Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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337
UXUS97 KBOU 261321
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0720 MDT Thursday, May 26, 2016

This forecast is for Thursday, May 26, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 61.6 F/16.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 122 ft/min (0.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 11790 ft MSL (6505 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 65.0 F/18.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1300 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7581 ft MSL (2296 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 05/27....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... 11935 ft MSL (6650 ft AGL)
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 12921 ft MSL (7636 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Friday 05/27.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:36:20 / 20:16:41 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 40 min 21 sec (880 min 21 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:56:43 MDT... 71.51 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 05/26/2016 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 11170 ft MSL (5885 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 14088 ft MSL (8803 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 12645 ft MSL (7359 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.8
K index......................... +20.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -53.2 -63.8   220   21   11   7.2   3.9  110.4 230.6    52.8      M    M
 45000  -53.6 -64.5   230   36   19   3.0   1.6   83.9 182.9    40.3      M    M
 40000  -51.8 -61.2   235   34   18   4.1   2.3   63.6 146.6    29.8      M    M
 38000  -53.1 -63.6   225   49   25 -12.8  -7.0   53.0 127.3    23.4      M    M
 36000  -57.6 -71.7   225   56   29   2.1   1.2   37.9 100.2    13.6      M    M
 34000  -54.4 -65.9   220   53   27   6.4   3.5   34.1  93.4    11.2      M    M
 32000  -49.4 -56.9   215   44   23   8.4   4.6   31.8  89.2     9.9      M    M
 30000  -44.4 -47.9   215   35   18   7.9   4.3   30.6  87.1     9.3      M    M
 29000  -42.0 -43.6   210   36   18   9.0   5.0   30.0  86.0     8.9      M    M
 28000  -39.4 -38.9   205   37   19   8.1   4.4   29.5  85.2     8.6      M    M
 27000  -36.9 -34.4   205   38   19   8.6   4.7   29.0  84.2     8.3      M    M
 26000  -34.5 -30.1   200   39   20   7.8   4.3   28.4  83.1     7.9      M    M
 25000  -32.2 -26.0   210   38   20   7.8   4.3   27.7  81.8     7.4      M    M
 24000  -29.8 -21.6   220   35   18   8.0   4.4   26.9  80.5     6.9      M    M
 23000  -27.4 -17.3   215   30   15   8.5   4.6   26.3  79.4     6.5      M    M
 22000  -24.7 -12.5   205   25   13   8.2   4.5   26.0  78.9     6.3      M    M
 21000  -22.5  -8.5   215   23   12   7.4   4.1   25.2  77.3     5.6      M    M
 20000  -20.5  -4.9   230   23   12   6.4   3.5   24.2  75.5     4.8      M    M
 19500  -19.4  -2.9   235   24   12   9.3   5.1   23.8  74.8     4.5      M    M
 19000  -18.0  -0.4   245   26   13   9.4   5.2   23.7  74.7     4.5      M    M
