Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 221118
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0418 MST Sunday, January 22, 2017

This forecast is for Sunday, January 22, 2017:

If the trigger temperature of 35.1 F/1.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 710 ft/min (3.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 15087 ft MSL (7917 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 41.0 F/5.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1045 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1700 MST
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11300 ft MSL (4129 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 01/23....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:12:25 / 17:08:04 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 55 min 38 sec (595 min 38 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:10:37 MST... 31.61 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 01/22/2017 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 14463 ft MSL (7293 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14689 ft MSL (7519 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +6.8
K index......................... -2.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -55.4 -67.7   285   44   23   3.7   2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -49.8 -57.6   300   59   30   3.7   2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -44.5 -48.1   300   67   34   3.6   2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -43.1 -45.6   300   71   37  -2.5  -1.4      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -44.8 -48.6   305   84   43  -2.5  -1.4      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -46.3 -51.3   310   96   49  -3.0  -1.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -45.2 -49.4   310   96   49   2.7   1.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -43.5 -46.3   315   95   49   2.6   1.4      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -42.4 -44.3   315   89   46   4.2   2.3   26.6  79.8    16.6      M    M
 28000  -41.2 -42.2   315   81   42   4.2   2.3   24.4  75.8    15.1      M    M
 27000  -39.9 -39.8   315   73   37   4.2   2.3   22.3  72.2    13.7      M    M
 26000  -38.8 -37.8   315   63   33   1.9   1.0   20.2  68.4    12.2      M    M
 25000  -38.3 -36.9   305   47   24   1.6   0.9   17.0  62.6     9.7      M    M
 24000  -37.8 -36.0   295   33   17   1.6   0.9   14.0  57.3     7.4      M    M
 23000  -36.8 -34.2   270   22   11   6.7   3.7   11.0  51.7     5.0      M    M
 22000  -34.9 -30.8   265   23   12   6.3   3.5    9.7  49.4     3.9      M    M
 21000  -33.0 -27.4   255   24   12   6.3   3.5    8.5  47.3     3.0      M    M
 20000  -30.9 -23.6   260   24   12   7.5   4.1    7.6  45.6     2.2      M    M
 19500  -29.8 -21.6   260   24   12   7.6   4.2    7.2  44.9     1.8      M    M
 19000  -28.6 -19.5   265   24   12   7.6   4.2    6.8  44.2     1.5      M    M
