Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 301014
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0414 MDT Saturday, August 30, 2014

This forecast is for Saturday, August 30, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 67.5 F/19.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1106 ft/min (5.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 18684 ft MSL (11926 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 78.0 F/26.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1015 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 15453 ft MSL (8695 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 08/31....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Poor
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 40632 ft MSL (33874 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Sunday 08/31.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:26:05 / 19:33:44 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 7 min 39 sec (787 min 39 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:59:29 MDT... 59.87 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/30/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14439 ft MSL (7681 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 13990 ft MSL (7232 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15240 ft MSL (8482 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -5.2
K index......................... +24.3

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -62.3 -80.1   300   30   16   1.5   0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -59.1 -74.4   310   39   20   4.3   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.4 -62.3   315   46   24   4.1   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.9 -57.8   315   43   22   4.1   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -47.4 -53.3   310   40   21   4.2   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -43.8 -46.8   305   36   19   6.7   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -39.8 -39.6   305   32   16   6.7   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -35.0 -31.0   300   27   14   8.7   4.8   34.9  94.9     7.2      M    M
 29000  -32.4 -26.3   305   25   13   8.7   4.8   34.6  94.2     7.0      M    M
 28000  -29.8 -21.6   305   23   12   8.9   4.9   34.3  93.7     6.9      M    M
 27000  -26.9 -16.4   300   21   11   7.6   4.2   33.3  91.9     6.2      M    M
 26000  -24.6 -12.3   300   19   10   7.6   4.2   32.5  90.5     5.6      M    M
 25000  -22.4  -8.3   300   17    9   7.6   4.2   31.8  89.2     5.1      M    M
 24000  -20.1  -4.2   300   17    9   7.4   4.1   30.9  87.7     4.4      M    M
 23000  -17.9  -0.2   305   17    9   7.5   4.1   30.1  86.1     3.7      M    M
 22000  -15.7   3.7   305   18    9   7.4   4.1   29.4  84.8     3.1      M    M
 21000  -13.7   7.3   305   17    9   6.6   3.6   28.3  82.9     2.2      M    M
 20000  -11.7  10.9   305   16    8   6.6   3.6   27.2  80.9     1.3      M    M
 19500  -10.7  12.7   305   16    8   6.7   3.7   26.7  80.0     0.9      M    M
