -12.3   9.9  245   6  3   6.0   3.3
  9000 -12.2  10.0  335   7  4   4.8   2.7 | -11.9  10.6  240   5  3   4.2   2.3
  8750 -11.9  10.6  335   7  3   4.7   2.6 | -11.6  11.1  235   6  3   4.5   2.5
  8500 -11.5  11.3  335   6  3   5.7   3.1 | -11.2  11.8  225   6  3   6.3   3.4
  8250 -11.1  12.0  335   6  3   4.1   2.3 | -10.8  12.6  220   6  3   6.3   3.4
  8000 -10.9  12.4  330   6  3   0.3   0.2 | -10.3  13.5  220   6  3   6.0   3.3
  7750 -10.8  12.6  325   7  3   5.9   3.2 |  -9.9  14.2  215   6  3   6.9   3.8
  7500 -10.3  13.5  320   7  4   1.9   1.1 |  -9.3  15.3  210   5  3   7.3   4.0
  7250 -11.0  12.2  310   7  4 -20.9 -11.4 |  -8.9  16.0  205   5  2   5.7   3.2
  7000 -13.1   8.4  305   7  3 -33.2 -18.2 |  -8.5  16.7  205   4  2   5.3   2.9
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           12/27/2014 at 1400 MST          |       12/27/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -24.8  LI... +4.9               | K index... -27.7  LI... +6.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -54.2 -65.6  255  30 15   1.8   1.0 | -54.9 -66.8  255  30 15   1.3   0.7
 45000 -51.3 -60.3  260  31 16   1.8   1.0 | -53.0 -63.4  265  31 16   1.3   0.7
 40000 -49.9 -57.8  265  30 15   0.8   0.5 | -51.7 -61.1  280  25 13   0.8   0.4
 38000 -49.5 -57.1  270  29 15  -0.1  -0.1 | -51.3 -60.3  295  24 12  -0.2  -0.1
 36000 -49.6 -57.3  285  25 13  -0.0  -0.0 | -51.4 -60.5  315  27 14  -0.2  -0.1
 34000 -49.6 -57.3  305  23 12  -0.0  -0.0 | -51.5 -60.7  335  33 17  -0.2  -0.1
 32000 -49.5 -57.1  330  25 13   0.3   0.2 | -50.7 -59.3  345  41 21   1.8   1.0
 30000 -49.2 -56.6  350  31 16  -0.3  -0.1 | -49.7 -57.5  355  49 25   1.6   0.9
 29000 -48.1 -54.6  355  33 17   5.4   2.9 | -47.7 -53.9  360  50 26   6.8   3.8
 28000 -46.5 -51.7  355  34 18   5.4   2.9 | -45.6 -50.1  360  50 26   6.8   3.7
 27000 -44.9 -48.8  360  36 18   5.4   2.9 | -43.6 -46.5  360  50 26   6.8   3.8
 26000 -43.1 -45.6  005  36 19   7.4   4.1 | -41.5 -42.7  360  48 24   7.4   4.1
 25000 -40.9 -41.6  005  34 18   7.3   4.0 | -39.2 -38.6  360  43 22   7.4   4.1
 24000 -38.7 -37.7  005  32 17   7.3   4.0 | -37.0 -34.6  355  39 20   7.4   4.1
 23000 -36.6 -33.9  005  30 15   6.4   3.5 | -34.8 -30.6  355  35 18   7.1   3.9
 22000 -34.7 -30.5  360  27 14   6.5   3.6 | -32.7 -26.9  355  32 17   7.1   3.9
 21000 -32.7 -26.9  350  25 13   6.5   3.6 | -30.6 -23.1  355  30 15   7.1   3.9
 20000 -30.8 -23.4  345  22 11   5.9   3.2 | -28.5 -19.3  355  28 14   6.6   3.6
 19500 -30.0 -22.0  335  21 11   5.9   3.2 | -27.6 -17.7  355  27 14   6.6   3.6
 19000 -29.1 -20.4  330  20 10   5.9   3.2 | -26.6 -15.9  355  27 14   6.6   3.6
 18500 -28.2 -18.8  320  19 10   5.9   3.2 | -25.6 -14.1  355  26 14   6.6   3.6
