Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 211106
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0406 MST Friday, November 21, 2014

This forecast is for Friday, November 21, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 46.2 F/7.9 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 755 ft/min (3.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 14896 ft MSL (8138 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 50.0 F/10.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1200 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9271 ft MSL (2514 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 11/22..... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1700 MST)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1700 MST)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 26980 ft MSL (20222 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 11/22........ Fair

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:48:29 / 16:41:17 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 52 min 48 sec (592 min 48 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:45:03 MST... 31.08 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/21/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 6965 ft MSL (207 ft AGL)
Additional freezing level....... 9551 ft MSL (2793 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16402 ft MSL (9644 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15505 ft MSL (8747 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +2.5
K index......................... +14.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -59.8 -75.6   260   32   16   4.2   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -53.5 -64.3   245   36   19   4.3   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.9 -63.2   245   37   19   0.2   0.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -53.0 -63.4   250   36   18  -1.1  -0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -53.7 -64.7   255   33   17  -1.1  -0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -54.2 -65.6   265   30   15   3.3   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -51.4 -60.5   270   31   16   4.8   2.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -48.3 -54.9   280   32   16   7.9   4.3   21.2  70.1     8.5      M    M
 29000  -45.9 -50.6   275   30   15   8.0   4.4   20.3  68.6     8.0      M    M
 28000  -43.5 -46.3   275   28   15   8.0   4.4   19.7  67.4     7.6      M    M
 27000  -41.2 -42.2   275   27   14   7.9   4.4   19.1  66.4     7.2      M    M
 26000  -38.7 -37.7   270   25   13   8.3   4.6   18.5  65.2     6.8      M    M
 25000  -36.2 -33.2   265   24   12   8.3   4.6   17.9  64.2     6.4      M    M
 24000  -33.7 -28.7   265   22   11   8.3   4.6   17.4  63.4     6.1      M    M
 23000  -31.3 -24.3   260   20   10   8.0   4.4   16.8  62.2     5.6      M    M
 22000  -28.9 -20.0   255   19   10   8.0   4.4   16.1  61.1     5.1      M    M
 21000  -26.5 -15.7   255   17    9   7.9   4.4   15.6  60.1     4.7      M    M
 20000  -24.2 -11.6   250   16    8   7.8   4.3   14.9  58.8     4.1      M    M