 19000   -9.7  14.5   305   15    8   6.1   3.4   26.2  79.1     0.4      M    M
 18500   -8.9  16.0   305   14    7   6.2   3.4   25.5  78.0    -0.2   1094  5.6
 18000   -8.0  17.6   305   14    7   6.4   3.5   24.9  76.9    -0.8   1053  5.3
 17500   -7.0  19.4   310   13    6   7.0   3.9   24.4  76.0    -1.3   1009  5.1
 17000   -6.0  21.2   315   12    6   7.1   3.9   24.0  75.2    -1.7    965  4.9
 16500   -5.0  23.0   320   11    6   7.8   4.3   23.6  74.5    -2.2    920  4.7
 16000   -3.9  25.0   320   10    5   7.9   4.3   23.3  73.9    -2.6    871  4.4
 15500   -2.8  27.0   320   10    5   8.2   4.5   23.0  73.4    -2.9    823  4.2
 15000   -1.6  29.1   315    9    4   8.5   4.6   22.7  72.9    -3.2    773  3.9
 14500   -0.4  31.3   310    7    4   8.6   4.7   22.5  72.6    -3.5    723  3.7
 14000    0.8  33.4   300    6    3   9.1   5.0   22.4  72.3    -3.7    671  3.4
 13500    2.8  37.0   275    4    2   9.0   5.0   22.3  72.1    -4.0    591  3.0
 13000    4.1  39.4   265    5    3   8.9   4.9   22.1  71.8    -4.2    537  2.7
 12500    5.4  41.7   255    6    3   7.9   4.3   22.0  71.6    -4.4    483  2.5
 12000    6.5  43.7   240    9    5   8.1   4.4   21.6  71.0    -4.8    436  2.2
 11750    7.0  44.6   240   10    5   7.8   4.3   21.5  70.7    -4.9    411  2.1
 11500    7.6  45.7   240   11    6   8.0   4.4   21.4  70.4    -5.1    386  2.0
 11250    8.2  46.8   235   13    7   7.6   4.2   21.2  70.2    -5.2    362  1.8
 11000    8.7  47.7   230   14    7   7.1   3.9   21.0  69.8    -5.5    339  1.7
 10750    9.2  48.6   230   15    8   7.1   3.9   20.8  69.5    -5.7    316  1.6
 10500    9.7  49.5   230   16    8   7.1   3.9   20.6  69.1    -5.9    293  1.5
 10250   10.2  50.4   225   16    8   6.9   3.8   20.4  68.7    -6.2    271  1.4
 10000   10.7  51.3   225   17    9   7.1   3.9   20.2  68.4    -6.4    249  1.3
  9750   11.2  52.2   225   17    9   7.3   4.0   20.0  68.0    -6.6    226  1.1
  9500   11.8  53.2   220   17    9   7.1   3.9   19.8  67.7    -6.8    202  1.0
  9250   12.3  54.1   220   17    9   7.1   3.9   19.6  67.3    -7.1    179  0.9
  9000   12.8  55.0   220   17    9   7.0   3.8   19.4  66.9    -7.3    157  0.8
  8750   13.3  55.9   215   17    9   7.5   4.1   19.2  66.6    -7.5    134  0.7
  8500   13.9  57.0   215   17    9   5.8   3.2   19.0  66.2    -7.7    111  0.6
  8250   14.2  57.6   215   17    8   3.9   2.1   18.6  65.5    -8.2     94  0.5
  8000   14.5  58.1   210   16    8   4.1   2.3   18.2  64.7    -8.6     77  0.4
  7750   14.8  58.6   210   15    8   4.3   2.4   17.7  63.9    -9.0     61  0.3
  7500   14.8  58.6   210   15    8  -7.4  -4.1   17.1  62.8    -9.7     54  0.3
  7250   13.6  56.5   215   12    6 -18.4 -10.1   15.7  60.2   -11.2     81  0.4
  7000   12.4  54.3   215    9    5 -10.1  -5.5   14.2  57.5   -12.8    109  0.6
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/30/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/30/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +12.7  LI... -1.5               | K index... +14.7  LI... -3.3
