Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 201310
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0710 MDT Saturday, September 20, 2014

This forecast is for Saturday, September 20, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 71.3 F/21.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 261 ft/min (1.3 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 8232 ft MSL (1474 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 69.0 F/21.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7447 ft MSL (690 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 09/21....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14874 ft MSL (8116 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Sunday 09/21.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:44:54 / 19:00:42 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 12 hr 15 min 48 sec (735 min 48 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:52:19 MDT... 51.96 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 09/20/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15762 ft MSL (9004 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16689 ft MSL (9931 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14021 ft MSL (7263 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +1.8
K index......................... +27.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -67.4 -89.3   285   53   27   2.6   1.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.2 -78.2   280   73   38   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -51.0 -59.8   285   74   38   7.1   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.8 -52.2   285   68   35   7.1   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -42.5 -44.5   290   63   32   7.3   4.0      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -39.0 -38.2   290   52   27   5.7   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -35.6 -32.1   295   40   20   5.6   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -31.6 -24.9   300   32   16   7.0   3.8   38.7 101.7    14.1      M    M
 29000  -29.0 -20.2   305   27   14   7.0   3.8   37.5  99.4    13.3      M    M
 28000  -26.8 -16.2   310   24   12   8.0   4.4   36.6  97.8    12.7      M    M
 27000  -24.4 -11.9   310   22   11   8.1   4.4   35.8  96.5    12.3      M    M
 26000  -22.0  -7.6   315   20   10   8.1   4.4   35.2  95.4    11.9      M    M
 25000  -19.6  -3.3   320   18    9   7.7   4.3   34.7  94.5    11.6      M    M
 24000  -17.5   0.5   330   17    9   7.0   3.8   33.7  92.6    10.9      M    M
 23000  -15.4   4.3   335   17    9   7.0   3.8   32.7  90.8    10.2      M    M
 22000  -13.3   8.1   345   17    9   6.5   3.6   31.8  89.2     9.5      M    M
 21000  -11.6  11.1   340   16    8   5.9   3.2   30.4  86.6     8.4      M    M
 20000   -9.9  14.2   335   15    8   6.1   3.3   29.1  84.3     7.2      M    M
 19500   -9.0  15.8   330   14    7   6.1   3.3   28.5  83.3     6.7      M    M
 19000   -8.1  17.4   325   13    7   7.0   3.8   28.0  82.3     6.2      M    M
