Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
000
UXUS97 KBOU 181230
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0630 MDT Thursday, September 18, 2014

This forecast is for Thursday, September 18, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 81.7 F/27.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1080 ft/min (5.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 17091 ft MSL (11806 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 90.0 F/32.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1045 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11880 ft MSL (6595 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 09/19....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 15890 ft MSL (10605 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Friday 09/19.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:43:21 / 19:04:38 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 12 hr 21 min 17 sec (741 min 17 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:53:30 MDT... 51.92 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 09/18/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15266 ft MSL (9981 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 17587 ft MSL (12302 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 17505 ft MSL (12220 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.1
K index......................... +18.5

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -68.3 -90.9   265   47   24  -2.5  -1.4   79.1 174.3    27.3      M    M
 45000  -61.1 -78.0   290   64   33   2.8   1.5   66.8 152.2    21.6      M    M
 40000  -54.2 -65.6   300   50   26   7.2   4.0   54.4 130.0    14.9      M    M
 38000  -49.9 -57.8   315   48   25   7.2   3.9   51.8 125.3    13.5      M    M
 36000  -45.6 -50.1   325   48   25   6.7   3.7   49.9 121.8    12.4      M    M
 34000  -39.5 -39.1   325   42   22   9.1   5.0   49.2 120.6    12.3      M    M
 32000  -35.0 -31.0   310   36   18   4.5   2.5   47.5 117.5    11.4      M    M
 30000  -30.7 -23.3   310   28   14   9.1   5.0   45.4 113.8    10.1      M    M
 29000  -29.2 -20.6   315   21   11   4.6   2.5   43.6 110.4     8.7      M    M
 28000  -27.2 -17.0   315   21   11   7.9   4.3   42.3 108.1     7.8      M    M
 27000  -24.9 -12.8   315   20   11   7.8   4.3   41.5 106.6     7.3      M    M
 26000  -22.6  -8.7   320   20   10   7.8   4.3   40.7 105.3     6.8      M    M
 25000  -20.3  -4.5   320   20   10   7.7   4.2   40.2 104.3     6.3      M    M
 24000  -17.8  -0.0   325   19   10   7.4   4.1   39.7 103.4     6.0      M    M
 23000  -16.3   2.7   325   18    9   8.8   4.8   37.9 100.2     4.5      M    M
 22000  -14.1   6.6   330   17    9   6.6   3.6   37.1  98.8     3.9      M    M
 21000  -12.1  10.2   340   16    8   7.8   4.3   35.9  96.7     3.0      M    M
 20000   -9.9  14.2   345   15    8   6.4   3.5   34.9  94.9     2.2      M    M
 19500   -9.0  15.8   360   15    8   6.3   3.5   34.3  93.8     1.7      M    M
 19000   -8.0  17.6   015   16    8   8.0   4.4   33.8  92.9     1.3      M    M
 18500   -6.7  19.9   015   14    7   8.3   4.6   33.6  92.4     1.0      M    M
