Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Grand Junction, CO

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251
UXUS97 KGJT 021243
SRGGJT

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Grand Junction, Colorado
0543 MST Friday, December 2, 2016

This forecast is for Friday, December 2, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 38.8 F/3.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 7553 ft MSL (2714 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 37.0 F/3.2 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 4976 ft MSL (137 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 12/03..... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:15:50 / 16:51:49 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 35 min 58 sec (575 min 58 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:03:56 MST... 28.85 degrees

Upper air data from rawinsonde observation taken on 12/02/2016 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 9889 ft MSL (5050 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 9425 ft MSL (4585 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +10.5
K index......................... -1.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -59.4 -74.9   255   30   16   4.9   2.7  103.6 218.5    57.2      M    M
 45000  -54.5 -66.1   260   29   15  -5.4  -3.0   87.0 188.6    51.1      M    M
 40000  -47.8 -54.0   230   44   23   0.8   0.4   74.3 165.8    46.4      M    M
 38000  -45.5 -49.9   220   55   28  -6.1  -3.3   69.0 156.2    44.1      M    M
 36000  -47.5 -53.5   230   35   18   1.6   0.9   57.4 135.2    37.3      M    M
 34000  -47.5 -53.5   240   39   20   3.5   1.9   47.8 118.0    31.7      M    M
 32000  -48.3 -54.9   255   37   19  -0.8  -0.5   38.5 101.2    25.7      M    M
 30000  -46.9 -52.4   235   37   19  -0.4  -0.2   32.4  90.3    21.9      M    M
 29000  -46.0 -50.8   245   33   17   1.3   0.7   29.6  85.3    20.1      M    M
 28000  -46.4 -51.5   240   33   17  10.5   5.7   25.2  77.3    17.0      M    M
 27000  -44.0 -47.2   230   34   18   7.0   3.9   24.6  76.2    16.8      M    M
 26000  -41.7 -43.1   225   35   18   7.9   4.3   23.7  74.7    16.3      M    M
 25000  -39.5 -39.1   220   37   19   6.2   3.4   22.8  73.1    15.8      M    M
 24000  -37.1 -34.8   225   36   18   9.2   5.0   22.2  71.9    15.5      M    M
 23000  -34.4 -29.9   225   35   18   8.7   4.8   22.0  71.5    15.5      M    M
 22000  -32.6 -26.7   220   37   19   9.2   5.1   20.5  68.9    14.5      M    M
 21000  -30.0 -22.0   225   32   17   9.4   5.1   20.2  68.4    14.4      M    M
 20000  -27.4 -17.3   235   27   14   8.2   4.5   19.9  67.8    14.3      M    M
 19500  -26.2 -15.2   235   25   13   8.2   4.5   19.6  67.2    14.1      M    M
 19000  -24.9 -12.8   240   23   12   8.2   4.5   19.3  66.7    13.9      M    M
 18500  -23.1  -9.6   245   19   10   8.2   4.5   18.9  66.0    13.7      M    M
 18000  -21.9  -7.4   250   17    9   8.1   4.4   18.6  65.5    13.6      M    M
 17500  -20.6  -5.1   245   15    8   5.4   3.0   18.3  64.9    13.4      M    M
 17000  -20.2  -4.4   240   14    7   1.5   0.8   17.0  62.7    12.4      M    M
 16500  -20.0  -4.0   215   14    7   1.4   0.8   15.6  60.1    11.2      M    M
 16000  -19.8  -3.6   195   17    9   1.2   0.6   14.2  57.5    10.1      M    M
