Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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UXUS97 KPUB 211002
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Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0402 MDT Monday, April 21, 2014

This forecast is for Monday, April 21, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 55.9 F/13.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 886 ft/min (4.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 16281 ft MSL (9523 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 62.0 F/17.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11148 ft MSL (4390 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 04/22...... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 39549 ft MSL (32791 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 04/22......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:14:01 / 19:41:06 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 27 min 5 sec (807 min 5 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:57:43 MDT... 63.07 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 04/21/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 11742 ft MSL (4984 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 13862 ft MSL (7104 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14424 ft MSL (7666 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -0.7
K index......................... +21.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -60.2 -76.4   275   21   11   1.0   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.9 -74.0   280   26   13  -1.6  -0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -61.0 -77.8   295   41   21  -1.3  -0.7      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -58.4 -73.1   295   42   22   6.9   3.8      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -54.2 -65.6   295   40   20   6.9   3.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -49.5 -57.1   300   37   19   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -45.4 -49.7   300   35   18   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -41.1 -42.0   305   32   16   7.7   4.2   28.8  83.8     9.3      M    M
 29000  -38.8 -37.8   305   31   16   7.7   4.2   27.9  82.3     8.7      M    M
 28000  -36.5 -33.7   305   29   15   7.7   4.2   27.2  81.0     8.3      M    M
 27000  -34.1 -29.4   305   27   14   7.8   4.3   26.5  79.7     7.8      M    M
 26000  -31.8 -25.2   305   25   13   7.8   4.3   25.7  78.3     7.3      M    M
 25000  -29.4 -20.9   305   23   12   7.8   4.3   25.0  77.0     6.8      M    M
 24000  -27.2 -17.0   310   21   11   6.0   3.3   24.2  75.6     6.2      M    M
 23000  -25.4 -13.7   310   20   10   6.2   3.4   22.9  73.2     5.2      M    M
 22000  -23.5 -10.3   315   18    9   6.3   3.5   21.7  71.0     4.2      M    M
 21000  -21.5  -6.7   320   17    9   7.5   4.1   20.7  69.2     3.3      M    M
 20000  -19.3  -2.7   320   15    8   7.5   4.1   19.8  67.7     2.6      M    M
 19500  -18.2  -0.8   320   14    7   7.5   4.1   19.5  67.0     2.2      M    M