 18500  -27.5 -17.5   270   24   12   7.6   4.1    6.5  43.6     1.2      M    M
 18000  -26.4 -15.5   270   24   13   8.3   4.5    6.2  43.1     1.0      M    M
 17500  -25.1 -13.2   275   25   13   8.6   4.7    5.9  42.7     0.8      M    M
 17000  -23.8 -10.8   275   25   13   8.7   4.8    5.8  42.4     0.6      M    M
 16500  -22.5  -8.5   275   25   13   9.2   5.0    5.6  42.1     0.5      M    M
 16000  -21.1  -6.0   275   25   13   9.3   5.1    5.5  41.9     0.4      M    M
 15500  -19.8  -3.6   280   25   13   8.0   4.4    5.3  41.6     0.2      M    M
 15000  -18.6  -1.5   285   25   13   8.2   4.5    5.1  41.1    -0.0    703  3.6
 14500  -17.4   0.7   290   24   12   7.7   4.2    4.8  40.6    -0.3    653  3.3
 14000  -16.3   2.7   290   22   11   7.6   4.2    4.4  40.0    -0.6    604  3.1
 13500  -15.2   4.6   295   20   10   7.5   4.1    4.1  39.4    -1.0    556  2.8
 13000  -14.1   6.6   305   19   10   7.4   4.1    3.7  38.7    -1.4    509  2.6
 12500  -13.0   8.6   310   19   10   7.6   4.2    3.4  38.0    -1.7    461  2.3
 12000  -11.8  10.8   315   20   10   6.6   3.6    3.1  37.5    -2.0    412  2.1
 11750  -11.5  11.3   320   21   11   5.0   2.8    2.7  36.9    -2.4    392  2.0
 11500  -11.0  12.2   325   22   12   6.2   3.4    2.4  36.3    -2.7    373  1.9
 11250  -10.6  12.9   330   24   12   6.7   3.7    2.1  35.8    -3.0    351  1.8
 11000  -10.1  13.8   330   25   13   6.6   3.6    1.9  35.4    -3.2    329  1.7
 10750   -9.6  14.7   335   26   13   6.4   3.5    1.6  34.9    -3.5    307  1.6
 10500   -9.1  15.6   335   27   14   7.1   3.9    1.4  34.5    -3.7    285  1.4
 10250   -8.6  16.5   335   28   14   7.7   4.2    1.2  34.2    -3.9    261  1.3
 10000   -8.0  17.6   335   29   15   7.5   4.1    1.0  33.9    -4.1    237  1.2
  9750   -7.4  18.7   335   30   15   7.9   4.3    0.9  33.6    -4.3    213  1.1
  9500   -6.2  20.8   330   30   15   8.8   4.8    0.7  33.2    -4.5    160  0.8
  9250   -5.5  22.1   330   30   15   8.8   4.9    0.6  33.1    -4.6    133  0.7
  9000   -4.9  23.2   330   30   15   8.5   4.7    0.5  33.0    -4.7    107  0.5
  8750   -4.3  24.3   330   28   15   8.0   4.4    0.4  32.8    -4.8     81  0.4
  8500   -3.7  25.3   330   27   14   8.0   4.4    0.3  32.5    -5.0     56  0.3
  8250   -3.1  26.4   330   26   13   7.5   4.1    0.2  32.3    -5.1     31  0.2
  8000   -2.6  27.3   330   24   12   4.5   2.5   -0.1  31.8    -5.4     10  0.1
  7750   -2.6  27.3   330   21   11  -6.4  -3.5   -0.8  30.5    -6.2      3  0.0
  7500   -3.7  25.3   325   15    8 -19.4 -10.6   -2.6  27.4    -7.9     27  0.1
  7250   -4.7  23.5   315    9    5   2.5   1.4   -4.3  24.2    -9.7     51  0.3
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           01/22/2017 at 0800 MST          |       01/22/2017 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -10.4  LI... +2.9               | K index... -36.4  LI... +6.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -56.1 -69.0  285  46 24   3.7   2.0 | -56.4 -69.5  280  50 26   3.5   1.9