 19500  -23.0  -9.4   250   16    8   7.8   4.3   14.5  58.1     3.8      M    M
 19000  -21.9  -7.4   250   16    8   7.8   4.3   14.2  57.6     3.6      M    M
 18500  -20.7  -5.3   250   15    8   7.8   4.3   13.9  57.1     3.3      M    M
 18000  -19.6  -3.3   250   15    8   7.1   3.9   13.5  56.3     3.0      M    M
 17500  -18.6  -1.5   250   15    8   7.2   4.0   13.1  55.5     2.6      M    M
 17000  -17.5   0.5   245   15    8   6.3   3.5   12.6  54.7     2.1      M    M
 16500  -16.6   2.1   245   15    8   6.2   3.4   12.0  53.6     1.6      M    M
 16000  -15.2   4.6   245   16    8   7.2   3.9   11.2  52.1     0.8      M    M
 15500  -14.2   6.4   245   16    8   7.1   3.9   10.7  51.3     0.4      M    M
 15000  -13.1   8.4   240   16    8   7.8   4.3   10.3  50.6    -0.0    755  3.8
 14500  -11.9  10.6   240   16    8   8.1   4.4   10.1  50.1    -0.3    704  3.6
 14000  -10.7  12.7   245   15    8   8.2   4.5    9.8  49.6    -0.5    653  3.3
 13500   -9.5  14.9   245   15    8   8.3   4.6    9.6  49.2    -0.7    601  3.1
 13000   -8.2  17.2   245   14    7   8.3   4.6    9.3  48.8    -1.0    549  2.8
 12500   -6.9  19.6   250   13    7   8.4   4.6    9.1  48.4    -1.2    496  2.5
 12000   -5.7  21.7   250   12    6   8.3   4.5    8.9  48.1    -1.4    443  2.3
 11750   -5.1  22.8   255   11    6   7.8   4.3    8.8  47.8    -1.5    418  2.1
 11500   -4.5  23.9   255   10    5   7.7   4.2    8.6  47.5    -1.7    393  2.0
 11250   -3.9  25.0   260    9    5   7.9   4.3    8.5  47.2    -1.8    368  1.9
 11000   -3.3  26.1   260    8    4   8.1   4.4    8.3  47.0    -1.9    343  1.7
 10750   -2.7  27.1   265    7    4   7.8   4.3    8.2  46.7    -2.1    317  1.6
 10500   -2.1  28.2   270    6    3   7.6   4.2    8.0  46.4    -2.2    292  1.5
 10250   -1.5  29.3   275    6    3   7.7   4.2    7.9  46.1    -2.4    268  1.4
 10000   -1.0  30.2   285    5    3   7.6   4.2    7.7  45.9    -2.6    243  1.2
  9750   -0.4  31.3   290    5    3   7.8   4.3    7.5  45.6    -2.7    219  1.1
  9500    0.2  32.4   295    5    3   7.9   4.3    7.4  45.3    -2.9    193  1.0
  9250    0.8  33.4   300    6    3   7.8   4.3    7.2  45.0    -3.0    168  0.9
  9000    1.4  34.5   305    6    3   7.0   3.8    7.1  44.7    -3.2    144  0.7
  8750    1.8  35.2   310    6    3   6.2   3.4    6.8  44.3    -3.5    122  0.6
  8500    2.3  36.1   310    8    4   7.0   3.8    6.6  43.8    -3.7    100  0.5
  8250    2.8  37.0   310    9    5   4.6   2.5    6.3  43.4    -4.0     78  0.4
  8000    2.9  37.2   310   10    5  -1.2  -0.7    5.7  42.3    -4.6     67  0.3
  7750    2.8  37.0   305   10    5  -0.8  -0.5    4.8  40.7    -5.5     65  0.3
  7500    3.0  37.4   300   10    5   7.5   4.1    4.3  39.7    -6.0     51  0.3
  7250    3.1  37.6   295   10    5 -12.6  -6.9    3.8  38.8    -6.6     38  0.2
  7000    0.4  32.7   295    8    4 -56.3 -30.9    1.0  33.8    -9.4    112  0.6