 18500  -16.7   1.9   240   22   12   8.1   4.5   23.6  74.4     4.3      M    M
 18000  -15.4   4.3   240   21   11   9.1   5.0   23.4  74.0     4.2      M    M
 17500  -14.0   6.8   240   19   10   9.1   5.0   23.2  73.8     4.1      M    M
 17000  -12.7   9.1   240   17    9   9.1   5.0   23.1  73.7     4.0      M    M
 16500  -11.3  11.7   240   15    8   9.0   4.9   23.1  73.5     4.0      M    M
 16000  -10.0  14.0   240   13    7   8.8   4.8   22.9  73.2     3.8      M    M
 15500   -7.9  17.8   225   13    7   9.9   5.4   22.8  73.0     3.7      M    M
 15000   -6.5  20.3   215   12    6   9.8   5.4   22.8  73.0     3.7      M    M
 14500   -5.0  23.0   215    7    4   9.1   5.0   22.8  73.0     3.7      M    M
 14000   -3.8  25.2   185    2    1   8.8   4.8   22.6  72.7     3.5      M    M
 13500   -2.8  27.0   105    7    3   6.2   3.4   22.2  72.0     3.1      M    M
 13000   -1.9  28.6   095   12    6   6.3   3.5   21.7  71.0     2.5      M    M
 12500   -1.0  30.2   105   11    6   6.7   3.7   21.1  70.0     2.0      M    M
 12000   -0.6  30.9   115   10    5  -9.7  -5.3   20.0  68.0     0.9      M    M
 11500   -0.7  30.7   125   11    6  14.1   7.7   18.6  65.4    -0.6    499  2.5
 11000    0.5  32.9   130   12    6   7.7   4.2   18.3  65.0    -0.9    449  2.3
 10500    1.6  34.9   125   16    8   7.1   3.9   18.0  64.3    -1.3    402  2.0
 10250    2.2  36.0   120   17    9   7.1   3.9   17.7  63.9    -1.4    377  1.9
 10000    2.8  37.0   120   18    9   7.6   4.1   17.6  63.6    -1.5    351  1.8
  9750    3.4  38.1   115   19   10   7.5   4.1   17.4  63.3    -1.6    325  1.7
  9500    4.0  39.2   115   20   10   8.0   4.4   17.2  63.0    -1.7    299  1.5
  9250    4.7  40.5   110   20   10   8.7   4.8   17.1  62.8    -1.8    272  1.4
  9000    5.3  41.5   110   21   11   8.7   4.8   17.1  62.7    -1.9    245  1.2
  8750    6.0  42.8   110   21   11   8.8   4.8   17.0  62.5    -2.0    218  1.1
  8500    6.6  43.9   110   22   11   8.4   4.6   16.9  62.4    -2.1    191  1.0
  8250    7.2  45.0   110   22   11   7.1   3.9   16.7  62.1    -2.3    167  0.8
  8000    7.7  45.9   110   22   11   6.4   3.5   16.5  61.7    -2.5    146  0.7
  7750    8.1  46.6   110   19   10   6.6   3.6   16.2  61.2    -2.8    125  0.6
  7500    8.6  47.5   110   16    8   6.6   3.6   16.0  60.8    -3.1    103  0.5
  7250    9.0  48.2   110   13    7   6.7   3.7   15.8  60.4    -3.4     82  0.4
  7000    9.5  49.1   110   10    5   6.6   3.6   15.5  60.0    -3.6     61  0.3
  6750   10.0  50.0   115    8    4   7.0   3.9   15.3  59.5    -3.9     40  0.2
  6500   10.4  50.7   120    5    3   5.4   2.9   15.1  59.1    -4.2     19  0.1
  6250   10.7  51.3   135    3    2   2.1   1.2   14.6  58.3    -4.7      4  0.0
  6000   10.8  51.4   190    2    1   1.0   0.6   14.0  57.1    -5.3      M    M
  5750   10.9  51.6   170    2    1   2.4   1.3   13.3  56.0    -6.0      M    M
  5500   11.0  51.8   145    2    1  -2.1  -1.2   12.7  54.9    -6.6      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           05/26/2016 at 0900 MDT          |       05/26/2016 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +23.5  LI... -3.5               | K index... +18.1  LI... -3.9