 19000  -17.1   1.2   320   13    6   7.5   4.1   19.1  66.4     1.9      M    M
 18500  -16.0   3.2   320   11    6   7.6   4.1   18.8  65.8     1.6      M    M
 18000  -14.9   5.2   315   10    5   7.6   4.1   18.4  65.1     1.2      M    M
 17500  -13.8   7.2   310    9    4   7.7   4.2   18.0  64.4     0.9      M    M
 17000  -12.6   9.3   305    8    4   7.7   4.2   17.7  63.8     0.6      M    M
 16500  -11.5  11.3   300    8    4   7.6   4.2   17.3  63.2     0.3      M    M
 16000   -9.8  14.4   295    7    4   7.4   4.1   16.8  62.2    -0.3    848  4.3
 15500   -8.8  16.2   295    6    3   6.9   3.8   16.4  61.5    -0.7    800  4.1
 15000   -7.8  18.0   300    6    3   6.4   3.5   15.8  60.5    -1.2    758  3.8
 14500   -6.9  19.6   305    5    2   6.8   3.7   15.3  59.5    -1.8    715  3.6
 14000   -5.8  21.6   320    4    2   8.1   4.4   14.9  58.9    -2.1    666  3.4
 13500   -4.6  23.7   335    4    2   8.2   4.5   14.7  58.4    -2.4    616  3.1
 13000   -3.3  26.1   345    4    2   9.6   5.3   14.6  58.2    -2.5    561  2.8
 12500   -1.8  28.8   355    5    2   9.3   5.1   14.5  58.1    -2.6    504  2.6
 12000   -0.5  31.1   355    6    3   8.8   4.8   14.4  57.9    -2.8    449  2.3
 11750    0.1  32.2   355    6    3   8.8   4.8   14.3  57.8    -2.8    422  2.1
 11500    0.8  33.4   350    7    3   8.8   4.8   14.2  57.6    -2.9    395  2.0
 11250    1.5  34.7   350    7    4   9.2   5.1   14.2  57.5    -3.0    368  1.9
 11000    2.1  35.8   345    8    4   7.9   4.4   14.1  57.4    -3.1    340  1.7
 10750    2.6  36.7   340   10    5   6.7   3.7   13.9  57.0    -3.3    318  1.6
 10500    3.2  37.8   340   11    6   6.8   3.7   13.7  56.6    -3.5    295  1.5
 10250    3.6  38.5   340   13    6   5.0   2.7   13.4  56.1    -3.8    274  1.4
 10000    3.9  39.0   340   15    8   3.1   1.7   12.9  55.3    -4.3    258  1.3
  9750    4.0  39.2   340   17    9   1.5   0.8   12.4  54.3    -4.9    246  1.3
  9500    4.1  39.4   345   19   10   0.9   0.5   11.7  53.0    -5.6    237  1.2
  9250    4.1  39.4   345   21   11   0.9   0.5   11.0  51.8    -6.2    228  1.2
  9000    4.2  39.6   350   23   12   1.8   1.0   10.4  50.6    -6.9    219  1.1
  8750    4.2  39.6   355   24   12  -2.3  -1.3    9.7  49.4    -7.6    210  1.1
  8500    3.9  39.0   360   26   13  -4.0  -2.2    8.6  47.4    -8.7    214  1.1
  8250    3.8  38.8   355   26   14  -0.4  -0.2    7.7  45.9    -9.6    210  1.1
  8000    3.7  38.7   355   27   14  -2.0  -1.1    6.9  44.4   -10.5    205  1.0
  7750    3.6  38.5   350   27   14   2.6   1.4    6.1  43.0   -11.3    200  1.0
  7500    3.9  39.0   350   26   13   2.2   1.2    5.8  42.5   -11.6    183  0.9
  7250    3.8  38.8   345   23   12  -3.7  -2.0    5.3  41.5   -12.1    180  0.9
  7000    3.6  38.5   340   19   10   1.1   0.6    4.8  40.6   -12.7    177  0.9
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           04/21/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       04/21/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +21.3  LI... -0.4               | K index... +22.0  LI... -0.3