 18500   -7.2  19.0   305   11    6   7.2   4.0   27.5  81.4     5.7      M    M
 18000   -6.2  20.8   280   11    6   8.9   4.9   27.1  80.7     5.2      M    M
 17500   -4.7  23.5   275   10    5  10.6   5.8   27.2  80.9     5.2      M    M
 17000   -3.2  26.2   270    9    5  11.0   6.0   27.3  81.2     5.3      M    M
 16500   -1.9  28.6   265    8    4   7.6   4.2   27.3  81.1     5.2      M    M
 16000   -0.8  30.6   265    7    4   8.0   4.4   27.0  80.5     4.9      M    M
 15500    0.3  32.5   260    6    3   6.3   3.4   26.6  79.9     4.6      M    M
 15000    1.1  34.0   245    6    3   5.7   3.1   25.9  78.7     4.0      M    M
 14500    2.5  36.5   220    6    3   7.4   4.1   25.0  77.1     3.2      M    M
 14000    3.6  38.5   200    5    3   7.4   4.1   24.7  76.4     2.8      M    M
 13500    4.7  40.5   185    5    3   7.9   4.3   24.3  75.8     2.5      M    M
 13000    5.9  42.6   170    4    2   8.0   4.4   24.0  75.3     2.3      M    M
 12500    7.1  44.8   140    4    2   7.7   4.2   23.8  74.8     2.0      M    M
 12000    8.2  46.8   095    5    3   7.2   3.9   23.4  74.1     1.7      M    M
 11750    8.8  47.8   085    6    3   6.5   3.6   23.2  73.7     1.5      M    M
 11500    9.3  48.7   075    8    4   8.9   4.9   23.0  73.3     1.3      M    M
 11250   10.1  50.2   075    8    4  10.1   5.5   23.0  73.4     1.4      M    M
 11000   10.7  51.3   075    8    4   8.4   4.6   22.9  73.3     1.3      M    M
 10750   11.4  52.5   075    8    4   8.4   4.6   22.8  73.1     1.2      M    M
 10500   12.0  53.6   075    9    4   9.2   5.0   22.7  72.9     1.1      M    M
 10250   12.7  54.9   075    9    4  10.5   5.8   22.8  73.0     1.1      M    M
 10000   13.5  56.3   075    9    4   9.4   5.2   22.8  73.1     1.2      M    M
  9750   14.1  57.4   075    9    4   8.5   4.7   22.7  72.9     1.1      M    M
  9500   14.8  58.6   070    9    5   8.8   4.8   22.6  72.8     1.0      M    M
  9250   15.5  59.9   070    9    5   8.8   4.8   22.6  72.6     1.0      M    M
  9000   16.1  61.0   070    9    5   8.6   4.7   22.5  72.5     0.9      M    M
  8750   16.7  62.1   065    9    5   8.7   4.8   22.4  72.3     0.8      M    M
  8500   17.3  63.1   065    9    5   4.9   2.7   22.2  72.0     0.6      M    M
  8250   17.4  63.3   045    8    4   1.0   0.5   21.7  71.0     0.0      M    M
  8000   17.5  63.5   030    9    4   4.4   2.4   21.1  69.9    -0.6     50  0.3
  7750   17.7  63.9   015    9    5  -5.4  -3.0   20.5  68.9    -1.2     39  0.2
  7500   16.7  62.1   355   10    5 -12.1  -6.6   19.0  66.2    -2.8     61  0.3
  7250   16.0  60.8   345    9    5  -6.0  -3.3   18.1  64.5    -3.8     72  0.4
  7000   15.4  59.7   330    8    4 -11.4  -6.3   17.1  62.8    -4.8     84  0.4
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/20/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       09/20/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +24.8  LI... +0.1               | K index... +18.8  LI... -1.6