 18000   -5.5  22.1   015   13    6   8.4   4.6   33.3  92.0     0.8      M    M
 17500   -4.3  24.3   015   11    6   8.7   4.8   33.1  91.6     0.6      M    M
 17000   -3.0  26.6   010    9    4   5.0   2.8   32.1  89.8    -0.4   1065  5.4
 16500   -2.3  27.9   010    7    4   5.9   3.2   31.3  88.4    -1.2   1030  5.2
 16000   -1.3  29.7   010    6    3   7.1   3.9   30.9  87.6    -1.6    985  5.0
 15500   -0.3  31.5   360    6    3   7.4   4.1   30.4  86.8    -2.1    939  4.8
 15000    0.9  33.6   355    5    3   9.3   5.1   30.2  86.4    -2.3    887  4.5
 14500    2.3  36.1   345    5    3   9.2   5.0   30.2  86.3    -2.4    832  4.2
 14000    3.7  38.7   340    5    2   9.2   5.0   30.1  86.2    -2.5    776  3.9
 13500    5.0  41.0   320    4    2   9.2   5.1   30.0  86.0    -2.6    721  3.7
 13000    6.4  43.5   300    4    2   9.2   5.1   29.9  85.8    -2.8    665  3.4
 12500    7.7  45.9   280    4    2   9.2   5.1   29.8  85.7    -2.9    610  3.1
 12000    9.1  48.4   265    5    3   9.2   5.1   29.8  85.6    -3.0    555  2.8
 11500   10.4  50.7   270    5    3   9.2   5.1   29.6  85.4    -3.1    499  2.5
 11000   11.8  53.2   270    6    3   9.1   5.0   29.6  85.2    -3.3    444  2.3
 10500   12.9  55.2   275    6    3   7.1   3.9   29.3  84.7    -3.6    395  2.0
 10250   13.4  56.1   270    6    3   7.7   4.2   29.1  84.3    -3.8    371  1.9
 10000   14.0  57.2   255    6    3   7.8   4.3   28.9  84.1    -4.0    347  1.8
  9750   14.6  58.3   245    6    3   7.8   4.3   28.8  83.8    -4.2    322  1.6
  9500   15.2  59.4   230    6    3   7.8   4.3   28.6  83.5    -4.3    298  1.5
  9250   15.7  60.3   220    7    4   7.8   4.3   28.5  83.3    -4.5    273  1.4
  9000   16.3  61.3   215    8    4   7.8   4.3   28.3  83.0    -4.6    249  1.3
  8750   16.9  62.4   210    8    4   7.8   4.3   28.2  82.7    -4.8    224  1.1
  8500   17.4  63.3   205    9    5   7.8   4.3   28.0  82.4    -5.0    199  1.0
  8250   18.0  64.4   200    9    5   7.8   4.3   27.9  82.2    -5.2    175  0.9
  8000   18.6  65.5   195   10    5   7.8   4.3   27.7  81.9    -5.3    150  0.8
  7750   19.2  66.6   195   10    5   7.8   4.3   27.6  81.6    -5.5    126  0.6
  7500   19.7  67.5   200    9    5   7.7   4.2   27.4  81.3    -5.7    101  0.5
  7250   20.3  68.5   200    9    5   8.1   4.5   27.2  81.0    -5.9     77  0.4
  7000   20.9  69.6   205    9    5   6.6   3.6   27.1  80.8    -6.0     52  0.3
  6750   21.2  70.2   210    9    5   2.1   1.2   26.7  80.0    -6.5     35  0.2
  6500   21.2  70.2   220    9    5  -1.4  -0.8   25.9  78.7    -7.2     28  0.1
  6250   21.2  70.2   230    9    5   4.5   2.5   25.2  77.4    -8.0     20  0.1
  6000   21.2  70.2   235   10    5 -15.6  -8.5   24.5  76.1    -8.7     13  0.1
  5750   18.9  66.0   245    6    3 -34.1 -18.7   21.4  70.5   -11.8     75  0.4
  5500   17.1  62.8   295    3    2  -5.8  -3.2   19.0  66.2   -14.3    120  0.6

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/18/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       09/18/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +7.7  LI... +0.2                | K index... +2.6  LI... -0.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... +25.8  CIN... -53.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.0 -88.6  295  42 22   1.9   1.1 | -66.9 -88.4  290  41 21   1.6   0.9