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -16.3                  | CAPE... +5.5  CIN... -11.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.9 -77.6  280  26 13   0.7   0.4 | -60.6 -77.1  285  29 15   0.2   0.1
 45000 -59.9 -75.8  285  31 16  -0.2  -0.1 | -60.3 -76.5  295  37 19  -0.0  -0.0
 40000 -60.1 -76.2  305  34 17  -0.1  -0.0 | -60.3 -76.5  315  40 21   0.1   0.1
 38000 -57.9 -72.2  305  34 18   5.4   3.0 | -57.5 -71.5  320  38 19   5.7   3.1
 36000 -54.2 -65.6  310  34 18   5.4   3.0 | -54.0 -65.2  320  34 18   5.7   3.1
 34000 -50.4 -58.7  310  33 17   7.6   4.2 | -50.0 -58.0  320  31 16   8.0   4.4
 32000 -45.8 -50.4  315  29 15   7.6   4.2 | -45.2 -49.4  320  26 14   7.9   4.4
 30000 -41.2 -42.2  315  27 14   7.9   4.3 | -40.4 -40.7  320  23 12   8.3   4.6
 29000 -38.9 -38.0  315  27 14   7.9   4.3 | -37.9 -36.2  320  23 12   8.3   4.6
 28000 -36.5 -33.7  315  26 13   7.9   4.3 | -35.4 -31.7  320  22 11   8.3   4.5
 27000 -34.2 -29.6  315  25 13   7.7   4.2 | -33.1 -27.6  315  22 11   6.5   3.6
 26000 -31.9 -25.4  310  25 13   7.7   4.2 | -31.1 -24.0  315  22 11   6.6   3.6
 25000 -29.6 -21.3  310  24 12   7.7   4.2 | -29.1 -20.4  310  22 12   6.6   3.6
 24000 -27.3 -17.1  305  23 12   6.6   3.6 | -26.5 -15.7  310  22 12   7.6   4.2
 23000 -24.9 -12.8  310  20 10   6.7   3.7 | -24.2 -11.6  310  22 11   7.7   4.2
 22000 -22.9  -9.2  310  18  9   6.7   3.7 | -21.9  -7.4  310  21 11   7.7   4.2
 21000 -21.0  -5.8  310  15  8   6.5   3.6 | -20.0  -4.0  300  18  9   5.7   3.1
 20000 -19.1  -2.4  310  11  6   6.6   3.6 | -18.4  -1.1  290  15  7   5.7   3.1
 19500 -18.1  -0.6  305   9  5   6.7   3.7 | -17.6   0.3  285  13  7   5.8   3.2
 19000 -17.2   1.0  305   8  4   7.2   4.0 | -16.7   1.9  275  12  6   6.2   3.4
 18500 -16.0   3.2  295   7  4   7.9   4.3 | -15.8   3.6  270  12  6   6.7   3.7
 18000 -14.8   5.4  280   7  4   8.0   4.4 | -14.8   5.4  270  12  6   6.7   3.7
 17500 -13.7   7.3  270   7  4   7.7   4.2 | -13.7   7.3  270  13  6   7.8   4.3
 17000 -12.6   9.3  270   8  4   7.7   4.2 | -12.6   9.3  270  13  6   7.7   4.2
 16500 -11.4  11.5  265   9  5   7.8   4.3 | -11.5  11.3  265  13  6   7.7   4.3
 16000 -10.3  13.5  265   9  4   7.8   4.3 | -10.4  13.3  265  12  6   7.8   4.3
 15500  -9.2  15.4  260   8  4   7.8   4.3 |  -9.2  15.4  260  11  6   7.7   4.2
 15000  -8.0  17.6  260   8  4   7.8   4.3 |  -8.2  17.2  255  11  5   7.3   4.0
 14500  -6.9  19.6  260   8  4   7.8   4.3 |  -7.1  19.2  245  10  5   7.3   4.0
 14000  -5.8  21.6  260   7  3   7.5   4.1 |  -6.1  21.0  240   9  5   7.1   3.9
 13500  -4.7  23.5  260   6  3   7.4   4.1 |  -5.0  23.0  230   9  5   6.9   3.8
 13000  -3.5  25.7  260   4  2   8.9   4.9 |  -3.9  25.0  225   9  5   8.9   4.9
 12500  -2.2  28.0  250   3  2   8.9   4.9 |  -2.6  27.3  220   9  5   9.0   4.9
 12000  -0.9  30.4  250   2  1   9.0   4.9 |  -1.4  29.5  215   9  4   7.6   4.2
 11750  -0.2  31.6  260   2  1   9.6   5.3 |  -0.8  30.6  215   8  4   8.8   4.8
 11500   0.5  32.9  275   2  1   9.4   5.2 |  -0.1  31.8  215   8  4   8.7   4.8
 11250   1.2  34.2  290   2  1   9.4   5.2 |   0.5  32.9  215   7  4   7.9   4.3