CAPE... +50.1  CIN... -41.8                | CAPE... +425.5  CIN... -65.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.7 -89.9  290  48 25   3.0   1.6 | -67.4 -89.3  290  44 23   2.5   1.4
 45000 -61.6 -78.9  280  68 35   6.7   3.7 | -61.4 -78.5  285  65 33   6.5   3.6
 40000 -51.0 -59.8  285  70 36   7.1   3.9 | -51.5 -60.7  285  68 35   7.2   4.0
 38000 -46.7 -52.1  285  67 34   7.1   3.9 | -47.2 -53.0  285  65 33   7.2   4.0
 36000 -42.4 -44.3  285  63 32   7.1   3.9 | -42.8 -45.0  285  62 32   7.2   3.9
 34000 -38.9 -38.0  290  49 25   5.8   3.2 | -39.1 -38.4  290  48 24   6.2   3.4
 32000 -35.4 -31.7  295  34 18   5.7   3.1 | -35.4 -31.7  290  32 17   6.1   3.4
 30000 -31.5 -24.7  300  25 13   6.8   3.7 | -31.7 -25.1  295  20 10   6.2   3.4
 29000 -29.5 -21.1  305  22 11   6.8   3.7 | -29.8 -21.6  300  15  7   6.2   3.4
 28000 -27.4 -17.3  310  18  9   7.2   3.9 | -27.4 -17.3  310   9  4   8.3   4.5
 27000 -24.6 -12.3  315  15  7   7.7   4.2 | -25.0 -13.0  315   6  3   8.1   4.4
 26000 -22.3  -8.1  325  12  6   7.7   4.2 | -22.5  -8.5  325   4  2   8.1   4.4
 25000 -20.0  -4.0  335   9  5   7.7   4.2 | -20.1  -4.2  345   3  1   8.0   4.4
 24000 -17.7   0.1  350   9  4   7.6   4.2 | -17.8  -0.0  020   1  1   7.9   4.3
 23000 -15.4   4.3  010   9  4   7.7   4.2 | -15.4   4.3  110   2  1   7.9   4.3
 22000 -13.1   8.4  025   9  5   7.1   3.9 | -13.0   8.6  125   3  1   7.4   4.0
 21000 -11.0  12.2  010   9  5   6.9   3.8 | -10.9  12.4  050   1  1   7.2   3.9
 20000  -9.0  15.8  355  10  5   7.0   3.8 |  -8.7  16.3  345   3  2   7.2   3.9
 19500  -8.0  17.6  350  10  5   7.0   3.8 |  -7.7  18.1  340   4  2   7.0   3.8
 19000  -7.0  19.4  340  10  5   6.5   3.5 |  -6.7  19.9  325   5  3   6.3   3.5
 18500  -6.1  21.0  320   9  5   6.7   3.7 |  -5.8  21.6  315   7  3   6.5   3.5
 18000  -5.2  22.6  305   9  5   7.2   4.0 |  -4.9  23.2  310   8  4   7.2   3.9
 17500  -4.2  24.4  295   9  4   7.6   4.2 |  -3.8  25.2  300   9  5   7.4   4.1
 17000  -3.2  26.2  285   8  4   7.8   4.3 |  -2.8  27.0  290  10  5   7.5   4.1
 16500  -2.2  28.0  280   8  4   7.8   4.3 |  -1.8  28.8  290  10  5   7.5   4.1
 16000  -1.1  30.0  280   7  4   7.9   4.3 |  -0.8  30.6  285   9  5   7.8   4.3
 15500   0.0  32.0  275   7  3   6.8   3.7 |   0.2  32.4  280   8  4   7.9   4.4
 15000   1.0  33.8  255   7  4   6.8   3.7 |   1.4  34.5  260   7  4   8.0   4.4
 14500   2.0  35.6  240   8  4   6.3   3.5 |   2.5  36.5  240   7  4   5.5   3.0
 14000   2.9  37.2  220   7  4   6.0   3.3 |   3.1  37.6  215   8  4   4.7   2.6
 13500   3.8  38.8  200   8  4   6.4   3.5 |   3.7  38.7  200  10  5   5.7   3.1
 13000   4.8  40.6  180   7  3   7.2   4.0 |   4.8  40.6  185  11  5   7.0   3.9
 12500   5.9  42.6  155   7  3   7.9   4.3 |   5.8  42.4  175  12  6   7.2   4.0
 12000   7.2  45.0  130   6  3   8.0   4.4 |   7.1  44.8  170  12  6   8.9   4.9
 11750   7.9  46.2  120   6  3   8.0   4.4 |   7.7  45.9  165  12  6   8.7   4.8
 11500   8.5  47.3  110   7  3   8.1   4.5 |   8.4  47.1  165  12  6   9.0   4.9
 11250   9.2  48.6  105   7  3   9.5   5.2 |   9.1  48.4  165  11  6   9.8   5.4