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           11/21/2014 at 0800 MST          |       11/21/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +9.5  LI... +2.8                | K index... +4.5  LI... +3.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.3 -74.7  265  24 12   3.5   1.9 | -59.3 -74.7  260  20 10   3.3   1.8
 45000 -54.1 -65.4  250  30 16   3.7   2.0 | -54.4 -65.9  255  25 13   3.8   2.1
 40000 -53.4 -64.1  250  39 20   0.3   0.2 | -54.8 -66.6  255  37 19  -0.5  -0.3
 38000 -53.8 -64.8  255  41 21  -2.8  -1.5 | -55.4 -67.7  260  40 21  -2.1  -1.1
 36000 -55.5 -67.9  260  39 20  -2.9  -1.6 | -56.7 -70.1  260  39 20  -2.1  -1.1
 34000 -57.1 -70.8  270  38 19   5.7   3.1 | -57.6 -71.7  265  37 19   7.1   3.9
 32000 -52.5 -62.5  275  42 21   7.5   4.1 | -52.7 -62.9  260  37 19   8.0   4.4
 30000 -47.9 -54.2  275  45 23   8.8   4.8 | -47.9 -54.2  260  37 19   8.3   4.5
 29000 -45.3 -49.5  275  44 22   8.6   4.7 | -45.4 -49.7  265  36 18   8.3   4.5
 28000 -42.8 -45.0  275  42 22   8.6   4.7 | -42.9 -45.2  265  35 18   8.3   4.5
 27000 -40.2 -40.4  275  41 21   8.6   4.7 | -40.5 -40.9  270  34 18   8.3   4.5
 26000 -37.7 -35.9  280  39 20   8.0   4.4 | -37.9 -36.2  270  33 17   8.4   4.6
 25000 -35.3 -31.5  280  36 19   8.0   4.4 | -35.4 -31.7  270  32 17   8.4   4.6
 24000 -32.9 -27.2  280  34 17   8.0   4.4 | -32.9 -27.2  270  31 16   8.4   4.6
 23000 -30.5 -22.9  285  32 16   8.2   4.5 | -30.3 -22.5  270  30 16   8.7   4.8
 22000 -28.1 -18.6  285  29 15   8.2   4.5 | -27.7 -17.9  275  29 15   8.7   4.8
 21000 -25.6 -14.1  280  27 14   8.0   4.4 | -25.0 -13.0  275  29 15   8.5   4.6
 20000 -23.4 -10.1  280  25 13   7.5   4.1 | -22.6  -8.7  275  27 14   8.1   4.5
 19500 -22.2  -8.0  280  23 12   7.5   4.1 | -21.4  -6.5  280  26 14   8.1   4.5
 19000 -21.1  -6.0  275  22 11   7.6   4.1 | -20.2  -4.4  280  26 13   8.1   4.5
 18500 -20.0  -4.0  275  21 11   7.5   4.1 | -18.9  -2.0  280  25 13   8.0   4.4
 18000 -18.9  -2.0  275  20 10   7.4   4.1 | -17.8  -0.0  280  24 12   7.6   4.1
 17500 -17.8  -0.0  270  19 10   7.4   4.1 | -16.7   1.9  280  23 12   7.7   4.2
 17000 -16.7   1.9  270  17  9   7.0   3.8 | -15.6   3.9  280  22 11   6.4   3.5
 16500 -15.2   4.6  265  16  8   7.0   3.9 | -14.7   5.5  280  21 11   6.3   3.5
 16000 -14.2   6.4  265  15  7   6.1   3.4 | -13.3   8.1  280  19 10   6.8   3.7
 15500 -13.3   8.1  265  14  7   6.2   3.4 | -12.3   9.9  280  18  9   6.8   3.7
 15000 -12.4   9.7  260  13  7   6.5   3.6 | -11.3  11.7  275  17  9   6.3   3.4
 14500 -11.4  11.5  260  12  6   6.6   3.6 | -10.4  13.3  275  16  8   6.2   3.4
 14000 -10.4  13.3  255  11  6   6.8   3.7 |  -9.5  14.9  275  15  8   6.1   3.3
 13500  -9.4  15.1  255  10  5   6.9   3.8 |  -8.7  16.3  275  14  7   6.0   3.3
 13000  -8.4  16.9  255   9  5   6.9   3.8 |  -7.8  18.0  280  13  7   6.2   3.4
 12500  -7.4  18.7  255   8  4   6.8   3.7 |  -6.8  19.8  280  12  6   6.4   3.5
 12000  -6.3  20.7  260   7  4   7.1   3.9 |  -5.8  21.6  280  11  6   6.4   3.5
 11750  -5.8  21.6  260   7  4   6.8   3.7 |  -5.4  22.3  285  11  5   5.9   3.3
 11500  -5.3  22.5  265   6  3   6.8   3.7 |  -5.3  22.5  285  10  5   5.9   3.2
 11250  -4.8  23.4  265   5  3   6.8   3.7 |  -4.5  23.9  285   9  5   6.2   3.4