CAPE... +798.0  CIN... -22.6               | CAPE... +947.4  CIN... -0.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -54.4 -65.9  230  21 11   1.5   0.8 | -54.2 -65.6  225  21 11   1.3   0.7
 45000 -52.3 -62.1  230  30 16  -1.1  -0.6 | -52.4 -62.3  230  28 14  -1.2  -0.6
 40000 -53.6 -64.5  220  44 23  -0.9  -0.5 | -53.8 -64.8  220  42 21  -1.0  -0.5
 38000 -53.8 -64.8  220  47 24   0.1   0.0 | -53.9 -65.0  215  44 23   0.7   0.4
 36000 -53.8 -64.8  215  49 25   0.1   0.0 | -53.4 -64.1  210  45 23   0.7   0.4
 34000 -52.9 -63.2  215  50 26   7.2   4.0 | -52.4 -62.3  205  44 23   6.7   3.7
 32000 -48.3 -54.9  215  43 22   6.9   3.8 | -48.0 -54.4  205  39 20   6.4   3.5
 30000 -44.0 -47.2  210  37 19   7.7   4.2 | -43.9 -47.0  200  36 18   8.1   4.4
 29000 -41.7 -43.1  210  35 18   7.7   4.2 | -41.4 -42.5  200  35 18   8.1   4.4
 28000 -39.4 -38.9  205  33 17   7.7   4.2 | -39.0 -38.2  200  34 18   8.1   4.4
 27000 -37.1 -34.8  205  32 16   7.8   4.3 | -36.6 -33.9  195  34 17   8.4   4.6
 26000 -34.8 -30.6  205  31 16   7.8   4.3 | -34.1 -29.4  195  34 17   8.4   4.6
 25000 -32.4 -26.3  205  30 15   7.8   4.3 | -31.5 -24.7  195  33 17   8.4   4.6
 24000 -30.1 -22.2  205  29 15   8.1   4.5 | -29.0 -20.2  195  33 17   8.1   4.4
 23000 -27.6 -17.7  210  27 14   8.3   4.6 | -26.7 -16.1  195  31 16   7.9   4.3
 22000 -25.2 -13.4  210  26 13   8.3   4.6 | -24.3 -11.7  200  29 15   7.9   4.3
 21000 -22.6  -8.7  215  24 13   9.0   5.0 | -21.9  -7.4  200  27 14   8.1   4.5
 20000 -20.0  -4.0  220  24 12   9.0   4.9 | -19.5  -3.1  205  25 13   8.2   4.5
 19500 -18.6  -1.5  225  24 12   9.0   4.9 | -18.3  -0.9  205  23 12   8.2   4.5
 19000 -17.3   0.9  225  24 12   9.0   4.9 | -17.1   1.2  205  22 11   8.2   4.5
 18500 -15.9   3.4  230  24 12   9.3   5.1 | -15.9   3.4  205  21 11   8.6   4.7
 18000 -14.6   5.7  230  23 12   9.3   5.1 | -14.6   5.7  205  19 10   8.7   4.8
 17500 -13.2   8.2  230  22 11   8.9   4.9 | -13.3   8.1  205  17  9   8.8   4.8
 17000 -12.0  10.4  235  20 10   7.3   4.0 | -12.0  10.4  200  16  8   8.7   4.8
 16500 -10.4  13.3  240  15  8   7.6   4.2 | -10.1  13.8  195  14  7   8.6   4.7
 16000  -9.2  15.4  240  12  6   7.9   4.3 |  -8.8  16.2  200  13  6   8.4   4.6
 15500  -8.1  17.4  235   8  4   7.9   4.3 |  -7.6  18.3  200  11  6   8.5   4.7
 15000  -6.9  19.6  225   6  3   8.7   4.8 |  -6.4  20.5  200   9  5   7.2   4.0
 14500  -5.6  21.9  215   3  2   8.7   4.8 |  -5.4  22.3  195   7  4   7.4   4.1
 14000  -4.4  24.1  170   2  1   8.0   4.4 |  -4.3  24.3  180   6  3   7.0   3.9
 13500  -3.2  26.2  100   2  1   8.0   4.4 |  -3.3  26.1  155   4  2   7.1   3.9
 13000  -2.0  28.4  075   4  2   8.0   4.4 |  -2.3  27.9  125   4  2   6.6   3.6
 12500  -0.9  30.4  065   5  2   8.0   4.4 |  -1.4  29.5  110   5  3   6.5   3.6
 12000   0.3  32.5  065   5  3   7.6   4.2 |  -0.5  31.1  095   6  3   5.1   2.8
 11500   1.4  34.5  070   6  3   7.6   4.1 |   0.2  32.4  095   8  4   4.4   2.4
 11000   2.4  36.3  080   7  4   5.7   3.2 |   0.8  33.4  090  10  5   3.9   2.1
 10500   3.1  37.6  080   8  4   4.5   2.5 |   1.3  34.3  090  12  6   3.1   1.7
 10250   3.4  38.1  080   9  5   7.0   3.8 |   1.5  34.7  090  12  6   6.2   3.4
 10000   4.0  39.2  080  10  5   6.3   3.4 |   2.1  35.8  090  13  6   8.2   4.5