 15500  -19.1  -2.4   195   19   10   7.7   4.2   13.3  56.0     9.4      M    M
 15000  -18.1  -0.6   195   20   10   4.6   2.5   12.8  55.1     9.0      M    M
 14500  -20.5  -4.9   195   13    6 -20.3 -11.1    8.6  47.5     5.1      M    M
 14000  -20.2  -4.4   200    6    3  10.8   5.9    7.4  45.3     4.0      M    M
 13500  -18.8  -1.8   210    5    2   9.8   5.4    7.3  45.2     3.9      M    M
 13000  -17.3   0.9   220    4    2   9.7   5.3    7.3  45.2     4.0      M    M
 12500  -15.9   3.4   240    3    2   8.6   4.7    7.3  45.2     4.0      M    M
 12000  -14.7   5.5   265    3    2   7.7   4.2    7.0  44.6     3.7      M    M
 11500  -13.6   7.5   295    1    1   7.7   4.2    6.6  43.9     3.3      M    M
 11000  -12.5   9.5   010    1    1   8.2   4.5    6.3  43.3     3.0      M    M
 10500  -11.7  10.9   040    3    1   0.7   0.4    5.6  42.1     2.4      M    M
 10250  -11.7  10.9   045    4    2   1.3   0.7    4.8  40.7     1.6      M    M
 10000  -11.4  11.5   050    5    2   7.2   3.9    4.4  39.9     1.2      M    M
  9750  -10.7  12.7   045    5    3   9.8   5.4    4.3  39.8     1.1      M    M
  9500  -10.0  14.0   040    6    3   9.1   5.0    4.3  39.7     1.1      M    M
  9250   -9.3  15.3   035    6    3   9.4   5.2    4.3  39.7     1.1      M    M
  9000   -8.6  16.5   030    7    4   8.9   4.9    4.2  39.6     1.0      M    M
  8750   -8.0  17.6   035    7    4   7.6   4.2    4.1  39.4     0.9      M    M
  8500   -7.5  18.5   040    7    4   7.2   3.9    3.9  39.1     0.7      M    M
  8250   -7.0  19.4   040    8    4   7.3   4.0    3.7  38.7     0.6      M    M
  8000   -6.4  20.5   045    8    4   7.2   4.0    3.6  38.4     0.4      M    M
  7750   -5.9  21.4   045    8    4   7.3   4.0    3.4  38.1     0.2      M    M
  7500   -5.3  22.5   050    8    4   7.3   4.0    3.2  37.7    -0.0    141  0.7
  7250   -4.8  23.4   050    9    4   7.3   4.0    3.0  37.4    -0.2    118  0.6
  7000   -4.3  24.3   055    9    5   7.3   4.0    2.8  37.1    -0.4     94  0.5
  6750   -3.7  25.3   050    8    4   7.3   4.0    2.6  36.7    -0.6     71  0.4
  6500   -3.2  26.2   050    7    4   7.3   4.0    2.4  36.3    -0.8     47  0.2
  6250   -2.7  27.1   040    6    3   7.3   4.0    2.2  36.0    -1.0     24  0.1
  6000   -2.1  28.2   035    5    3   7.3   4.0    2.0  35.7    -1.2      0  0.0
  5750   -1.6  29.1   030    4    2   7.0   3.9    1.8  35.3    -1.4      M    M
  5500   -1.1  30.0   030    3    2   8.1   4.5    1.6  35.0    -1.6      M    M
  5250   -0.5  31.1   030    2    1   4.1   2.2    1.5  34.6    -1.8      M    M
  5000   -0.6  30.9   030    1    0  -5.7  -3.1    0.6  33.1    -2.6      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           12/02/2016 at 0800 MST          |       12/02/2016 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +8.9  LI... +6.3                | K index... +9.7  LI... +5.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.7                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.0 -72.4  260  22 11   2.7   1.5 | -58.3 -72.9  250  20 10   3.2   1.7
 45000 -53.8 -64.8  245  25 13   2.6   1.4 | -53.5 -64.3  240  26 13   3.2   1.7
 40000 -48.2 -54.8  240  40 20   3.8   2.1 | -48.7 -55.7  245  32 17   3.2   1.7
 38000 -46.7 -52.1  235  43 22  -0.9  -0.5 | -47.3 -53.1  245  34 17   0.3   0.1