 45000 -62.5 -80.5  290  53 28   5.3   2.9 | -62.9 -81.2  290  53 27   5.5   3.0
 40000 -54.3 -65.7  305  47 24   7.4   4.1 | -54.4 -65.9  295  42 21   7.1   3.9
 38000 -49.9 -57.8  315  44 23   7.4   4.1 | -50.1 -58.2  300  38 19   7.2   3.9
 36000 -45.5 -49.9  320  43 22   7.4   4.1 | -45.8 -50.4  310  35 18   7.1   3.9
 34000 -40.9 -41.6  330  39 20   7.7   4.2 | -41.0 -41.8  315  30 15   8.3   4.5
 32000 -35.7 -32.3  335  33 17   7.6   4.2 | -35.4 -31.7  320  24 12   8.2   4.5
 30000 -31.1 -24.0  340  29 15   7.7   4.2 | -30.5 -22.9  330  19 10   8.2   4.5
 29000 -28.7 -19.7  340  26 14   7.7   4.2 | -28.0 -18.4  330  17  9   8.2   4.5
 28000 -26.4 -15.5  340  24 12   7.2   4.0 | -25.6 -14.1  335  15  8   7.4   4.1
 27000 -24.4 -11.9  340  22 11   6.9   3.8 | -23.5 -10.3  340  14  7   7.1   3.9
 26000 -22.3  -8.1  340  19 10   7.0   3.8 | -21.3  -6.3  340  12  6   7.1   3.9
 25000 -20.2  -4.4  335  17  9   7.0   3.8 | -19.2  -2.6  340  11  6   7.1   3.9
 24000 -18.3  -0.9  335  14  7   6.5   3.6 | -17.2   1.0  335   9  5   6.6   3.6
 23000 -16.3   2.7  330  11  6   6.5   3.6 | -15.2   4.6  330   8  4   6.6   3.6
 22000 -14.4   6.1  330   8  4   6.6   3.6 | -13.3   8.1  320   7  4   6.6   3.6
 21000 -12.3   9.9  345   7  3   6.9   3.8 | -11.4  11.5  315   5  3   6.1   3.4
 20000 -10.2  13.6  005   7  3   6.9   3.8 |  -9.6  14.7  310   3  2   6.1   3.4
 19500  -9.2  15.4  015   7  4   6.9   3.8 |  -8.7  16.3  305   2  1   6.0   3.3
 19000  -8.1  17.4  020   7  4   7.8   4.3 |  -7.7  18.1  305   1  1   7.4   4.1
 18500  -6.9  19.6  025   6  3   7.9   4.3 |  -6.6  20.1  325   1  0   7.5   4.1
 18000  -5.8  21.6  025   6  3   7.9   4.4 |  -5.5  22.1  360   1  0   7.6   4.2
 17500  -4.6  23.7  025   5  3   8.0   4.4 |  -4.3  24.3  010   1  0   8.0   4.4
 17000  -3.3  26.1  020   4  2   8.1   4.5 |  -3.1  26.4  015   1  0   8.0   4.4
 16500  -2.2  28.0  015   3  2   7.0   3.8 |  -1.9  28.6  360   1  0   7.2   4.0
 16000  -1.2  29.8  015   3  1   7.0   3.8 |  -0.3  31.5  285   1  0   7.1   3.9
 15500   0.4  32.7  010   2  1   8.0   4.4 |   0.8  33.4  270   1  1   8.0   4.4
 15000   1.5  34.7  355   2  1   8.0   4.4 |   1.9  35.4  265   1  1   7.9   4.3
 14500   2.7  36.9  350   2  1   8.5   4.7 |   3.1  37.6  255   2  1   8.5   4.7
 14000   4.0  39.2  355   2  1   8.7   4.8 |   4.4  39.9  235   1  1   8.7   4.8
 13500   5.2  41.4  010   1  1   8.8   4.8 |   5.6  42.1  215   2  1   8.7   4.8
 13000   6.5  43.7  085   1  0   8.8   4.8 |   6.9  44.4  200   3  1   8.7   4.8
 12500   7.9  46.2  120   2  1   8.9   4.9 |   8.2  46.8  195   4  2   8.6   4.7
 12000   9.2  48.6  155   2  1   9.0   4.9 |   9.5  49.1  200   5  3   8.6   4.7
 11500  10.5  50.9  180   3  2   9.0   4.9 |  10.7  51.3  205   6  3   8.7   4.8
 11000  11.9  53.4  195   4  2   8.7   4.8 |  12.1  53.8  210   7  4   9.0   4.9
 10500  13.2  55.8  210   5  3   5.8   3.2 |  13.4  56.1  210   8  4   5.0   2.7
 10250  13.5  56.3  210   6  3   7.0   3.9 |  13.6  56.5  210   8  4   6.1   3.4
 10000  14.2  57.6  210   6  3  11.8   6.5 |  14.4  57.9  210   8  4  12.4   6.8