CAPE... +180.3  CIN... -94.7               | CAPE... +564.2  CIN... -17.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.8 -81.0  305  29 15   1.4   0.7 | -64.1 -83.4  290  30 15   1.3   0.7
 45000 -59.6 -75.3  315  39 20   4.7   2.6 | -60.4 -76.7  305  37 19   5.9   3.2
 40000 -52.1 -61.8  315  42 22   5.1   2.8 | -51.4 -60.5  310  44 23   4.5   2.5
 38000 -49.1 -56.4  315  42 22   5.1   2.8 | -48.7 -55.7  310  45 23   4.5   2.5
 36000 -46.0 -50.8  315  42 21   5.1   2.8 | -46.0 -50.8  315  47 24   4.5   2.5
 34000 -42.5 -44.5  315  40 20   6.1   3.3 | -41.9 -43.4  315  46 23   7.5   4.1
 32000 -38.9 -38.0  315  37 19   6.1   3.3 | -37.4 -35.3  315  43 22   7.5   4.1
 30000 -34.4 -29.9  310  32 16   8.2   4.5 | -33.0 -27.4  315  35 18   7.3   4.0
 29000 -31.9 -25.4  305  29 15   8.2   4.5 | -30.8 -23.4  310  31 16   7.3   4.0
 28000 -28.9 -20.0  305  26 13   8.0   4.4 | -28.1 -18.6  305  25 13   7.5   4.1
 27000 -26.6 -15.9  300  23 12   7.8   4.3 | -25.8 -14.4  305  23 12   7.6   4.2
 26000 -24.2 -11.6  295  20 10   7.8   4.3 | -23.5 -10.3  300  21 11   7.6   4.2
 25000 -21.9  -7.4  290  18  9   7.8   4.3 | -21.3  -6.3  295  20 10   7.6   4.2
 24000 -19.7  -3.5  290  17  9   7.3   4.0 | -19.2  -2.6  295  18  9   6.7   3.7
 23000 -17.6   0.3  290  17  9   7.4   4.0 | -17.3   0.9  300  17  9   6.7   3.7
 22000 -15.4   4.3  290  17  9   7.2   4.0 | -15.3   4.5  300  16  8   6.7   3.7
 21000 -13.4   7.9  295  16  8   6.4   3.5 | -13.3   8.1  300  16  8   6.7   3.7
 20000 -11.5  11.3  305  16  8   6.4   3.5 | -11.3  11.7  300  17  9   6.8   3.7
 19500 -10.6  12.9  305  16  8   6.3   3.5 | -10.3  13.5  300  18  9   6.7   3.7
 19000  -9.5  14.9  310  16  8   7.7   4.2 |  -9.2  15.4  300  18  9   7.7   4.2
 18500  -8.4  16.9  310  15  8   7.8   4.3 |  -8.1  17.4  295  18  9   7.7   4.2
 18000  -7.2  19.0  310  14  7   7.7   4.2 |  -7.0  19.4  295  17  9   7.8   4.3
 17500  -6.1  21.0  310  13  7   7.4   4.0 |  -5.8  21.6  295  17  9   7.9   4.3
 17000  -5.0  23.0  305  12  6   7.4   4.0 |  -4.7  23.5  290  16  8   7.9   4.3
 16500  -3.9  25.0  305  11  5   7.2   4.0 |  -3.5  25.7  290  16  8   8.1   4.5
 16000  -2.8  27.0  305  10  5   7.3   4.0 |  -2.3  27.9  290  15  8   8.2   4.5
 15500  -1.8  28.8  305   9  5   7.7   4.2 |  -1.0  30.2  285  15  8   8.2   4.5
 15000  -0.7  30.7  305   8  4   8.0   4.4 |   0.2  32.4  285  14  7   8.3   4.5
 14500   0.5  32.9  305   7  4   8.1   4.4 |   1.4  34.5  280  13  7   8.4   4.6
 14000   2.2  36.0  295   7  3   8.3   4.6 |   3.3  37.9  280  12  6   8.6   4.7
 13500   3.4  38.1  285   6  3   8.8   4.8 |   4.5  40.1  275  12  6   8.7   4.8
 13000   4.7  40.5  275   5  3   9.1   5.0 |   5.8  42.4  270  11  6   8.8   4.9
 12500   6.0  42.8  265   5  3   9.1   5.0 |   7.1  44.8  270  10  5   8.7   4.8
 12000   7.3  45.1  255   5  3   9.4   5.2 |   8.3  46.9  265   9  5   8.8   4.8
 11750   8.0  46.4  255   5  3   9.4   5.1 |   8.9  48.0  260   9  5   8.9   4.9
 11500   8.7  47.7  250   5  3   9.4   5.1 |   9.6  49.3  260   9  4   8.5   4.7
 11250   9.4  48.9  250   6  3   8.5   4.7 |  10.2  50.4  255   8  4   8.5   4.7