 11000   1.9  35.4  310   3  1   8.3   4.6 |   1.0  33.8  215   5  3   4.9   2.7
 10750   2.4  36.3  325   4  2   6.0   3.3 |   1.2  34.2  215   3  1   2.2   1.2
 10500   2.8  37.0  330   5  3   6.1   3.3 |   1.3  34.3  255   1  1   0.9   0.5
 10250   3.2  37.8  335   6  3   3.0   1.7 |   1.4  34.5  355   2  1   2.5   1.4
 10000   3.2  37.8  340   8  4  -0.4  -0.2 |   1.6  34.9  025   3  1   3.2   1.7
  9750   3.2  37.8  350  11  6  -2.1  -1.2 |   2.4  36.3  045   6  3   7.9   4.3
  9500   2.5  36.5  355  17  9  -2.9  -1.6 |   3.0  37.4  045   7  3   9.0   4.9
  9250   2.4  36.3  360  17  9  -0.9  -0.5 |   3.8  38.8  045   7  3  10.5   5.8
  9000   2.3  36.1  360  18  9  -1.3  -0.7 |   4.5  40.1  045   7  3  10.0   5.5
  8750   2.2  36.0  005  18  9   1.5   0.8 |   5.3  41.5  045   7  4  10.2   5.6
  8500   2.5  36.5  360  19 10   7.1   3.9 |   6.1  43.0  050   7  4  10.7   5.9
  8250   3.2  37.8  360  18  9   9.7   5.3 |   6.9  44.4  050   7  3  11.3   6.2
  8000   3.9  39.0  355  18  9   8.2   4.5 |   7.7  45.9  050   7  3  10.1   5.5
  7750   4.6  40.3  355  18  9  12.8   7.0 |   8.5  47.3  050   7  3  16.0   8.8
  7500   5.9  42.6  355  16  8  22.6  12.4 |  10.2  50.4  050   7  4  29.4  16.1
  7250   7.3  45.1  355  14  7   7.5   4.1 |  12.0  53.6  050   7  4   8.4   4.6
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           04/21/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       04/21/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +18.9  LI... +0.1               | K index... +21.7  LI... +0.1
CAPE... +3.1  CIN... -16.3                 | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -3.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -61.9 -79.4  290  33 17   0.6   0.3 | -62.8 -81.0  295  31 16   0.4   0.2
 45000 -61.1 -78.0  300  44 22  -0.2  -0.1 | -62.2 -80.0  300  43 22   0.1   0.0
 40000 -61.4 -78.5  325  50 26   0.1   0.0 | -62.0 -79.6  325  65 33   0.2   0.1
 38000 -58.4 -73.1  320  47 24   6.7   3.7 | -58.6 -73.5  325  58 30   7.3   4.0
 36000 -54.4 -65.9  315  43 22   6.7   3.7 | -54.2 -65.6  325  47 24   7.3   4.0
 34000 -49.5 -57.1  310  38 20   8.1   4.4 | -48.9 -56.0  315  40 20   8.3   4.6
 32000 -44.6 -48.3  305  35 18   8.1   4.4 | -43.9 -47.0  310  40 21   8.3   4.6
 30000 -39.6 -39.3  305  31 16   8.6   4.7 | -38.9 -38.0  305  37 19   8.3   4.5
 29000 -37.0 -34.6  305  29 15   8.6   4.7 | -36.4 -33.5  305  34 18   8.3   4.5
 28000 -34.4 -29.9  305  27 14   8.5   4.7 | -33.9 -29.0  300  32 16   8.2   4.5
 27000 -32.2 -26.0  300  25 13   6.6   3.6 | -31.7 -25.1  300  29 15   6.5   3.6
 26000 -30.2 -22.4  300  24 12   6.5   3.6 | -29.8 -21.6  300  27 14   6.4   3.5
 25000 -28.3 -18.9  295  22 12   6.5   3.6 | -27.9 -18.2  295  26 13   6.5   3.5
 24000 -26.3 -15.3  295  21 11   7.2   4.0 | -25.8 -14.4  290  24 12   7.4   4.0
 23000 -24.1 -11.4  295  21 11   7.2   3.9 | -23.7 -10.7  290  24 12   7.3   4.0
 22000 -21.9  -7.4  295  20 10   7.2   3.9 | -21.5  -6.7  290  23 12   7.4   4.0
 21000 -19.9  -3.8  290  20 10   6.6   3.6 | -19.4  -2.9  285  23 12   6.9   3.8