 45000 -50.5 -58.9  295  70 36   3.3   1.8 | -51.2 -60.2  290  75 39   2.1   1.2
 40000 -46.6 -51.9  295  76 39   2.6   1.4 | -50.8 -59.4  300  81 42   0.2   0.1
 38000 -45.7 -50.3  300  82 42  -1.2  -0.7 | -50.4 -58.7  300  91 47   1.4   0.8
 36000 -46.5 -51.7  305  94 48  -1.3  -0.7 | -49.6 -57.3  305 114 59   1.4   0.8
 34000 -47.2 -53.0  310 107 55  -1.6  -0.9 | -48.5 -55.3  310 139 72   4.9   2.7
 32000 -45.6 -50.1  310 109 56   3.1   1.7 | -45.0 -49.0  310 134 69   5.8   3.2
 30000 -43.8 -46.8  315 108 56   3.6   2.0 | -41.5 -42.7  310 128 66   5.5   3.0
 29000 -42.2 -44.0  315 105 54   5.5   3.0 | -40.0 -40.0  310 120 62   5.1   2.8
 28000 -40.5 -40.9  315 103 53   5.5   3.0 | -38.4 -37.1  310 113 58   5.1   2.8
 27000 -38.9 -38.0  315 100 51   5.5   3.0 | -36.9 -34.4  310 105 54   5.1   2.8
 26000 -37.2 -35.0  315  95 49   5.4   3.0 | -35.5 -31.9  310  99 51   4.6   2.5
 25000 -35.6 -32.1  315  87 45   5.5   3.0 | -34.1 -29.4  310  94 49   4.6   2.5
 24000 -34.0 -29.2  315  80 41   5.5   3.0 | -32.7 -26.9  310  90 46   4.7   2.6
 23000 -32.4 -26.3  315  71 36   4.6   2.5 | -31.0 -23.8  310  83 43   6.7   3.7
 22000 -31.0 -23.8  315  59 30   4.7   2.6 | -29.0 -20.2  310  75 39   6.8   3.7
 21000 -29.6 -21.3  310  47 24   4.7   2.6 | -27.0 -16.6  310  67 34   6.8   3.7
 20000 -28.3 -18.9  300  39 20   3.8   2.1 | -25.2 -13.4  310  59 30   5.6   3.1
 19500 -27.8 -18.0  300  36 19   3.7   2.1 | -24.3 -11.7  310  55 28   5.6   3.1
 19000 -27.2 -17.0  295  34 17   3.7   2.1 | -23.5 -10.3  310  51 26   5.6   3.1
 18500 -26.7 -16.1  290  31 16   3.9   2.1 | -22.6  -8.7  310  47 24   5.6   3.1
 18000 -26.1 -15.0  285  29 15   5.4   2.9 | -21.8  -7.2  310  44 22   4.7   2.6
 17500 -25.1 -13.2  285  28 14   6.9   3.8 | -21.2  -6.2  310  42 22   4.4   2.4
 17000 -24.0 -11.2  285  27 14   7.0   3.9 | -20.5  -4.9  310  40 21   4.4   2.4
 16500 -22.9  -9.2  285  27 14   7.7   4.2 | -19.5  -3.1  310  36 18   4.3   2.3
 16000 -21.8  -7.2  290  27 14   7.7   4.2 | -18.9  -2.0  310  33 17   4.7   2.6
 15500 -20.1  -4.2  295  26 13   7.5   4.1 | -18.1  -0.6  310  29 15   5.2   2.9
 15000 -19.0  -2.2  300  25 13   7.5   4.1 | -17.3   0.9  310  26 13   5.5   3.0
 14500 -17.8  -0.0  300  24 12   7.8   4.3 | -16.4   2.5  310  23 12   6.4   3.5
 14000 -16.6   2.1  300  23 12   7.8   4.3 | -15.4   4.3  315  21 11   6.5   3.6
 13500 -15.4   4.3  305  22 11   8.8   4.8 | -14.3   6.3  315  20 10   8.1   4.4
 13000 -14.1   6.6  305  20 10   8.6   4.7 | -13.1   8.4  320  19 10   8.0   4.4
 12500 -12.8   9.0  305  19 10   9.4   5.2 | -11.9  10.6  325  20 10   8.7   4.8
 12000 -11.4  11.5  310  20 10   7.6   4.2 | -10.6  12.9  330  22 11   7.5   4.1
 11750 -10.9  12.4  315  20 10   7.8   4.3 | -10.1  13.8  335  23 12   7.3   4.0
 11500 -10.3  13.5  315  21 11   8.3   4.6 |  -9.5  14.9  335  24 12   7.3   4.0
 11250  -9.7  14.5  315  22 11   8.4   4.6 |  -9.0  15.8  335  25 13   7.5   4.1
 11000  -9.0  15.8  315  22 12   7.7   4.2 |  -8.5  16.7  335  26 13   6.8   3.8