 11000   9.9  49.8  245   7  3   7.7   4.2 |  10.8  51.4  255   8  4   9.0   4.9
 10750  10.5  50.9  245   7  4   7.9   4.3 |  11.4  52.5  250   8  4   9.1   5.0
 10500  11.1  52.0  245   8  4   7.2   3.9 |  12.0  53.6  245   8  4   8.6   4.7
 10250  11.5  52.7  240   9  5   6.1   3.3 |  12.6  54.7  240   7  4   7.1   3.9
 10000  11.9  53.4  235  10  5   5.9   3.3 |  13.1  55.6  240   7  4   9.0   4.9
  9750  12.3  54.1  235  11  6   6.2   3.4 |  13.9  57.0  235   7  4  11.4   6.3
  9500  12.7  54.9  230  12  6   5.4   3.0 |  14.6  58.3  225   8  4   9.3   5.1
  9250  13.0  55.4  230  13  7   4.2   2.3 |  15.2  59.4  220   8  4   6.7   3.7
  9000  13.3  55.9  225  14  7   4.4   2.4 |  15.6  60.1  215   9  4   7.1   3.9
  8750  13.7  56.7  225  15  8   6.0   3.3 |  16.1  61.0  210   9  5  10.5   5.7
  8500  14.1  57.4  220  15  8   6.6   3.6 |  17.0  62.6  205   9  5  11.0   6.0
  8250  14.6  58.3  220  15  8   6.2   3.4 |  17.7  63.9  200   9  5   9.8   5.4
  8000  15.0  59.0  215  14  7   6.2   3.4 |  18.4  65.1  195   9  5   9.6   5.3
  7750  15.4  59.7  215  13  7   6.6   3.6 |  19.1  66.4  195   9  5  10.7   5.9
  7500  15.9  60.6  210  12  6   7.1   3.9 |  20.0  68.0  190  10  5  12.2   6.7
  7250  16.4  61.5  210  11  6   7.1   3.9 |  20.8  69.4  190   9  5  12.0   6.6
  7000  16.8  62.2  205  10  5   7.2   4.0 |  21.7  71.1  190   9  5  12.3   6.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           08/30/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/30/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.5  LI... -2.6               | K index... +30.7  LI... -1.2
CAPE... +409.6  CIN... -14.5               | CAPE... +168.5  CIN... -6.5
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.7 -84.5  285  32 17   1.1   0.6 | -64.5 -84.1  285  32 17   1.5   0.8
 45000 -61.3 -78.3  290  39 20   5.8   3.2 | -60.9 -77.6  290  46 24   5.2   2.8
 40000 -52.3 -62.1  290  42 22   5.5   3.0 | -52.7 -62.9  285  54 28   5.4   3.0
 38000 -49.0 -56.2  295  47 24   5.5   3.0 | -49.4 -56.9  290  53 27   5.4   3.0
 36000 -45.7 -50.3  305  53 27   5.4   3.0 | -46.2 -51.2  290  52 27   5.3   2.9
 34000 -41.4 -42.5  305  47 24   7.4   4.1 | -41.6 -42.9  290  43 22   8.1   4.4
 32000 -37.0 -34.6  300  39 20   7.5   4.1 | -36.8 -34.2  285  32 17   8.1   4.4
 30000 -32.3 -26.1  295  33 17   7.9   4.3 | -31.8 -25.2  280  28 15   8.6   4.7
 29000 -30.0 -22.0  295  30 16   7.9   4.3 | -29.3 -20.7  280  28 14   8.6   4.7
 28000 -27.6 -17.7  290  28 14   7.9   4.3 | -26.1 -15.0  275  27 14   7.6   4.2
 27000 -24.8 -12.6  290  26 14   7.7   4.2 | -24.0 -11.2  275  26 13   7.2   3.9
 26000 -22.5  -8.5  295  25 13   7.7   4.2 | -21.9  -7.4  270  26 13   7.2   3.9
 25000 -20.2  -4.4  300  24 12   7.7   4.2 | -19.8  -3.6  270  26 13   7.2   3.9
 24000 -18.2  -0.8  300  23 12   6.6   3.6 | -17.7   0.1  265  26 13   7.0   3.8
 23000 -16.2   2.8  300  22 11   6.6   3.6 | -15.7   3.7  265  27 14   7.0   3.8
 22000 -14.3   6.3  300  21 11   6.7   3.7 | -13.7   7.3  265  27 14   7.0   3.8
 21000 -12.3   9.9  300  20 10   6.8   3.7 | -11.6  11.1  265  26 14   7.0   3.9