  9750   4.2  39.6  080  10  5   3.1   1.7 |   2.5  36.5  085  12  6   6.6   3.6
  9500   4.4  39.9  080  10  5   4.3   2.4 |   3.0  37.4  085  11  5   7.3   4.0
  9250   4.6  40.3  080   9  5   3.0   1.6 |   3.4  38.1  080  10  5   6.8   3.7
  9000   4.8  40.6  080   9  5   4.0   2.2 |   3.9  39.0  075   9  5   8.5   4.6
  8750   5.2  41.4  085   9  4   6.4   3.5 |   4.6  40.3  065   8  4  10.4   5.7
  8500   5.6  42.1  085   8  4   6.3   3.4 |   5.3  41.5  060   8  4   9.9   5.4
  8250   6.0  42.8  090   8  4   6.7   3.7 |   6.0  42.8  050   7  4  10.8   5.9
  8000   6.5  43.7  095   8  4   6.8   3.7 |   6.8  44.2  045   7  4  11.1   6.1
  7750   6.9  44.4  095   7  4   5.7   3.1 |   7.6  45.7  040   7  4   9.9   5.4
  7500   7.3  45.1  095   7  4   5.2   2.9 |   8.3  46.9  040   7  4   9.5   5.2
  7250   7.7  45.9  095   7  3   4.6   2.5 |   9.0  48.2  040   7  4  10.2   5.6
  7000   8.0  46.4  085   5  3   4.3   2.4 |   9.8  49.6  040   7  4  10.6   5.8
  6750   8.3  46.9  065   4  2   3.7   2.0 |  10.6  51.1  035   7  4  10.1   5.5
  6500   8.7  47.7  045   4  2   6.0   3.3 |  11.3  52.3  035   7  3  10.3   5.6
  6250   9.4  48.9  025   4  2   9.8   5.4 |  12.1  53.8  035   7  3  11.2   6.1
  6000  10.1  50.2  005   4  2   9.6   5.3 |  13.0  55.4  035   7  3  11.0   6.1
  5750  10.9  51.6  350   5  2  10.8   5.9 |  13.8  56.8  035   7  3  11.6   6.3
  5500  11.9  53.4  350   5  2  17.1   9.4 |  14.9  58.8  030   6  3  20.1  11.0

           05/26/2016 at 1500 MDT          |       05/26/2016 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +25.6  LI... -2.6               | K index... +26.4  LI... -0.9
CAPE... +441.8  CIN... -0.2                | CAPE... +129.2  CIN... -6.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -53.4 -64.1  220  23 12   1.3   0.7 | -53.9 -65.0  220  25 13   1.5   0.8
 45000 -51.7 -61.1  215  29 15  -1.9  -1.0 | -51.9 -61.4  210  29 15  -1.2  -0.7
 40000 -54.1 -65.4  215  39 20  -1.6  -0.9 | -53.3 -63.9  205  34 18  -1.0  -0.5
 38000 -54.3 -65.7  210  42 21   0.6   0.3 | -53.8 -64.8  200  33 17  -0.7  -0.4
 36000 -53.9 -65.0  210  42 22   0.6   0.3 | -54.2 -65.6  185  31 16  -0.7  -0.4
 34000 -52.3 -62.1  210  41 21   7.3   4.0 | -52.9 -63.2  175  29 15   8.5   4.7
 32000 -47.8 -54.0  215  37 19   7.4   4.1 | -47.7 -53.9  175  22 11   8.7   4.8
 30000 -43.1 -45.6  220  34 17   8.8   4.9 | -42.4 -44.3  180  17  9   9.0   5.0
 29000 -40.4 -40.7  220  33 17   8.8   4.9 | -39.7 -39.5  185  16  8   9.0   5.0
 28000 -37.8 -36.0  220  32 16   8.9   4.9 | -37.0 -34.6  190  14  7   9.1   5.0
 27000 -35.1 -31.2  220  30 16   8.7   4.7 | -34.3 -29.7  195  14  7   8.7   4.8
 26000 -32.5 -26.5  215  30 16   8.6   4.7 | -31.7 -25.1  195  14  7   8.7   4.8
 25000 -30.0 -22.0  215  30 15   8.6   4.7 | -29.1 -20.4  200  15  8   8.7   4.8
 24000 -27.4 -17.3  215  30 15   8.0   4.4 | -26.5 -15.7  200  16  8   8.0   4.4
 23000 -25.2 -13.4  210  28 15   7.3   4.0 | -24.3 -11.7  200  15  8   7.3   4.0
 22000 -23.0  -9.4  210  27 14   7.3   4.0 | -22.2  -8.0  205  15  8   7.3   4.0
 21000 -20.9  -5.6  205  26 13   6.9   3.8 | -20.0  -4.0  205  15  8   7.3   4.0
 20000 -18.8  -1.8  195  23 12   6.9   3.8 | -17.8  -0.0  200  15  8   7.3   4.0