 11000  -4.2  24.4  270   5  2   7.6   4.2 |  -4.0  24.8  285   9  4   6.9   3.8
 10750  -3.6  25.5  275   4  2   7.8   4.3 |  -3.5  25.7  285   8  4   6.6   3.6
 10500  -3.1  26.4  285   3  2   7.4   4.1 |  -3.0  26.6  290   7  4   6.3   3.5
 10250  -2.5  27.5  300   3  1   7.7   4.2 |  -2.6  27.3  290   6  3   6.3   3.5
 10000  -1.9  28.6  320   3  1   6.8   3.7 |  -2.1  28.2  290   6  3   6.3   3.5
  9750  -1.5  29.3  340   3  1   7.0   3.8 |  -1.6  29.1  295   6  3   7.4   4.0
  9500  -0.9  30.4  350   3  2   8.0   4.4 |  -1.0  30.2  300   6  3   8.0   4.4
  9250  -0.3  31.5  360   3  2   7.7   4.2 |  -0.4  31.3  305   6  3   7.9   4.4
  9000   0.3  32.5  005   4  2   7.1   3.9 |   0.1  32.2  310   6  3   7.8   4.3
  8750   0.8  33.4  360   5  3   6.5   3.6 |   0.8  33.4  315   6  3   9.3   5.1
  8500   1.3  34.3  355   6  3   7.3   4.0 |   1.5  34.7  315   6  3  10.7   5.9
  8250   1.8  35.2  350   6  3   5.2   2.8 |   2.3  36.1  320   5  3  10.0   5.5
  8000   2.0  35.6  345   8  4   1.2   0.7 |   3.0  37.4  320   5  3   9.9   5.4
  7750   2.1  35.8  335   9  5   2.1   1.1 |   3.7  38.7  320   5  3   9.3   5.1
  7500   2.3  36.1  325   9  5   4.7   2.6 |   4.4  39.9  320   5  2   8.7   4.8
  7250   2.4  36.3  315   9  4  -7.2  -4.0 |   5.0  41.0  325   5  2   8.9   4.9
  7000   1.0  33.8  310   7  4 -27.5 -15.1 |   5.7  42.3  325   5  2   9.3   5.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/21/2014 at 1400 MST          |       11/21/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -2.8  LI... +3.3                | K index... +4.7  LI... +2.2
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.7                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.8 -75.6  270  20 10   3.2   1.8 | -59.5 -75.1  275  19 10   3.2   1.7
 45000 -55.0 -67.0  265  24 12   3.7   2.0 | -54.8 -66.6  280  22 11   3.6   2.0
 40000 -55.0 -67.0  260  32 16  -0.2  -0.1 | -55.0 -67.0  270  29 15  -0.3  -0.2
 38000 -55.4 -67.7  260  34 18  -1.5  -0.8 | -55.4 -67.7  265  33 17  -1.1  -0.6
 36000 -56.3 -69.3  255  34 18  -1.5  -0.8 | -56.0 -68.8  260  41 21  -1.1  -0.6
 34000 -56.9 -70.4  250  34 18   6.0   3.3 | -56.4 -69.5  255  50 26   5.6   3.1
 32000 -52.9 -63.2  250  33 17   6.8   3.7 | -52.8 -63.0  250  51 26   6.0   3.3
 30000 -48.6 -55.5  250  31 16   9.2   5.0 | -48.9 -56.0  250  51 26   9.0   5.0
 29000 -45.9 -50.6  255  32 17   9.0   4.9 | -46.3 -51.3  255  46 24   8.8   4.8
 28000 -43.2 -45.8  260  34 17   9.0   4.9 | -43.7 -46.7  260  42 22   8.8   4.8
 27000 -40.5 -40.9  265  35 18   8.9   4.9 | -41.0 -41.8  265  38 20   8.8   4.8
 26000 -38.0 -36.4  265  34 18   8.2   4.5 | -38.4 -37.1  265  37 19   8.8   4.9
 25000 -35.6 -32.1  265  33 17   8.2   4.5 | -35.7 -32.3  265  35 18   8.8   4.9
 24000 -33.1 -27.6  265  32 16   8.2   4.5 | -33.0 -27.4  265  33 17   8.9   4.9
 23000 -30.5 -22.9  265  31 16   8.8   4.8 | -30.5 -22.9  265  32 17   8.6   4.7
 22000 -27.9 -18.2  265  30 15   8.8   4.8 | -27.9 -18.2  265  31 16   8.6   4.7
 21000 -25.2 -13.4  270  28 15   8.7   4.8 | -25.3 -13.5  265  30 15   8.4   4.6