 11000   9.9  49.8  095   7  3   9.0   4.9 |   9.9  49.8  160  10  5   9.4   5.2
 10750  10.5  50.9  090   7  3   7.7   4.2 |  10.5  50.9  160  10  5   8.7   4.8
 10500  11.1  52.0  085   7  3   8.2   4.5 |  11.2  52.2  155   9  5   8.9   4.9
 10250  12.4  54.3  065   7  4   9.3   5.1 |  12.6  54.7  140   7  4   8.6   4.7
 10000  13.0  55.4  055   7  4   7.4   4.1 |  13.2  55.8  130   6  3   7.4   4.0
  9750  13.4  56.1  045   8  4   5.5   3.0 |  13.6  56.5  115   5  3   5.0   2.7
  9500  13.7  56.7  035   9  5   3.6   2.0 |  13.8  56.8  085   4  2   2.6   1.4
  9250  13.9  57.0  025  11  6   3.2   1.8 |  13.9  57.0  040   5  3   2.0   1.1
  9000  14.0  57.2  015  13  7   1.2   0.7 |  13.9  57.0  015   7  4   2.5   1.4
  8750  13.8  56.8  010  15  8  -3.2  -1.7 |  14.0  57.2  360  11  6   5.6   3.1
  8500  13.5  56.3  360  17  9  -3.3  -1.8 |  14.5  58.1  360  12  6   8.4   4.6
  8250  13.2  55.8  355  18  9  -3.3  -1.8 |  15.1  59.2  360  13  7   8.6   4.7
  8000  12.9  55.2  350  20 10  -1.7  -0.9 |  15.7  60.3  355  13  7   7.8   4.3
  7750  13.1  55.6  345  22 11   8.0   4.4 |  16.4  61.5  355  14  7  15.2   8.3
  7500  14.1  57.4  345  19 10  17.9   9.8 |  18.1  64.6  360  13  7  29.8  16.3
  7250  15.0  59.0  345  16  8  -0.7  -0.4 |  19.8  67.6  360  12  6   3.2   1.8
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           09/20/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       09/20/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +19.1  LI... -2.1               | K index... +23.6  LI... -2.1
CAPE... +563.1  CIN... -35.7               | CAPE... +495.1  CIN... -31.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.7 -89.9  280  43 22   2.9   1.6 | -67.1 -88.8  280  44 23   2.9   1.6
 45000 -61.2 -78.2  285  62 32   6.7   3.6 | -60.8 -77.4  285  59 30   6.6   3.6
 40000 -51.2 -60.2  285  64 33   6.9   3.8 | -50.9 -59.6  285  64 33   6.4   3.5
 38000 -47.0 -52.6  285  62 32   6.9   3.8 | -47.0 -52.6  285  62 32   6.4   3.5
 36000 -42.9 -45.2  285  60 31   6.9   3.8 | -43.2 -45.8  285  60 31   6.4   3.5
 34000 -38.7 -37.7  285  49 25   6.9   3.8 | -39.0 -38.2  285  50 26   7.0   3.9
 32000 -34.6 -30.3  285  37 19   6.9   3.8 | -34.2 -29.6  285  36 19   7.4   4.1
 30000 -30.6 -23.1  285  24 13   5.8   3.2 | -30.1 -22.2  280  29 15   6.8   3.7
 29000 -28.9 -20.0  285  19 10   5.8   3.2 | -28.0 -18.4  280  25 13   6.8   3.7
 28000 -27.0 -16.6  280  14  7   7.9   4.3 | -26.0 -14.8  275  22 11   7.0   3.8
 27000 -24.7 -12.5  275  10  5   7.8   4.3 | -23.9 -11.0  270  18  9   7.0   3.8
 26000 -22.3  -8.1  270   7  4   7.8   4.3 | -21.8  -7.2  265  15  8   7.0   3.8
 25000 -20.0  -4.0  250   4  2   7.8   4.3 | -19.7  -3.5  255  12  6   7.3   4.0
 24000 -17.6   0.3  235   4  2   7.8   4.3 | -17.4   0.7  250  11  5   7.7   4.2
 23000 -15.3   4.5  220   5  2   7.8   4.3 | -15.1   4.8  245   9  5   7.7   4.2
 22000 -12.9   8.8  210   5  3   7.6   4.2 | -12.8   9.0  235   8  4   7.4   4.1
 21000 -10.7  12.7  225   4  2   7.5   4.1 | -10.7  12.7  250   7  4   7.2   3.9
