Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
445
UXUS97 KPUB 291227
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0627 MDT Saturday, April 29, 2017

This forecast is for Saturday, April 29, 2017:

If the trigger temperature of 25.2 F/-3.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 12769 ft MSL (5149 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 33.0 F/1.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 0645 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 12043 ft MSL (4423 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 04/30....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:03:03 / 19:50:06 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 47 min 3 sec (827 min 3 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:56:34 MDT... 65.70 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 04/29/2017 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 10786 ft MSL (3166 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 12797 ft MSL (5177 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +13.9
K index......................... -1.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -54.9 -66.8   225    9    5   2.1   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -51.6 -60.9   200    8    4   2.1   1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -51.5 -60.7   210   23   12  -0.0  -0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -51.9 -61.4   205   29   15  -2.2  -1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -53.2 -63.8   185   37   19  -2.2  -1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -54.5 -66.1   170   49   25   5.0   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -49.2 -56.6   170   45   23   9.0   4.9      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -43.8 -46.8   170   42   21   8.8   4.8   26.3  79.4    19.7      M    M
 29000  -41.3 -42.3   170   40   20   8.4   4.6   25.6  78.1    19.4      M    M
 28000  -38.8 -37.8   170   38   20   8.4   4.6   25.1  77.1    19.2      M    M
 27000  -36.3 -33.3   165   36   19   8.4   4.6   24.7  76.4    19.1      M    M
 26000  -34.3 -29.7   170   34   17   5.0   2.8   23.4  74.2    18.4      M    M
 25000  -32.9 -27.2   175   31   16   5.0   2.7   21.6  70.9    17.1      M    M
 24000  -31.4 -24.5   185   29   15   4.9   2.7   19.9  67.9    15.9      M    M
 23000  -30.0 -22.0   190   26   13   4.3   2.4   18.1  64.7    14.6      M    M
 22000  -28.7 -19.7   200   23   12   4.3   2.4   16.1  61.1    13.1      M    M
 21000  -27.1 -16.8   215   20   10   4.5   2.5   13.9  56.9    11.3      M    M
 20000  -25.4 -13.7   210   13    7   5.9   3.2   12.4  54.3    10.2      M    M
 19500  -24.5 -12.1   205   10    5   5.9   3.2   11.7  53.1     9.6      M    M
 19000  -23.7 -10.7   190    7    4   5.9   3.2   11.1  51.9     9.1      M    M
 18500  -22.8  -9.0   165    5    2   5.9   3.2   10.5  50.9     8.6      M    M