 20000 -10.3  13.5  300  18  9   6.8   3.7 |  -9.6  14.7  265  25 13   7.1   3.9
 19500  -9.3  15.3  300  18  9   6.8   3.7 |  -8.6  16.5  265  25 13   7.1   3.9
 19000  -8.3  17.1  295  17  9   7.2   4.0 |  -7.6  18.3  270  24 12   6.7   3.7
 18500  -7.3  18.9  295  18  9   7.3   4.0 |  -6.6  20.1  270  23 12   6.6   3.6
 18000  -6.2  20.8  290  18  9   7.4   4.1 |  -5.7  21.7  270  22 11   6.6   3.6
 17500  -5.1  22.8  290  18  9   7.8   4.3 |  -4.7  23.5  270  21 11   6.5   3.5
 17000  -4.0  24.8  285  18  9   7.8   4.3 |  -3.8  25.2  270  20 10   6.5   3.6
 16500  -2.9  26.8  280  17  9   8.0   4.4 |  -2.9  26.8  270  19 10   6.5   3.6
 16000  -1.7  28.9  275  17  9   8.1   4.4 |  -2.0  28.4  265  18  9   6.5   3.6
 15500  -0.6  30.9  275  16  8   8.4   4.6 |  -1.0  30.2  265  17  9   6.7   3.7
 15000   0.7  33.3  270  15  8   8.8   4.8 |  -0.0  32.0  265  17  9   7.0   3.9
 14500   2.0  35.6  270  15  8   9.0   4.9 |   1.0  33.8  260  16  8   7.2   4.0
 14000   4.1  39.4  265  13  7  10.2   5.6 |   3.3  37.9  255  16  8  11.0   6.0
 13500   5.6  42.1  260  12  6   9.7   5.3 |   5.0  41.0  250  15  8  10.9   6.0
 13000   7.0  44.6  255  11  6   9.1   5.0 |   6.5  43.7  245  15  8  10.6   5.8
 12500   8.3  46.9  245  10  5   7.6   4.2 |   8.1  46.6  240  16  8   8.7   4.8
 12000   9.4  48.9  230  10  5   8.3   4.6 |   9.4  48.9  235  16  8   9.7   5.3
 11750  10.0  50.0  225  10  5   8.5   4.7 |  10.1  50.2  230  16  8   9.5   5.2
 11500  10.6  51.1  220  10  5   6.8   3.7 |  10.8  51.4  230  16  8   9.0   4.9
 11250  11.1  52.0  215  10  5   7.3   4.0 |  11.4  52.5  225  16  8   9.2   5.0
 11000  11.8  53.2  210  11  5   9.4   5.1 |  12.2  54.0  225  17  9   9.9   5.4
 10750  12.4  54.3  200  11  6   9.0   4.9 |  12.9  55.2  220  17  9   9.8   5.4
 10500  13.1  55.6  195  12  6   8.6   4.7 |  13.6  56.5  215  17  9   9.5   5.2
 10250  13.6  56.5  190  12  6   6.3   3.4 |  14.3  57.7  215  17  9   7.4   4.1
 10000  14.1  57.4  185  13  7   8.6   4.7 |  14.8  58.6  210  17  9   8.5   4.7
  9750  14.9  58.8  185  13  7  11.5   6.3 |  15.5  59.9  205  17  9  10.7   5.8
  9500  15.6  60.1  180  14  7  10.4   5.7 |  16.3  61.3  205  17  9   9.9   5.4
  9250  16.4  61.5  180  14  7   9.3   5.1 |  17.0  62.6  200  17  9   8.5   4.7
  9000  17.1  62.8  180  14  7   9.2   5.0 |  17.6  63.7  200  17  9   8.0   4.4
  8750  17.8  64.0  180  14  7  10.6   5.8 |  18.2  64.8  195  17  9   9.1   5.0
  8500  18.6  65.5  180  14  7  10.9   6.0 |  18.9  66.0  190  17  9   9.3   5.1
  8250  19.4  66.9  175  14  7  10.4   5.7 |  19.6  67.3  185  17  9   9.1   5.0
  8000  20.1  68.2  175  14  7  10.7   5.9 |  20.2  68.4  185  16  8   9.1   5.0
  7750  20.9  69.6  175  14  7   9.3   5.1 |  20.9  69.6  185  16  8   9.1   5.0
  7500  21.6  70.9  175  14  7  10.0   5.5 |  21.5  70.7  180  15  8   7.1   3.9
  7250  22.4  72.3  175  13  7  13.0   7.1 |  21.9  71.4  180  14  7   4.6   2.5
  7000  23.3  73.9  175  13  6  11.9   6.5 |  22.1  71.8  180  12  6   4.7   2.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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