 10750  -8.5  16.7  320  23 12   7.2   3.9 |  -8.0  17.6  330  26 13   5.3   2.9
 10500  -8.0  17.6  320  24 12   7.4   4.1 |  -7.7  18.1  330  25 13   4.8   2.6
 10250  -7.4  18.7  320  25 13   7.5   4.1 |  -7.3  18.9  325  25 13   5.0   2.7
 10000  -6.9  19.6  320  26 13   6.8   3.7 |  -6.9  19.6  325  25 13   4.9   2.7
  9750  -6.4  20.5  320  26 13   5.5   3.0 |  -6.6  20.1  320  24 12   4.9   2.7
  9500  -6.0  21.2  320  26 14   5.3   2.9 |  -6.2  20.8  315  22 11   5.1   2.8
  9250  -5.6  21.9  320  27 14   5.4   3.0 |  -5.9  21.4  310  20 11   5.1   2.8
  9000  -5.3  22.5  315  27 14   5.3   2.9 |  -5.5  22.1  305  19 10   5.4   3.0
  8750  -4.9  23.2  315  26 13   5.0   2.7 |  -5.1  22.8  305  17  9   8.1   4.5
  8500  -4.5  23.9  315  25 13   4.8   2.6 |  -4.4  24.1  305  16  8   9.9   5.5
  8250  -4.2  24.4  315  24 12   5.1   2.8 |  -3.7  25.3  305  14  7   9.6   5.3
  8000  -3.9  25.0  315  23 12   2.4   1.3 |  -2.9  26.8  305  13  7  10.3   5.6
  7750  -3.8  25.2  315  21 11   0.4   0.2 |  -2.2  28.0  305  12  6   9.7   5.3
  7500  -3.7  25.3  315  18  9   3.0   1.6 |  -1.5  29.3  310  11  6   8.4   4.6
  7250  -3.6  25.5  315  14  7  -1.9  -1.1 |  -0.9  30.4  310  10  5   8.9   4.9
  7000  -4.3  24.3  315  11  6 -15.0  -8.2 |  -0.2  31.6  310  10  5  10.0   5.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           01/22/2017 at 1400 MST          |       01/22/2017 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -25.7  LI... +6.6               | K index... -6.9  LI... +6.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.5 -73.3  270  51 26   3.8   2.1 | -59.8 -75.6  265  46 23   1.8   1.0
 45000 -52.8 -63.0  275  74 38   3.1   1.7 | -57.1 -70.8  270  69 35   2.9   1.6
 40000 -50.5 -58.9  310  90 46   1.4   0.8 | -51.4 -60.5  300  79 41   3.8   2.1
 38000 -49.6 -57.3  310 104 53   1.4   0.8 | -49.8 -57.6  305  95 49   1.0   0.5
 36000 -48.8 -55.8  305 122 63   1.4   0.8 | -49.2 -56.6  300 120 62   1.0   0.5
 34000 -47.9 -54.2  300 139 72   4.3   2.4 | -48.2 -54.8  295 144 74   5.9   3.3
 32000 -44.6 -48.3  300 134 69   5.4   3.0 | -44.9 -48.8  295 137 71   5.5   3.0
 30000 -41.4 -42.5  300 128 66   5.4   2.9 | -41.6 -42.9  295 130 67   6.2   3.4
 29000 -39.9 -39.8  300 119 61   4.9   2.7 | -39.9 -39.8  295 126 65   5.9   3.2
 28000 -38.5 -37.3  300 110 56   4.9   2.7 | -38.1 -36.6  295 122 63   5.9   3.2
 27000 -36.7 -34.1  300  98 51   4.7   2.6 | -36.3 -33.3  295 118 61   5.8   3.2
 26000 -34.9 -30.8  300  93 48   6.2   3.4 | -34.5 -30.1  295 112 58   6.1   3.3
 25000 -33.1 -27.6  300  89 46   6.2   3.4 | -32.7 -26.9  300 106 54   6.1   3.3
 24000 -31.2 -24.2  300  85 44   6.2   3.4 | -30.9 -23.6  300 100 51   6.0   3.3
 23000 -29.3 -20.7  300  81 42   6.9   3.8 | -28.8 -19.8  300  92 47   7.8   4.3
 22000 -27.2 -17.0  300  76 39   6.9   3.8 | -26.4 -15.5  300  83 43   7.9   4.3
 21000 -25.2 -13.4  300  72 37   7.0   3.8 | -24.0 -11.2  300  75 39   7.9   4.3
 20000 -23.5 -10.3  300  60 31   5.1   2.8 | -21.6  -6.9  300  67 34   8.3   4.6