 18000  -21.9  -7.4   135    4    2   6.3   3.5    9.9  49.8     8.1      M    M
 17500  -20.9  -5.6   115    3    2   6.3   3.4    9.3  48.7     7.6      M    M
 17000  -20.0  -4.0   090    3    2   7.3   4.0    8.8  47.8     7.2      M    M
 16500  -18.9  -2.0   095    4    2   7.7   4.2    8.4  47.1     6.9      M    M
 16000  -17.7   0.1   095    5    3   7.6   4.2    8.1  46.5     6.6      M    M
 15500  -16.6   2.1   090    6    3   7.3   4.0    7.7  45.8     6.3      M    M
 15000  -15.6   3.9   085    7    4   7.3   4.0    7.3  45.1     5.9      M    M
 14500  -14.8   5.4   075    8    4   3.9   2.1    6.6  43.8     5.3      M    M
 14000  -14.2   6.4   070   10    5   5.0   2.8    5.7  42.2     4.4      M    M
 13500  -14.1   6.6   055   11    6  -4.6  -2.5    4.2  39.5     3.1      M    M
 13000  -14.7   5.5   045   13    7  -3.7  -2.0    2.0  35.5     1.0      M    M
 12500  -15.4   4.3   035   14    7  -5.1  -2.8   -0.4  31.3    -1.1    368  1.9
 12000  -15.8   3.6   025   15    8  -3.4  -1.9   -2.4  27.7    -3.0    365  1.9
 11750  -16.0   3.2   020   16    8   1.6   0.9   -3.3  26.0    -3.9    363  1.8
 11500  -15.6   3.9   020   16    8   8.0   4.4   -3.6  25.5    -4.2    343  1.7
 11250  -15.0   5.0   020   15    8   7.4   4.1   -3.8  25.2    -4.4    318  1.6
 11000  -14.5   5.9   020   15    8   7.1   3.9   -4.0  24.8    -4.6    295  1.5
 10750  -13.9   7.0   020   15    8   7.6   4.1   -4.2  24.5    -4.8    272  1.4
 10500  -13.4   7.9   025   15    8   7.8   4.3   -4.3  24.2    -5.0    247  1.3
 10250  -12.8   9.0   025   16    8   8.1   4.4   -4.5  24.0    -5.2    223  1.1
 10000  -12.2  10.0   025   16    8   8.7   4.8   -4.6  23.8    -5.3    197  1.0
  9750  -11.5  11.3   025   16    8   8.6   4.7   -4.6  23.6    -5.4    170  0.9
  9500  -10.9  12.4   020   16    8   8.3   4.5   -4.8  23.4    -5.5    145  0.7
  9250  -10.3  13.5   020   16    8   8.7   4.8   -4.9  23.3    -5.7    119  0.6
  9000   -9.7  14.5   020   16    8   8.9   4.9   -4.9  23.1    -5.8     92  0.5
  8750   -9.0  15.8   015   16    8   8.3   4.6   -5.0  23.0    -5.9     66  0.3
  8500   -8.5  16.7   015   15    8   7.9   4.3   -5.1  22.8    -6.0     41  0.2
  8250   -7.9  17.8   010   15    7   8.5   4.7   -5.3  22.5    -6.2     16  0.1
  8000   -7.2  19.0   010   14    7   9.7   5.3   -5.3  22.5    -6.3      M    M
  7750   -6.5  20.3   010   11    6  10.0   5.5   -5.3  22.5    -6.3      M    M
  7500      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  7250      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           04/29/2017 at 0900 MDT          |       04/29/2017 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
CAPE...   +35.1    LI...       +5.3        | CAPE...   +52.4    LI...       +4.6
CINH...     0.0    K Index...  +5.8        | CINH...     0.0    K Index...  +7.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -54.5 -66.1  225   9  5   1.3   0.7 | -53.7 -64.7  225   7  4   1.6   0.9