 36000 -47.3 -53.1  235  37 19  -1.0  -0.6 | -47.2 -53.0  240  32 16   0.2   0.1
 34000 -47.9 -54.2  230  31 16  -1.0  -0.6 | -47.1 -52.8  235  30 15   0.2   0.1
 32000 -47.7 -53.9  230  28 14   0.6   0.4 | -47.1 -52.8  230  25 13  -0.0  -0.0
 30000 -47.3 -53.1  235  25 13   0.9   0.5 | -47.1 -52.8  220  20 10   0.4   0.2
 29000 -46.3 -51.3  230  24 12   3.8   2.1 | -46.1 -51.0  220  20 10   3.9   2.1
 28000 -45.2 -49.4  230  23 12   3.8   2.1 | -44.9 -48.8  220  20 10   3.9   2.1
 27000 -44.1 -47.4  225  23 12   3.9   2.1 | -43.8 -46.8  220  20 10   4.0   2.2
 26000 -42.4 -44.3  225  23 12   8.5   4.6 | -42.2 -44.0  220  20 10   7.5   4.1
 25000 -39.9 -39.8  220  23 12   8.3   4.6 | -39.9 -39.8  220  20 10   7.4   4.1
 24000 -37.4 -35.3  220  24 12   8.3   4.6 | -37.7 -35.9  220  20 10   7.4   4.1
 23000 -34.9 -30.8  215  23 12   8.2   4.5 | -35.4 -31.7  220  21 11   8.0   4.4
 22000 -32.5 -26.5  215  21 11   8.2   4.5 | -33.0 -27.4  220  22 11   8.0   4.4
 21000 -30.0 -22.0  210  19 10   8.3   4.6 | -30.6 -23.1  225  23 12   8.1   4.4
 20000 -27.8 -18.0  210  18  9   6.7   3.7 | -28.4 -19.1  225  23 12   6.9   3.8
 19500 -26.8 -16.2  210  18  9   6.7   3.7 | -27.4 -17.3  225  23 12   6.9   3.8
 19000 -25.8 -14.4  210  18  9   6.7   3.7 | -26.4 -15.5  220  23 12   6.9   3.8
 18500 -24.8 -12.6  215  18  9   6.7   3.7 | -25.4 -13.7  220  22 11   7.0   3.8
 18000 -23.8 -10.8  215  17  9   7.0   3.8 | -24.4 -11.9  220  22 11   5.9   3.3
 17500 -22.7  -8.9  215  17  9   7.1   3.9 | -23.5 -10.3  220  20 11   5.7   3.1
 17000 -21.6  -6.9  215  16  8   6.3   3.5 | -22.7  -8.9  220  19 10   5.4   3.0
 16500 -21.1  -6.0  215  15  8   2.4   1.3 | -21.9  -7.4  220  18  9   4.8   2.6
 16000 -20.7  -5.3  215  14  7   2.5   1.4 | -21.2  -6.2  220  17  9   4.8   2.6
 15500 -20.3  -4.5  215  13  7   3.6   2.0 | -20.1  -4.2  215  15  8   5.3   2.9
 15000 -19.5  -3.1  210  11  6   4.0   2.2 | -19.3  -2.7  215  14  7   5.8   3.2
 14500 -18.8  -1.8  200  10  5   5.4   3.0 | -18.3  -0.9  210  13  6   6.8   3.7
 14000 -18.0  -0.4  195   8  4   5.4   3.0 | -17.3   0.9  200  11  6   6.8   3.7
 13500 -17.1   1.2  180   8  4   6.7   3.7 | -16.3   2.7  195  10  5   6.8   3.7
 13000 -16.1   3.0  165   7  4   6.6   3.6 | -15.3   4.5  185   9  5   6.7   3.7
 12500 -15.2   4.6  145   7  3   6.3   3.5 | -14.4   6.1  170   7  4   6.1   3.4
 12000 -14.2   6.4  130   7  3   6.4   3.5 | -13.5   7.7  150   6  3   6.2   3.4
 11500 -13.3   8.1  115   7  3   6.8   3.7 | -12.5   9.5  135   5  3   6.4   3.5
 11000 -12.3   9.9  100   7  3   6.8   3.7 | -11.6  11.1  110   5  2   6.5   3.5
 10500 -11.3  11.7  090   8  4   6.5   3.6 | -10.6  12.9  090   5  3   6.5   3.6
 10250 -10.8  12.6  085   8  4   7.2   3.9 | -10.1  13.8  085   5  3   7.2   3.9
 10000 -10.3  13.5  080   9  5   4.7   2.6 |  -9.6  14.7  080   5  3   4.7   2.6
  9750 -10.0  14.0  080   9  5   5.3   2.9 |  -9.3  15.3  075   6  3   5.4   3.0
  9500  -9.4  15.1  075  10  5   8.2   4.5 |  -8.7  16.3  070   7  3   8.6   4.7
  9250  -8.9  16.0  075  10  5   7.6   4.2 |  -8.1  17.4  070   7  4   7.5   4.1
  9000  -8.3  17.1  075  11  5   6.0   3.3 |  -7.6  18.3  065   8  4   5.6   3.1
  8750  -8.0  17.6  070  11  6   4.4   2.4 |  -7.3  18.9  065   8  4   4.7   2.6
  8500  -7.6  18.3  070  11  6   4.9   2.7 |  -6.9  19.6  065   9  5   5.6   3.1