 20000 -22.6  -8.7  270  28 14   8.6   4.7 | -22.9  -9.2  270  28 14   8.1   4.4
 19500 -21.4  -6.5  270  27 14   8.6   4.7 | -21.7  -7.1  270  27 14   8.1   4.4
 19000 -20.1  -4.2  275  27 14   8.6   4.7 | -20.5  -4.9  275  26 14   8.1   4.5
 18500 -18.8  -1.8  275  26 14   8.4   4.6 | -19.3  -2.7  275  26 13   8.2   4.5
 18000 -17.6   0.3  275  26 13   8.0   4.4 | -18.0  -0.4  275  24 12   8.3   4.6
 17500 -16.4   2.5  280  25 13   8.1   4.4 | -16.8   1.8  275  23 12   8.4   4.6
 17000 -15.2   4.6  280  24 12   6.8   3.7 | -15.6   3.9  270  21 11   7.4   4.0
 16500 -14.2   6.4  285  23 12   6.8   3.7 | -13.9   7.0  275  18  9   7.5   4.1
 16000 -12.7   9.1  290  21 11   6.8   3.7 | -12.9   8.8  280  17  9   6.0   3.3
 15500 -11.7  10.9  295  21 11   6.8   3.8 | -12.0  10.4  295  18  9   6.1   3.3
 15000 -10.7  12.7  295  20 10   6.7   3.7 | -11.1  12.0  305  19 10   6.8   3.7
 14500  -9.7  14.5  300  20 10   6.7   3.7 | -10.1  13.8  310  19 10   6.8   3.8
 14000  -8.8  16.2  300  19 10   6.4   3.5 |  -9.0  15.8  315  20 10   7.1   3.9
 13500  -7.9  17.8  300  19 10   6.1   3.3 |  -8.0  17.6  320  20 10   7.2   3.9
 13000  -7.0  19.4  305  18  9   5.8   3.2 |  -6.9  19.6  320  20 10   7.0   3.9
 12500  -6.2  20.8  305  18  9   5.5   3.0 |  -5.9  21.4  320  19 10   6.9   3.8
 12000  -5.4  22.3  305  17  9   5.4   3.0 |  -4.9  23.2  320  18  9   6.7   3.7
 11750  -5.0  23.0  305  17  9   5.8   3.2 |  -4.4  24.1  315  17  9   7.0   3.8
 11500  -4.6  23.7  305  16  8   5.6   3.1 |  -3.9  25.0  310  16  8   6.8   3.7
 11250  -4.2  24.4  300  15  8   6.2   3.4 |  -3.4  25.9  305  15  8   7.8   4.3
 11000  -3.7  25.3  300  15  7   8.0   4.4 |  -2.9  26.8  295  14  7   8.6   4.7
 10750  -3.1  26.4  300  13  7   8.4   4.6 |  -2.3  27.9  295  13  7   8.3   4.6
 10500  -2.5  27.5  300  11  6   7.9   4.4 |  -1.7  28.9  290  12  6   8.4   4.6
 10250  -1.9  28.6  295   9  5   8.1   4.4 |  -1.0  30.2  290  11  6   8.3   4.5
 10000  -1.3  29.7  295   8  4   7.5   4.1 |  -0.5  31.1  285  10  5   6.6   3.6
  9750  -0.7  30.7  295   7  4   8.9   4.9 |  -0.0  32.0  280   9  5   7.0   3.9
  9500   0.0  32.0  295   6  3  10.4   5.7 |   0.6  33.1  280   8  4   8.5   4.7
  9250   0.8  33.4  295   5  3  10.0   5.5 |   1.2  34.2  275   7  4   7.8   4.3
  9000   1.5  34.7  295   5  2   9.3   5.1 |   1.7  35.1  265   6  3   6.5   3.6
  8750   2.2  36.0  295   4  2   9.5   5.2 |   2.2  36.0  255   5  3   6.6   3.6
  8500   2.9  37.2  295   4  2  10.3   5.7 |   2.8  37.0  240   4  2   7.6   4.2
  8250   3.7  38.7  295   4  2  10.1   5.5 |   3.3  37.9  215   3  2   6.8   3.7
  8000   4.5  40.1  300   4  2  10.4   5.7 |   3.8  38.8  200   4  2   5.7   3.1
  7750   5.2  41.4  295   3  2   9.4   5.1 |   4.2  39.6  190   4  2   6.7   3.7
  7500   5.8  42.4  300   3  2   8.1   4.4 |   4.8  40.6  175   4  2   7.3   4.0
  7250   6.4  43.5  305   3  1   7.6   4.2 |   5.0  41.0  165   4  2  -3.0  -1.7
  7000   7.0  44.6  305   2  1   6.6   3.6 |   4.2  39.6  160   4  2 -17.5  -9.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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