 45000 -52.5 -62.5  190  13  7   1.3   0.7 | -51.3 -60.3  205  13  7   1.6   0.9
 40000 -51.2 -60.2  190  20 10   0.9   0.5 | -50.0 -58.0  180  17  9   0.8   0.4
 38000 -50.9 -59.6  185  24 12  -0.1  -0.1 | -49.9 -57.8  175  21 11  -0.7  -0.4
 36000 -51.0 -59.8  175  32 16  -0.1  -0.1 | -50.3 -58.5  170  25 13  -0.7  -0.4
 34000 -51.0 -59.8  165  40 21   1.4   0.8 | -50.7 -59.3  170  30 16   0.3   0.2
 32000 -49.1 -56.4  170  39 20   3.2   1.8 | -49.6 -57.3  170  31 16   1.8   1.0
 30000 -47.2 -53.0  175  39 20   6.1   3.3 | -48.5 -55.3  170  31 16   5.4   3.0
 29000 -44.7 -48.5  175  38 20   8.4   4.6 | -45.9 -50.6  170  27 14   8.7   4.8
 28000 -42.1 -43.8  175  38 19   8.5   4.6 | -43.3 -45.9  165  24 12   8.7   4.8
 27000 -39.6 -39.3  180  37 19   8.5   4.6 | -40.7 -41.3  165  20 10   8.7   4.8
 26000 -37.4 -35.3  175  34 17   6.8   3.7 | -38.1 -36.6  160  17  9   8.8   4.8
 25000 -35.3 -31.5  175  28 15   6.7   3.7 | -35.5 -31.9  145  15  8   8.8   4.8
 24000 -33.3 -27.9  170  23 12   6.7   3.7 | -32.9 -27.2  130  14  7   8.7   4.8
 23000 -31.4 -24.5  170  18  9   6.4   3.5 | -30.6 -23.1  125  13  7   6.2   3.4
 22000 -29.4 -20.9  175  14  7   6.4   3.5 | -28.3 -18.9  125  11  6   6.2   3.4
 21000 -27.0 -16.6  195  11  5   6.6   3.6 | -26.5 -15.7  125   9  5   6.6   3.6
 20000 -24.9 -12.8  175   7  4   7.2   4.0 | -24.3 -11.7  110  10  5   7.5   4.1
 19500 -23.9 -11.0  155   6  3   7.2   4.0 | -23.2  -9.8  105  10  5   7.5   4.1
 19000 -22.8  -9.0  130   6  3   7.2   4.0 | -22.0  -7.6  100  11  6   7.5   4.1
 18500 -21.7  -7.1  110   7  4   7.1   3.9 | -20.9  -5.6  095  12  6   7.3   4.0
 18000 -20.9  -5.6  095   7  4   4.8   2.6 | -20.0  -4.0  095  13  7   5.1   2.8
 17500 -20.1  -4.2  080   8  4   4.9   2.7 | -19.3  -2.7  095  15  8   5.1   2.8
 17000 -19.3  -2.7  070   8  4   6.2   3.4 | -18.4  -1.1  095  16  8   7.3   4.0
 16500 -18.4  -1.1  075   9  5   6.4   3.5 | -17.3   0.9  095  16  8   7.4   4.1
 16000 -17.4   0.7  080  10  5   6.3   3.5 | -16.2   2.8  100  15  8   6.2   3.4
 15500 -16.5   2.3  075  11  6   6.0   3.3 | -15.4   4.3  090  14  7   4.8   2.6
 15000 -15.7   3.7  070  11  6   5.4   2.9 | -14.7   5.5  085  14  7   4.1   2.2
 14500 -15.5   4.1  065  12  6  -1.4  -0.8 | -14.5   5.9  075  13  7   0.5   0.3
 14000 -15.6   3.9  060  14  7  -1.3  -0.7 | -14.4   6.1  065  13  7   0.6   0.3
 13500 -15.3   4.5  055  14  7   5.2   2.9 | -13.9   7.0  060  13  7   5.5   3.0
 13000 -14.6   5.7  055  15  8   4.1   2.3 | -13.2   8.2  055  14  7   5.8   3.2
 12500 -13.7   7.3  050  15  8   5.2   2.8 | -12.9   8.8  050  15  8  -2.2  -1.2
 12000 -13.5   7.7  045  15  8   1.5   0.8 | -13.0   8.6  035  15  8  -0.9  -0.5
 11750 -13.4   7.9  045  15  8  -0.5  -0.3 | -13.1   8.4  030  15  8  -0.5  -0.3
 11500 -13.5   7.7  035  16  8  -2.7  -1.5 | -13.1   8.4  025  16  8  -0.4  -0.2
 11250 -13.7   7.3  030  16  8   0.2   0.1 | -13.1   8.4  020  16  8   0.4   0.2
 11000 -13.5   7.7  020  16  8   1.8   1.0 | -13.1   8.4  015  17  9   1.1   0.6