 20000 -17.9  -0.2  280  21 11   6.6   3.6 | -17.3   0.9  285  23 12   6.9   3.8
 19500 -16.9   1.6  280  21 11   6.7   3.7 | -16.3   2.7  280  23 12   6.9   3.8
 19000 -15.9   3.4  275  22 11   6.7   3.7 | -15.3   4.5  280  24 12   6.8   3.8
 18500 -15.0   5.0  275  22 11   6.6   3.6 | -14.3   6.3  280  23 12   6.5   3.6
 18000 -14.0   6.8  275  22 11   6.6   3.6 | -13.4   7.9  280  23 12   6.5   3.6
 17500 -13.1   8.4  280  23 12   6.5   3.6 | -12.4   9.7  285  22 11   7.0   3.8
 17000 -12.1  10.2  280  22 11   6.6   3.6 | -11.4  11.5  285  21 11   7.1   3.9
 16500 -11.2  11.8  280  22 11   7.1   3.9 | -10.4  13.3  285  20 10   7.4   4.0
 16000  -9.5  14.9  285  19 10   8.0   4.4 |  -8.6  16.5  285  18  9   7.9   4.3
 15500  -8.3  17.1  285  18  9   8.2   4.5 |  -7.5  18.5  285  16  8   7.3   4.0
 15000  -7.1  19.2  285  15  8   8.3   4.6 |  -6.5  20.3  280  14  7   7.1   3.9
 14500  -5.9  21.4  285  13  7   7.7   4.2 |  -5.4  22.3  270  11  6   7.1   3.9
 14000  -4.9  23.2  275  11  6   6.8   3.7 |  -4.4  24.1  255  10  5   7.2   3.9
 13500  -3.9  25.0  265   9  4   6.5   3.6 |  -3.3  26.1  235   9  4   6.9   3.8
 13000  -3.1  26.4  235   6  3   5.5   3.0 |  -2.4  27.7  215   9  4   5.9   3.2
 12500  -2.3  27.9  190   6  3   6.0   3.3 |  -1.6  29.1  200   9  5   6.2   3.4
 12000  -1.4  29.5  165   7  4   6.2   3.4 |  -0.6  30.9  195  10  5   7.5   4.1
 11750  -0.9  30.4  160   8  4   6.1   3.3 |  -0.0  32.0  190  10  5   7.3   4.0
 11500  -0.5  31.1  155   9  5   6.7   3.7 |   0.5  32.9  190  10  5   7.6   4.2
 11250   0.1  32.2  155   9  5   9.0   4.9 |   1.1  34.0  190  10  5   8.6   4.7
 11000   0.8  33.4  155   9  5   9.7   5.3 |   1.7  35.1  185  10  5   9.0   4.9
 10750   1.5  34.7  150   9  5   9.0   5.0 |   2.4  36.3  185  11  6   8.6   4.7
 10500   2.2  36.0  150   9  5   9.5   5.2 |   3.0  37.4  185  11  6   8.9   4.9
 10250   2.9  37.2  150  10  5  10.2   5.6 |   3.7  38.7  185  11  6   9.8   5.4
 10000   3.7  38.7  150  10  5  10.1   5.5 |   4.5  40.1  185  11  6   9.7   5.3
  9750   4.4  39.9  150  10  5   9.3   5.1 |   5.2  41.4  185  11  6   8.8   4.8
  9500   5.1  41.2  155  10  5   9.5   5.2 |   5.8  42.4  185  11  6   9.1   5.0
  9250   5.8  42.4  155  10  5   9.9   5.4 |   6.5  43.7  185  11  6   9.8   5.4
  9000   6.6  43.9  155  10  5   9.9   5.4 |   7.3  45.1  185  11  6   9.9   5.5
  8750   7.3  45.1  155  10  5  10.1   5.5 |   8.0  46.4  185  11  6  10.0   5.5
  8500   8.1  46.6  155  10  5  10.5   5.8 |   8.8  47.8  185  11  6  10.3   5.6
  8250   8.9  48.0  155  10  5  10.8   5.9 |   9.6  49.3  185  11  6  10.5   5.8
  8000   9.7  49.5  155  10  5  10.4   5.7 |  10.3  50.5  185  11  6  10.2   5.6
  7750  10.5  50.9  155  10  5  11.6   6.4 |  11.1  52.0  185  11  6  11.4   6.3
  7500  11.4  52.5  155   9  5  12.3   6.8 |  12.0  53.6  185  11  6  10.1   5.5
  7250  12.2  54.0  155   9  5  11.6   6.3 |  12.6  54.7  180  11  6   7.3   4.0
  7000  13.1  55.6  150   9  5  12.2   6.7 |  13.1  55.6  180  10  5   9.5   5.2
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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