 19500 -22.7  -8.9  300  53 27   5.2   2.8 | -20.4  -4.7  300  63 33   8.3   4.6
 19000 -21.9  -7.4  295  47 24   5.2   2.8 | -19.1  -2.4  295  59 31   8.4   4.6
 18500 -21.1  -6.0  295  40 21   5.2   2.9 | -17.9  -0.2  295  56 29   8.7   4.7
 18000 -20.4  -4.7  295  35 18   5.1   2.8 | -16.8   1.8  295  51 26   5.4   3.0
 17500 -19.6  -3.3  295  34 18   5.1   2.8 | -16.0   3.2  290  45 23   5.5   3.0
 17000 -18.9  -2.0  300  33 17   5.4   2.9 | -15.2   4.6  285  39 20   6.6   3.6
 16500 -18.0  -0.4  300  32 17   5.7   3.1 | -13.9   7.0  280  36 19   8.0   4.4
 16000 -17.1   1.2  305  31 16   5.7   3.1 | -12.1  10.2  275  32 16   7.4   4.0
 15500 -16.4   2.5  305  30 15   4.6   2.5 | -11.0  12.2  280  31 16   6.9   3.8
 15000 -15.7   3.7  310  29 15   4.6   2.5 | -10.0  14.0  280  31 16   5.8   3.2
 14500 -15.0   5.0  310  27 14   5.0   2.7 |  -9.5  14.9  285  28 14   2.8   1.5
 14000 -14.2   6.4  315  25 13   5.0   2.7 |  -9.1  15.6  285  25 13   2.7   1.5
 13500 -13.1   8.4  320  22 11   4.9   2.7 |  -8.9  16.0  290  23 12  -0.3  -0.2
 13000 -12.4   9.7  325  20 10   5.1   2.8 |  -8.9  16.0  285  20 10  -0.1  -0.0
 12500 -11.5  11.3  325  19 10   7.3   4.0 |  -8.9  16.0  285  17  9   0.3   0.2
 12000 -10.6  12.9  330  17  9   5.0   2.7 |  -9.0  15.8  280  14  7  -1.3  -0.7
 11750 -10.2  13.6  330  15  8   5.4   3.0 |  -9.0  15.8  270  12  6   1.2   0.7
 11500  -9.8  14.4  330  14  7   5.9   3.2 |  -8.8  16.2  265  11  5   3.7   2.1
 11250  -9.3  15.3  325  12  6   5.7   3.1 |  -8.6  16.5  260   9  5   3.1   1.7
 11000  -8.9  16.0  325  11  6   6.1   3.3 |  -8.4  16.9  250   8  4   3.4   1.9
 10750  -8.5  16.7  320  10  5   7.2   3.9 |  -8.1  17.4  235   8  4   5.6   3.1
 10500  -7.9  17.8  310   8  4   7.6   4.2 |  -7.6  18.3  225   7  4   7.0   3.8
 10250  -7.4  18.7  295   6  3   8.0   4.4 |  -7.1  19.2  210   7  3   6.8   3.7
 10000  -6.9  19.6  275   5  3   6.7   3.7 |  -6.6  20.1  200   7  3   6.1   3.4
  9750  -6.4  20.5  255   5  3   8.1   4.5 |  -6.2  20.8  190   7  4   6.3   3.5
  9500  -5.7  21.7  250   5  3  10.4   5.7 |  -5.7  21.7  185   8  4   7.2   3.9
  9250  -4.9  23.2  245   5  3   9.9   5.4 |  -5.2  22.6  180   8  4   7.2   3.9
  9000  -4.2  24.4  235   5  3   9.7   5.3 |  -4.6  23.7  175   9  4   6.4   3.5
  8750  -3.5  25.7  235   5  3   9.9   5.5 |  -4.2  24.4  175   9  5   6.2   3.4
  8500  -2.7  27.1  230   5  2  10.5   5.8 |  -3.7  25.3  170  10  5   6.9   3.8
  8250  -1.9  28.6  230   5  2  10.2   5.6 |  -3.2  26.2  170  11  5   6.8   3.7
  8000  -1.2  29.8  225   5  2  10.2   5.6 |  -2.7  27.1  165  11  6   6.0   3.3
  7750  -0.4  31.3  225   5  2   9.4   5.1 |  -2.3  27.9  165  11  6   6.1   3.3
  7500   0.2  32.4  220   4  2   8.3   4.6 |  -1.8  28.8  165  11  5   8.7   4.8
  7250   0.8  33.4  220   4  2   8.5   4.7 |  -1.2  29.8  160  10  5   4.6   2.5
  7000   1.5  34.7  220   4  2   9.1   5.0 |  -1.3  29.7  160   8  4  -6.6  -3.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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