 19500 -17.8  -0.0  190  22 11   6.9   3.8 | -16.8   1.8  200  15  8   7.4   4.0
 19000 -16.8   1.8  185  21 11   6.9   3.8 | -15.7   3.7  200  15  7   7.4   4.0
 18500 -15.8   3.6  180  20 10   7.6   4.1 | -14.6   5.7  200  15  7   7.2   4.0
 18000 -14.6   5.7  180  20 10   8.0   4.4 | -13.0   8.6  200  13  7   7.1   3.9
 17500 -12.9   8.8  175  20 10   8.1   4.4 | -12.0  10.4  195  12  6   6.9   3.8
 17000 -11.7  10.9  175  19 10   8.1   4.5 | -11.0  12.2  195  11  6   6.8   3.7
 16500 -10.5  13.1  175  19 10   8.0   4.4 | -10.0  14.0  195  10  5   6.8   3.7
 16000  -9.4  15.1  170  18  9   7.1   3.9 |  -9.1  15.6  195   9  4   6.4   3.5
 15500  -8.3  17.1  165  17  9   7.3   4.0 |  -8.1  17.4  195   7  4   6.4   3.5
 15000  -7.3  18.9  165  16  8   6.7   3.7 |  -7.2  19.0  195   6  3   6.4   3.5
 14500  -6.3  20.7  160  14  7   6.7   3.7 |  -6.3  20.7  185   3  2   6.4   3.5
 14000  -5.4  22.3  155  13  6   6.2   3.4 |  -5.4  22.3  145   2  1   6.2   3.4
 13500  -4.5  23.9  150  11  6   6.0   3.3 |  -4.5  23.9  075   3  1   6.1   3.4
 13000  -3.6  25.5  140   9  5   5.9   3.2 |  -3.6  25.5  060   5  3   6.2   3.4
 12500  -2.8  27.0  125   8  4   5.8   3.2 |  -2.7  27.1  045   9  4   6.3   3.4
 12000  -1.9  28.6  105   8  4   5.9   3.2 |  -1.8  28.8  035  12  6   6.4   3.5
 11500  -1.1  30.0  075   8  4   6.1   3.3 |  -0.8  30.6  030  13  7   6.6   3.6
 11000  -0.3  31.5  055   9  5   6.8   3.7 |   0.2  32.4  030  14  7   6.5   3.6
 10500   0.7  33.3  040   9  5   6.8   3.7 |   1.1  34.0  025  14  7   6.0   3.3
 10250   1.3  34.3  035   9  5  10.0   5.5 |   1.5  34.7  025  14  7   8.0   4.4
 10000   2.1  35.8  025   9  5  11.6   6.4 |   2.2  36.0  025  13  7  10.3   5.6
  9750   2.8  37.0  025   9  5   9.6   5.3 |   3.0  37.4  025  13  7   9.7   5.3
  9500   3.5  38.3  020   9  5  10.2   5.6 |   3.7  38.7  020  13  7  10.0   5.5
  9250   4.3  39.7  020   9  5   9.9   5.4 |   4.4  39.9  020  12  6   8.9   4.9
  9000   5.0  41.0  015   9  5   9.8   5.4 |   5.0  41.0  020  12  6   8.9   4.9
  8750   5.7  42.3  015   9  5   9.9   5.5 |   5.7  42.3  020  12  6  10.1   5.6
  8500   6.5  43.7  015   9  5   9.9   5.4 |   6.5  43.7  020  12  6   9.7   5.3
  8250   7.2  45.0  015   9  5  10.1   5.5 |   7.2  45.0  020  11  6  10.4   5.7
  8000   8.0  46.4  015   9  5  10.3   5.6 |   8.0  46.4  020  11  6  10.9   6.0
  7750   8.7  47.7  010   9  5  10.0   5.5 |   8.8  47.8  020  11  6  10.0   5.5
  7500   9.5  49.1  010   9  5   9.8   5.4 |   9.5  49.1  020  11  6   9.3   5.1
  7250  10.2  50.4  010   9  5  10.3   5.7 |  10.2  50.4  020  11  6   9.8   5.4
  7000  11.0  51.8  010   9  5  10.7   5.9 |  10.9  51.6  020  11  6  10.3   5.6
  6750  11.8  53.2  010   9  5   9.5   5.2 |  11.7  53.1  020  11  6   9.8   5.4
  6500  12.5  54.5  005   9  5   9.5   5.2 |  12.4  54.3  020  11  5   9.6   5.3
  6250  13.2  55.8  005   9  5  11.0   6.0 |  13.2  55.8  020  10  5  10.5   5.8
  6000  14.1  57.4  005   9  4  12.0   6.6 |  14.0  57.2  020  10  5  11.3   6.2
  5750  14.9  58.8  005   9  4   9.8   5.4 |  14.8  58.6  020  10  5   9.8   5.4
  5500  15.7  60.3  360   8  4  13.9   7.6 |  15.5  59.9  015   9  5  10.4   5.7
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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