  8250  -7.3  18.9  070  12  6   4.9   2.7 |  -6.5  20.3  060  10  5   4.7   2.6
  8000  -6.9  19.6  065  12  6   5.2   2.8 |  -6.2  20.8  060  10  5   3.7   2.0
  7750  -6.5  20.3  065  12  6   4.5   2.5 |  -5.9  21.4  055  10  5   3.6   2.0
  7500  -6.2  20.8  060  12  6   3.9   2.2 |  -5.7  21.7  050  11  5   3.6   2.0
  7250  -5.9  21.4  055  12  6   4.5   2.5 |  -5.4  22.3  050  10  5   3.4   1.8
  7000  -5.6  21.9  055  12  6   4.6   2.5 |  -5.2  22.6  040   9  5   3.5   1.9
  6750  -5.2  22.6  050  12  6   4.9   2.7 |  -4.9  23.2  035   8  4   3.1   1.7
  6500  -4.9  23.2  050  12  6   3.0   1.6 |  -4.7  23.5  030   7  4   6.7   3.7
  6250  -4.8  23.4  050  11  6   1.0   0.5 |  -4.0  24.8  025   7  3   9.9   5.4
  6000  -4.7  23.5  055   9  5   1.1   0.6 |  -3.3  26.1  025   6  3   8.8   4.8
  5750  -4.7  23.5  055   7  4   0.7   0.4 |  -2.7  27.1  025   5  3   8.7   4.8
  5500  -4.6  23.7  060   5  3   0.8   0.5 |  -2.0  28.4  025   5  3   8.6   4.7
  5250  -4.6  23.7  060   5  2   1.2   0.7 |  -1.4  29.5  020   5  3   8.9   4.9
  5000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           12/02/2016 at 1400 MST          |       12/02/2016 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +11.7  LI... +4.3               | K index... +11.8  LI... +4.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.7                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.1 -72.6  255  18 10   2.7   1.5 | -58.3 -72.9  260  17  9   3.0   1.7
 45000 -54.0 -65.2  245  26 14   2.6   1.4 | -53.8 -64.8  260  20 11   3.1   1.7
 40000 -49.1 -56.4  245  28 14   3.3   1.8 | -49.6 -57.3  260  20 10   2.6   1.4
 38000 -47.5 -53.5  245  28 14   0.9   0.5 | -48.3 -54.9  260  20 10   1.5   0.8
 36000 -47.0 -52.6  245  27 14   0.8   0.4 | -47.4 -53.3  265  19 10   1.5   0.8
 34000 -46.6 -51.9  250  26 13   0.8   0.5 | -46.5 -51.7  270  18  9   1.5   0.8
 32000 -46.4 -51.5  240  24 13   0.1   0.1 | -45.9 -50.6  265  18 10   1.0   0.5
 30000 -46.3 -51.3  230  23 12   0.5   0.3 | -45.3 -49.5  260  20 10   0.8   0.4
 29000 -45.5 -49.9  230  23 12   3.3   1.8 | -44.7 -48.5  255  19 10   2.4   1.3
 28000 -44.5 -48.1  230  22 11   3.3   1.8 | -44.0 -47.2  255  19 10   2.4   1.3
 27000 -43.6 -46.5  230  21 11   3.4   1.8 | -43.3 -45.9  250  19 10   2.4   1.3
 26000 -42.1 -43.8  230  21 11   6.9   3.8 | -41.8 -43.2  240  20 10   6.2   3.4
 25000 -40.1 -40.2  225  20 11   6.8   3.8 | -39.9 -39.8  235  20 11   6.4   3.5
 24000 -38.0 -36.4  220  20 11   6.9   3.8 | -38.0 -36.4  230  22 11   6.5   3.5
 23000 -35.8 -32.4  215  21 11   8.5   4.6 | -35.7 -32.3  230  23 12   8.7   4.8
 22000 -33.3 -27.9  215  23 12   8.4   4.6 | -33.1 -27.6  225  24 12   8.8   4.8
 21000 -30.7 -23.3  215  25 13   8.5   4.7 | -30.5 -22.9  220  25 13   9.0   5.0
 20000 -28.6 -19.5  215  24 12   6.7   3.7 | -28.4 -19.1  215  24 12   6.5   3.6
 19500 -27.6 -17.7  215  23 12   6.7   3.7 | -27.4 -17.3  215  23 12   6.5   3.6
 19000 -26.6 -15.9  220  22 11   6.7   3.7 | -26.5 -15.7  215  22 11   6.5   3.6
 18500 -25.6 -14.1  220  21 11   6.7   3.7 | -25.5 -13.9  210  21 11   6.6   3.6
 18000 -24.5 -12.1  220  20 10   6.8   3.7 | -24.5 -12.1  210  20 10   6.4   3.5
 17500 -23.5 -10.3  220  20 10   6.7   3.7 | -23.6 -10.5  210  20 10   6.4   3.5
 17000 -22.5  -8.5  220  19 10   6.5   3.6 | -22.6  -8.7  210  20 10   7.1   3.9