 18000 -27.3 -17.1  315  19 10   5.8   3.2 | -24.6 -12.3  350  26 13   6.2   3.4
 17500 -26.5 -15.7  305  19 10   5.8   3.2 | -23.7 -10.7  350  25 13   6.1   3.3
 17000 -25.6 -14.1  300  19 10   5.8   3.2 | -22.8  -9.0  350  25 13   6.1   3.3
 16500 -24.7 -12.5  295  19 10   5.9   3.3 | -21.9  -7.4  345  24 12   6.0   3.3
 16000 -23.8 -10.8  295  19 10   5.8   3.2 | -21.0  -5.8  340  22 11   6.1   3.3
 15500 -22.9  -9.2  290  18  9   6.7   3.7 | -20.2  -4.4  335  20 10   5.1   2.8
 15000 -21.9  -7.4  285  17  9   6.7   3.7 | -19.4  -2.9  330  18  9   5.2   2.8
 14500 -20.4  -4.7  285  16  8   6.9   3.8 | -18.2  -0.8  315  16  8   5.1   2.8
 14000 -19.3  -2.7  280  16  8   6.9   3.8 | -17.5   0.5  305  15  8   5.1   2.8
 13500 -18.3  -0.9  280  15  8   6.6   3.6 | -16.7   1.9  300  15  8   5.1   2.8
 13000 -17.3   0.9  280  15  8   6.7   3.7 | -16.0   3.2  300  16  8   5.1   2.8
 12500 -16.3   2.7  280  15  8   6.9   3.8 | -15.2   4.6  300  17  9   5.7   3.1
 12000 -15.3   4.5  280  15  8   5.1   2.8 | -14.4   6.1  300  18  9   3.3   1.8
 11750 -15.0   5.0  275  15  8   5.0   2.8 | -14.2   6.4  300  19 10   4.0   2.2
 11500 -14.5   5.9  275  15  8   6.7   3.7 | -13.8   7.2  295  19 10   6.0   3.3
 11250 -14.0   6.8  275  15  8   6.4   3.5 | -13.4   7.9  295  19 10   5.4   3.0
 11000 -13.6   7.5  275  15  8   6.1   3.3 | -13.0   8.6  295  19 10   6.2   3.4
 10750 -13.2   8.2  270  14  7   5.9   3.2 | -12.5   9.5  290  20 10   7.8   4.3
 10500 -12.7   9.1  270  14  7   6.2   3.4 | -11.9  10.6  290  19 10   8.3   4.5
 10250 -12.3   9.9  265  14  7   6.6   3.6 | -11.3  11.7  285  18  9   8.5   4.6
 10000 -11.8  10.8  265  13  7   4.8   2.7 | -10.7  12.7  285  17  9   7.4   4.1
  9750 -11.5  11.3  260  13  6   5.1   2.8 | -10.2  13.6  280  16  8   8.3   4.6
  9500 -11.0  12.2  250  12  6   7.2   3.9 |  -9.5  14.9  280  15  8  10.1   5.6
  9250 -10.5  13.1  245  11  6   6.5   3.6 |  -8.7  16.3  280  15  7   9.6   5.3
  9000 -10.1  13.8  240  11  6   4.1   2.3 |  -8.1  17.4  280  14  7   6.5   3.5
  8750  -9.9  14.2  230  11  6   3.2   1.7 |  -7.7  18.1  275  13  7   5.4   3.0
  8500  -9.6  14.7  225  11  6   4.7   2.6 |  -7.2  19.0  270  12  6   9.1   5.0
  8250  -9.3  15.3  220  11  5   4.1   2.2 |  -6.6  20.1  270  12  6   3.8   2.1
  8000  -9.1  15.6  215  10  5   2.7   1.5 |  -6.7  19.9  260  11  6  -5.3  -2.9
  7750  -8.8  16.2  205   9  5   4.8   2.6 |  -7.1  19.2  255  10  5  -2.0  -1.1
  7500  -8.4  16.9  195   9  5   7.5   4.1 |  -7.1  19.2  240   9  5   1.5   0.8
  7250  -7.9  17.8  190   8  4   5.7   3.2 |  -7.4  18.7  225   8  4 -11.9  -6.5
  7000  -7.5  18.5  185   7  4   3.7   2.0 |  -8.9  16.0  220   6  3 -28.2 -15.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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