 10750 -13.4   7.9  015  17  9   3.3   1.8 | -12.9   8.8  015  17  9   3.9   2.2
 10500 -13.1   8.4  015  17  9   4.6   2.5 | -12.5   9.5  015  18  9   5.6   3.1
 10250 -12.7   9.1  015  17  9   5.3   2.9 | -12.1  10.2  010  18  9   6.6   3.6
 10000 -12.2  10.0  010  17  9   7.7   4.2 | -11.5  11.3  010  18  9   9.1   5.0
  9750 -11.6  11.1  010  17  9   8.3   4.6 | -10.8  12.6  010  19 10   9.0   5.0
  9500 -11.0  12.2  010  17  9   8.1   4.5 | -10.2  13.6  005  18  9   8.6   4.7
  9250 -10.4  13.3  010  17  9   8.7   4.8 |  -9.6  14.7  005  18  9   9.2   5.0
  9000  -9.8  14.4  010  17  9   9.6   5.3 |  -8.8  16.2  360  18  9  10.0   5.5
  8750  -9.1  15.6  010  16  8   9.5   5.2 |  -8.1  17.4  360  18  9   9.9   5.4
  8500  -8.4  16.9  010  16  8   9.1   5.0 |  -7.4  18.7  360  17  9   9.9   5.4
  8250  -7.7  18.1  005  15  8   9.8   5.4 |  -6.7  19.9  360  16  8   9.5   5.2
  8000  -6.9  19.6  005  15  8  13.3   7.3 |  -5.9  21.4  360  16  8  14.7   8.1
  7750  -5.8  21.6  005  12  6  17.2   9.4 |  -4.4  24.1  360  13  7  24.5  13.5
  7500     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  7250     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           04/29/2017 at 1500 MDT          |       04/29/2017 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
CAPE...   +57.6    LI...       +5.5        | CAPE...   +18.9    LI...       +4.8
CINH...     0.0    K Index...  +5.1        | CINH...     0.0    K Index...  +9.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -53.8 -64.8  225   6  3   1.8   1.0 | -54.3 -65.7  235   6  3   2.1   1.1
 45000 -51.1 -60.0  210   9  5   1.8   1.0 | -51.3 -60.3  240   6  3   2.0   1.1
 40000 -49.4 -56.9  180  13  7   1.1   0.6 | -49.1 -56.4  190   7  4   1.3   0.7
 38000 -49.4 -56.9  170  15  8  -1.9  -1.0 | -49.1 -56.4  175   8  4  -2.1  -1.2
 36000 -50.5 -58.9  170  15  8  -1.8  -1.0 | -50.4 -58.7  160   7  4  -2.1  -1.2
 34000 -51.6 -60.9  170  16  8  -0.4  -0.2 | -51.7 -61.1  140   7  4  -0.4  -0.2
 32000 -50.5 -58.9  160  12  6   1.9   1.0 | -50.6 -59.1  100   4  2   1.9   1.0
 30000 -49.3 -56.7  150   8  4   6.6   3.6 | -49.3 -56.7  045   6  3   6.2   3.4
 29000 -46.3 -51.3  145   9  5   9.7   5.3 | -46.6 -51.9  070   5  3   9.1   5.0
 28000 -43.4 -46.1  140   9  5   9.8   5.4 | -43.9 -47.0  090   6  3   9.1   5.0
 27000 -40.5 -40.9  135  10  5   9.8   5.4 | -41.1 -42.0  105   7  4   9.1   5.0
 26000 -37.6 -35.7  130  12  6   9.6   5.3 | -38.3 -36.9  115   9  5   9.7   5.3
 25000 -34.7 -30.5  120  13  7   9.6   5.3 | -35.4 -31.7  115  12  6   9.8   5.3
 24000 -31.8 -25.2  115  15  8   9.5   5.2 | -32.5 -26.5  120  14  7   9.7   5.3
 23000 -29.5 -21.1  110  16  8   6.2   3.4 | -29.4 -20.9  120  15  8   7.5   4.1
 22000 -27.7 -17.9  105  16  8   6.1   3.3 | -27.1 -16.8  115  16  8   7.5   4.1
 21000 -25.4 -13.7  095  16  8   6.5   3.5 | -24.9 -12.8  115  16  8   6.9   3.8
 20000 -23.3  -9.9  090  15  8   7.2   4.0 | -23.1  -9.6  105  14  7   5.9   3.2