  9750  15.0  59.0  215   7  3  10.9   6.0 |  15.2  59.4  210   9  4  11.1   6.1
  9500  15.8  60.4  215   7  4  10.1   5.5 |  16.0  60.8  210   9  5  10.4   5.7
  9250  16.4  61.5  215   7  4   8.4   4.6 |  16.7  62.1  205   9  5   8.9   4.9
  9000  17.0  62.6  215   8  4   9.5   5.2 |  17.3  63.1  205   9  5   9.7   5.3
  8750  17.7  63.9  215   8  4  10.6   5.8 |  18.0  64.4  205   9  5  10.3   5.6
  8500  18.5  65.3  215   8  4   9.4   5.1 |  18.7  65.7  205   9  5   9.8   5.4
  8250  19.1  66.4  215   8  4   7.9   4.3 |  19.4  66.9  205   9  5   9.6   5.3
  8000  19.6  67.3  215   8  4   7.5   4.1 |  20.1  68.2  205   9  5   8.6   4.7
  7750  20.2  68.4  215   8  4   7.5   4.1 |  20.7  69.3  205   9  4   7.3   4.0
  7500  20.7  69.3  215   8  4   7.0   3.8 |  21.2  70.2  205   8  4   8.3   4.6
  7250  21.2  70.2  210   8  4   6.6   3.6 |  21.8  71.2  200   8  4   9.1   5.0
  7000  21.7  71.1  210   9  4   6.5   3.6 |  22.4  72.3  200   7  3   8.6   4.7
  6750  22.1  71.8  210   9  4   4.5   2.4 |  23.0  73.4  195   6  3   8.3   4.6
  6500  22.3  72.1  210   9  5  -1.1  -0.6 |  23.7  74.7  190   5  3  10.0   5.5
  6250  22.0  71.6  210   8  4  -4.9  -2.7 |  24.5  76.1  190   5  3  11.6   6.4
  6000  21.6  70.9  210   8  4  -1.0  -0.5 |  25.3  77.5  195   5  2  10.0   5.5
  5750  21.6  70.9  215   8  4  -4.9  -2.7 |  26.1  79.0  195   4  2  12.3   6.8
  5500  20.4  68.7  215   7  4 -22.2 -12.2 |  27.3  81.1  195   4  2  20.5  11.3

           09/18/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       09/18/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +2.7  LI... +1.1                | K index... +7.5  LI... +1.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.1 -88.8  290  38 20   1.8   1.0 | -67.0 -88.6  280  37 19   2.3   1.2
 45000 -62.7 -80.9  290  44 23   5.4   3.0 | -62.4 -80.3  280  42 22   5.0   2.7
 40000 -54.4 -65.9  290  37 19   6.9   3.8 | -54.6 -66.3  280  36 18   7.1   3.9
 38000 -50.2 -58.4  295  34 17   6.9   3.8 | -50.3 -58.5  280  33 17   7.2   3.9
 36000 -46.0 -50.8  300  31 16   6.8   3.7 | -45.9 -50.6  280  30 15   7.1   3.9
 34000 -40.9 -41.6  305  28 15   8.8   4.8 | -40.1 -40.2  290  24 12   9.0   4.9
 32000 -35.0 -31.0  315  26 13   9.2   5.0 | -34.7 -30.5  300  20 10   9.3   5.1
 30000 -30.0 -22.0  310  20 10   8.2   4.5 | -29.7 -21.5  295  17  9   8.3   4.6
 29000 -27.6 -17.7  305  16  8   8.2   4.5 | -27.2 -17.0  290  16  8   8.3   4.6
 28000 -25.1 -13.2  295  13  7   7.7   4.2 | -24.7 -12.5  280  14  7   7.7   4.2
 27000 -22.9  -9.2  295  11  5   7.5   4.1 | -22.4  -8.3  270  13  7   7.5   4.1
 26000 -20.6  -5.1  295   8  4   7.5   4.1 | -20.2  -4.4  260  12  6   7.5   4.1
 25000 -18.4  -1.1  290   6  3   7.5   4.1 | -17.9  -0.2  245  11  6   7.4   4.1
 24000 -16.4   2.5  285   5  3   6.5   3.6 | -16.0   3.2  240  10  5   6.3   3.5
 23000 -14.4   6.1  280   5  3   6.6   3.6 | -14.1   6.6  240   9  5   6.3   3.5
 22000 -12.5   9.5  275   5  3   6.5   3.6 | -12.2  10.0  235   8  4   6.3   3.5
 21000 -10.6  12.9  265   5  3   6.1   3.4 | -10.4  13.3  250   8  4   6.3   3.4
 20000  -8.8  16.2  255   6  3   6.1   3.4 |  -8.5  16.7  265   8  4   6.3   3.5