 20000  -8.4  16.9  245   4  2   7.5   4.1 |  -8.5  16.7  265   7  3   7.2   3.9
 19500  -7.3  18.9  255   4  2   7.5   4.1 |  -7.5  18.5  275   7  3   7.2   4.0
 19000  -6.3  20.7  275   5  2   6.7   3.7 |  -6.4  20.5  290   7  3   6.9   3.8
 18500  -5.3  22.5  290   6  3   6.9   3.8 |  -5.4  22.3  305   7  4   7.0   3.8
 18000  -4.3  24.3  300   7  4   6.9   3.8 |  -4.4  24.1  315   8  4   6.8   3.7
 17500  -3.3  26.1  300   9  5   7.0   3.9 |  -3.5  25.7  325   9  5   6.7   3.7
 17000  -2.3  27.9  305  11  5   7.2   3.9 |  -2.6  27.3  330  11  5   6.9   3.8
 16500  -1.3  29.7  305  12  6   7.6   4.2 |  -1.6  29.1  335  11  6   8.0   4.4
 16000  -0.3  31.5  300  12  6   7.8   4.3 |   0.1  32.2  330  11  5   8.1   4.5
 15500   1.4  34.5  295  12  6   8.6   4.7 |   1.2  34.2  325   9  5   8.0   4.4
 15000   2.6  36.7  290  11  5   8.9   4.9 |   2.3  36.1  310   7  4   8.1   4.5
 14500   3.6  38.5  280   9  5   6.2   3.4 |   3.4  38.1  295   5  3   7.7   4.2
 14000   4.5  40.1  265   8  4   6.5   3.6 |   4.5  40.1  265   4  2   7.8   4.3
 13500   5.4  41.7  250   8  4   6.1   3.4 |   5.5  41.9  225   4  2   5.6   3.1
 13000   6.3  43.3  230   8  4   6.1   3.3 |   6.2  43.2  195   6  3   5.1   2.8
 12500   7.1  44.8  215   9  5   6.1   3.4 |   7.0  44.6  175   8  4   6.0   3.3
 12000   8.1  46.6  210  10  5   6.6   3.6 |   7.7  45.9  155   9  5   5.7   3.1
 11750   8.6  47.5  205  10  5   6.4   3.5 |   8.1  46.6  150  10  5   5.1   2.8
 11500   9.0  48.2  200  10  5   7.5   4.1 |   8.5  47.3  145  10  5   8.1   4.5
 11250   9.6  49.3  195   9  5   7.6   4.2 |   9.2  48.6  140  10  5   9.6   5.3
 11000  10.1  50.2  185   8  4   6.7   3.7 |   9.8  49.6  140  10  5   7.6   4.2
 10750  10.5  50.9  170   7  4   6.5   3.5 |  10.3  50.5  135  10  5   7.4   4.1
 10500  11.0  51.8  160   7  3   8.6   4.7 |  10.9  51.6  135  10  5   8.9   4.9
 10250  11.7  53.1  145   6  3  10.8   5.9 |  11.6  52.9  135  10  5  10.5   5.7
 10000  12.4  54.3  135   6  3   9.4   5.2 |  12.4  54.3  135  10  5   9.7   5.3
  9750  13.0  55.4  120   6  3   8.7   4.8 |  13.1  55.6  135  10  5   9.3   5.1
  9500  13.7  56.7  110   6  3   9.8   5.4 |  13.8  56.8  130  10  5   9.8   5.4
  9250  14.5  58.1  105   6  3  10.6   5.8 |  14.5  58.1  130  10  5  10.1   5.6
  9000  15.3  59.5  100   6  3  10.1   5.5 |  15.3  59.5  130  10  5   9.9   5.5
  8750  16.0  60.8  100   6  3   9.3   5.1 |  16.0  60.8  130  10  5   9.6   5.2
  8500  16.7  62.1  095   6  3  10.2   5.6 |  16.7  62.1  130  10  5  10.0   5.5
  8250  17.5  63.5  095   6  3  11.1   6.1 |  17.5  63.5  130  10  5  10.3   5.7
  8000  18.3  64.9  095   6  3  10.7   5.9 |  18.3  64.9  130  10  5  10.6   5.8
  7750  19.1  66.4  095   6  3  11.2   6.1 |  19.0  66.2  130  10  5   9.0   5.0
  7500  20.0  68.0  095   6  3  11.8   6.4 |  19.6  67.3  130   9  5   6.7   3.7
  7250  20.8  69.4  090   7  3  11.8   6.5 |  20.1  68.2  130   9  5   6.7   3.7
  7000  21.7  71.1  090   7  3  11.8   6.5 |  20.6  69.1  130   9  4   6.6   3.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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