 19500 -22.2  -8.0  090  15  8   7.3   4.0 | -22.2  -8.0  095  14  7   5.9   3.2
 19000 -21.1  -6.0  090  15  8   7.3   4.0 | -21.4  -6.5  090  13  7   5.9   3.2
 18500 -20.1  -4.2  090  15  8   7.2   3.9 | -20.5  -4.9  080  13  7   5.8   3.2
 18000 -19.1  -2.4  090  14  7   6.6   3.6 | -19.7  -3.5  070  13  7   5.1   2.8
 17500 -18.1  -0.6  090  13  7   6.7   3.7 | -19.0  -2.2  060  12  6   5.0   2.7
 17000 -17.2   1.0  090  13  7   4.6   2.5 | -18.1  -0.6  050  12  6   6.4   3.5
 16500 -16.6   2.1  080  14  7   4.2   2.3 | -17.2   1.0  045  13  6   6.4   3.5
 16000 -15.9   3.4  070  15  8   2.5   1.4 | -16.2   2.8  040  13  7   4.2   2.3
 15500 -15.9   3.4  060  15  8   0.6   0.3 | -15.9   3.4  030  14  7   2.1   1.2
 15000 -15.8   3.6  050  14  7   1.1   0.6 | -15.6   3.9  025  16  8   2.4   1.3
 14500 -15.3   4.5  040  15  8   4.2   2.3 | -15.1   4.8  020  17  9   4.0   2.2
 14000 -14.7   5.5  035  15  8   4.0   2.2 | -14.5   5.9  015  18  9   4.0   2.2
 13500 -14.3   6.3  030  16  8   2.0   1.1 | -13.8   7.2  015  18  9   6.1   3.3
 13000 -14.0   6.8  025  16  8   2.4   1.3 | -12.9   8.8  015  18  9   5.9   3.2
 12500 -13.9   7.0  025  16  8  -0.7  -0.4 | -12.2  10.0  015  18  9   2.4   1.3
 12000 -13.8   7.2  015  17  9   0.6   0.3 | -12.1  10.2  015  17  9   0.6   0.3
 11750 -13.7   7.3  010  17  9   2.2   1.2 | -12.1  10.2  015  17  9  -1.4  -0.7
 11500 -13.5   7.7  005  17  9   3.3   1.8 | -12.3   9.9  015  18  9  -3.2  -1.8
 11250 -13.2   8.2  005  18  9   4.9   2.7 | -12.4   9.7  010  18  9  -0.9  -0.5
 11000 -12.8   9.0  005  18  9   6.5   3.6 | -12.4   9.7  005  18  9   0.8   0.5
 10750 -12.3   9.9  005  19 10   6.4   3.5 | -12.3   9.9  005  18 10   2.0   1.1
 10500 -11.8  10.8  360  19 10   6.1   3.4 | -12.1  10.2  360  19 10   2.6   1.4
 10250 -11.4  11.5  360  19 10   8.2   4.5 | -11.9  10.6  360  19 10   3.6   2.0
 10000 -10.6  12.9  360  20 10  10.5   5.7 | -11.5  11.3  360  19 10   6.5   3.6
  9750  -9.9  14.2  360  20 10   9.1   5.0 | -11.0  12.2  355  19 10   7.6   4.2
  9500  -9.3  15.3  360  19 10   8.1   4.4 | -10.5  13.1  355  19 10   7.0   3.9
  9250  -8.7  16.3  360  19 10   9.9   5.4 |  -9.9  14.2  355  18  9   9.0   4.9
  9000  -7.9  17.8  360  19 10  10.1   5.5 |  -9.2  15.4  355  18  9   9.8   5.4
  8750  -7.2  19.0  360  18  9   8.6   4.7 |  -8.5  16.7  355  17  9   8.5   4.7
  8500  -6.6  20.1  360  17  9   9.0   4.9 |  -7.9  17.8  355  17  9   8.9   4.9
  8250  -5.9  21.4  360  16  8   8.9   4.9 |  -7.3  18.9  355  16  8   8.6   4.7
  8000  -5.2  22.6  360  16  8  11.5   6.3 |  -6.6  20.1  350  15  8   9.8   5.4
  7750  -4.2  24.4  360  13  6  15.6   8.5 |  -5.8  21.6  350  12  6  12.3   6.7
  7500     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  7250     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC).  It is not continuously monitored nor updated after its initial
issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.