 19500  -7.9  17.8  250   6  3   6.1   3.3 |  -7.6  18.3  270   9  5   6.3   3.5
 19000  -6.9  19.6  250   6  3   6.7   3.7 |  -6.7  19.9  275  10  5   7.1   3.9
 18500  -5.9  21.4  245   6  3   6.8   3.7 |  -5.6  21.9  275  10  5   7.2   4.0
 18000  -4.9  23.2  240   6  3   7.1   3.9 |  -4.6  23.7  275  10  5   7.4   4.1
 17500  -3.7  25.3  235   5  3   8.1   4.5 |  -3.4  25.9  270   9  5   7.9   4.4
 17000  -2.5  27.5  230   4  2   8.1   4.5 |  -2.2  28.0  270   7  4   7.9   4.3
 16500  -0.8  30.6  225   4  2   7.7   4.2 |  -0.4  31.3  265   5  3   7.8   4.3
 16000   0.4  32.7  220   3  2   7.8   4.3 |   0.8  33.4  260   4  2   7.9   4.3
 15500   1.5  34.7  210   3  2   7.3   4.0 |   2.0  35.6  250   3  2   7.7   4.2
 15000   2.6  36.7  200   3  2   7.4   4.0 |   3.1  37.6  220   3  2   7.7   4.2
 14500   3.7  38.7  190   4  2   8.0   4.4 |   4.3  39.7  195   4  2   7.9   4.3
 14000   4.9  40.8  180   5  2   8.2   4.5 |   5.4  41.7  180   5  3   8.0   4.4
 13500   6.1  43.0  175   6  3   8.5   4.7 |   6.6  43.9  175   7  4   8.2   4.5
 13000   7.4  45.3  180   7  3   8.8   4.8 |   7.8  46.0  175   8  4   8.6   4.7
 12500   8.7  47.7  180   7  4   8.9   4.9 |   9.0  48.2  175   9  5   8.8   4.8
 12000  10.0  50.0  180   8  4   8.9   4.9 |  10.3  50.5  175   9  5   9.2   5.0
 11500  11.3  52.3  180   8  4   9.0   4.9 |  11.6  52.9  170  10  5   9.1   5.0
 11000  12.6  54.7  180   8  4   9.2   5.1 |  12.8  55.0  170  10  5   8.2   4.5
 10500  13.9  57.0  180   8  4   5.6   3.1 |  14.0  57.2  170  11  5  11.6   6.3
 10250  14.2  57.6  180   8  4   6.4   3.5 |  15.0  59.0  170  11  6  12.4   6.8
 10000  14.9  58.8  180   8  4  11.9   6.5 |  15.7  60.3  170  11  6   8.6   4.7
  9750  15.7  60.3  185   8  4  10.5   5.8 |  16.4  61.5  170  11  6   9.7   5.3
  9500  16.5  61.7  185   8  4  10.4   5.7 |  17.1  62.8  165  11  6   9.3   5.1
  9250  17.2  63.0  185   7  4   9.6   5.3 |  17.8  64.0  165  12  6   9.3   5.1
  9000  17.9  64.2  185   7  4  10.2   5.6 |  18.5  65.3  165  12  6   9.5   5.2
  8750  18.7  65.7  185   7  4  10.5   5.8 |  19.2  66.6  170  12  6   9.6   5.3
  8500  19.4  66.9  185   7  4  10.3   5.7 |  19.9  67.8  170  12  6   9.7   5.3
  8250  20.2  68.4  185   7  4  10.2   5.6 |  20.7  69.3  170  12  6  10.3   5.7
  8000  20.9  69.6  185   7  4   9.8   5.4 |  21.4  70.5  170  12  6   9.7   5.3
  7750  21.6  70.9  185   7  4   9.3   5.1 |  22.1  71.8  170  11  6   8.7   4.8
  7500  22.4  72.3  190   7  4   9.7   5.3 |  22.8  73.0  170  11  6   9.3   5.1
  7250  23.1  73.6  190   7  4   9.9   5.4 |  23.5  74.3  175  11  6  10.1   5.5
  7000  23.8  74.8  190   7  3   9.9   5.4 |  24.2  75.6  175  11  5   9.8   5.4
  6750  24.6  76.3  190   7  3  10.1   5.5 |  24.9  76.8  175  10  5   8.9   4.9
  6500  25.3  77.5  190   7  3  10.4   5.7 |  25.6  78.1  175  10  5   9.5   5.2
  6250  26.1  79.0  190   6  3  10.9   6.0 |  26.3  79.3  175  10  5  10.3   5.6
  6000  26.9  80.4  195   6  3   9.9   5.4 |  27.1  80.8  175   9  5  10.2   5.6
  5750  27.7  81.9  195   6  3  11.9   6.5 |  27.8  82.0  175   9  4   9.4   5.1
  5500  28.8  83.8  195   6  3  19.6  10.8 |  28.4  83.1  180   7  4   6.9   3.8
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.