 16500 -21.6  -6.9  215  19 10   6.1   3.3 | -21.5  -6.7  210  19 10   7.7   4.2
 16000 -20.7  -5.3  215  19 10   6.1   3.3 | -20.3  -4.5  210  19 10   7.6   4.1
 15500 -19.4  -2.9  210  18  9   5.9   3.2 | -19.4  -2.9  210  18  9   5.9   3.3
 15000 -18.6  -1.5  210  17  9   6.3   3.5 | -18.5  -1.3  210  16  8   5.9   3.3
 14500 -17.5   0.5  215  16  8   7.3   4.0 | -17.5   0.5  215  15  8   7.0   3.8
 14000 -16.4   2.5  215  15  8   7.3   4.0 | -16.5   2.3  215  14  7   6.9   3.8
 13500 -15.3   4.5  215  13  7   7.5   4.1 | -15.5   4.1  220  12  6   6.9   3.8
 13000 -14.2   6.4  210  11  6   7.1   3.9 | -14.0   6.8  220  10  5   6.5   3.6
 12500 -13.4   7.9  205   9  5   4.7   2.6 | -13.1   8.4  220   8  4   5.4   2.9
 12000 -12.7   9.1  195   7  4   4.9   2.7 | -12.3   9.9  220   5  3   5.1   2.8
 11500 -11.9  10.6  180   5  3   4.9   2.7 | -11.7  10.9  210   3  2   4.1   2.2
 11000 -11.2  11.8  155   3  2   5.1   2.8 | -11.1  12.0  185   2  1   4.4   2.4
 10500 -10.4  13.3  120   2  1   5.7   3.1 | -10.4  13.3  100   1  0   4.9   2.7
 10250  -9.9  14.2  090   2  1   6.1   3.4 | -10.0  14.0  050   1  1   4.9   2.7
 10000  -9.5  14.9  070   3  1   4.3   2.4 |  -9.6  14.7  035   2  1   4.6   2.5
  9750  -9.2  15.4  065   3  2   5.5   3.0 |  -9.3  15.3  050   3  1   6.3   3.5
  9500  -8.6  16.5  055   4  2   8.3   4.5 |  -8.7  16.3  050   4  2   8.0   4.4
  9250  -8.1  17.4  055   5  3   7.4   4.1 |  -8.1  17.4  055   5  2   6.9   3.8
  9000  -7.5  18.5  050   6  3   6.6   3.6 |  -7.7  18.1  055   5  3   5.3   2.9
  8750  -7.1  19.2  045   7  3   6.1   3.3 |  -7.3  18.9  055   6  3   5.9   3.2
  8500  -6.6  20.1  045   8  4   6.5   3.6 |  -6.8  19.8  050   7  4   6.8   3.7
  8250  -6.1  21.0  040   9  5   5.9   3.2 |  -6.4  20.5  050   8  4   6.8   3.7
  8000  -5.7  21.7  035   9  5   5.2   2.9 |  -5.8  21.6  045  10  5   7.1   3.9
  7750  -5.4  22.3  025   9  5   5.0   2.7 |  -5.4  22.3  040  11  6   6.2   3.4
  7500  -5.1  22.8  020   9  5   5.2   2.8 |  -4.9  23.2  035  13  7   6.0   3.3
  7250  -4.7  23.5  015   8  4   6.8   3.7 |  -4.5  23.9  030  14  7   7.0   3.8
  7000  -4.1  24.6  010   7  4   7.8   4.3 |  -3.9  25.0  030  13  7   7.4   4.1
  6750  -3.6  25.5  005   7  3   7.0   3.8 |  -3.4  25.9  030  13  6   7.1   3.9
  6500  -3.0  26.6  355   6  3   8.7   4.8 |  -2.9  26.8  025  12  6   7.8   4.3
  6250  -2.3  27.9  355   5  3  10.5   5.8 |  -2.3  27.9  025  11  6   8.1   4.5
  6000  -1.5  29.3  355   5  3   9.8   5.4 |  -1.7  28.9  025  10  5   9.1   5.0
  5750  -0.8  30.6  350   5  2   8.6   4.7 |  -1.1  30.0  025   8  4   4.6   2.5
  5500  -0.3  31.5  350   5  2   7.6   4.1 |  -1.1  30.0  025   6  3  -2.1  -1.2
  5250   0.3  32.5  350   5  3   8.4   4.6 |  -1.2  29.8  020   6  3   0.0   0.0
  5000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken at Walker Field in Grand
Junction, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 07 min 00.001 sec
                   West Longitude: 108 deg 31 min 59.998 sec
                   Elevation: 4839 feet (1475 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Western Slope of
Colorado.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather prediction models
differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to data which appear
to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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