Climatological Report (Annual)
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000
CXUS53 KIWX 021636
CLASBN

CLIMATE REPORT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NORTHERN INDIANA
1034 AM EST MON JAN 2 2017

...................................

...THE SOUTH BEND CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR THE YEAR OF 2016...

CLIMATE NORMAL PERIOD 1981 TO 2010
CLIMATE RECORD PERIOD 1893 TO 2017

WEATHER         OBSERVED          NORMAL  DEPART  LAST YEAR`S
                 VALUE   DATE(S)  VALUE   FROM    VALUE
                                          NORMAL
.............................................................
TEMPERATURE (F)
RECORD
 HIGH             109   07/24/1934
 LOW              -22   01/20/1943
                        01/25/1897
HIGHEST            93   08/11        MM      MM       94
                        06/20
                        06/11
LOWEST            -14   12/19        MM      MM      -12
AVG. MAXIMUM     60.5              58.8     1.7     59.6
AVG. MINIMUM     41.8              40.8     1.0     40.6
MEAN             51.2              49.8     1.4
DAYS MAX >= 90     13               9.7     3.3        8
DAYS MAX <= 32     44              44.6    -0.6       51
DAYS MIN <= 32    119             122.7    -3.7      116
DAYS MIN <= 0       6               5.3     0.7       12

PRECIPITATION (INCHES)
RECORD
 MAXIMUM        55.61   1990
 MINIMUM        25.15   1963
TOTALS          46.60             38.00    8.60    36.30
DAILY AVG.       0.13              0.10    0.03     0.10
DAYS >= .01       152             145.4     6.6      138
DAYS >= .10        80              78.3     1.7       69
DAYS >= .50        28              23.4     4.6       26
DAYS >= 1.00       10               7.2     2.8        9

SNOWFALL (INCHES)
RECORDS
 TOTAL          141.7   1978
TOTALS           83.9              66.6    17.3     75.1
SINCE 7/1        24.2              22.5     1.7     10.5
SNOWDEPTH AVG.      1                MM      MM        1
DAYS >= TRACE      68              44.9    23.1       62
DAYS >= 1.0        26              20.4     5.6       19
GREATEST
 SNOW DEPTH         8   12/19                         15
                        02/25

DEGREE_DAYS
HEATING TOTAL    5909              6298    -389     6056
 SINCE 7/1         MM              2391      MM       MM
COOLING TOTAL     950               773     177      784
 SINCE 1/1        950               773     177      784
..............................................................

WIND (MPH)
AVERAGE WIND SPEED              8.8
HIGHEST WIND SPEED/DIRECTION    43/220    DATE  03/31
HIGHEST GUST SPEED/DIRECTION    61/200    DATE  03/31

SKY COVER
POSSIBLE SUNSHINE (PERCENT)   MM
AVERAGE SKY COVER           0.40
NUMBER OF DAYS FAIR          160
NUMBER OF DAYS PC            103
NUMBER OF DAYS CLOUDY         93

AVERAGE RH (PERCENT)     74

WEATHER CONDITIONS. NUMBER OF DAYS WITH
THUNDERSTORM             MM     MIXED PRECIP               0
HEAVY RAIN               41     RAIN                      52
LIGHT RAIN              129     FREEZING RAIN              1
LT FREEZING RAIN          8     HAIL                       0
HEAVY SNOW                8     SNOW                      24
LIGHT SNOW               62     SLEET                      0
FOG                     198     FOG W/VIS <= 1/4 MILE     28
HAZE                     52

-  INDICATES NEGATIVE NUMBERS.
R  INDICATES RECORD WAS SET OR TIED.
MM INDICATES DATA IS MISSING.
T  INDICATES TRACE AMOUNT.

&&

SOUTH BEND 2016 REVIEW

THE AVERAGE ANNUAL TEMPERATURE AT SOUTH BEND INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
WAS 51.1 DEGREES...1.3 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THIS WAS THE 14TH
WARMEST YEAR ON RECORD AND TIED WITH 1913...1946 AND 2007. THE
WARMEST YEAR ON RECORD WAS 53.3 DEGREES SET IN 2012. THE HIGHEST
TEMPERATURE FOR THE YEAR WAS 93 DEGREES AND THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE
WAS 14 DEGREES BELOW ZERO.

THERE WERE 13 DAYS WITH A HIGH TEMPERATURE OF AT LEAST 90 DEGREES.
THIS WAS ABOUT 3 DAYS ABOVE NORMAL. THERE WERE 119 DAYS WITH A LOW
TEMPERATURE OF 32 DEGREES OR COLDER. THIS IS ABOUT 4 DAYS BELOW
NORMAL.  THERE HAVE ONLY BEEN 18 YEARS WITH FEWER ANNUAL DAYS BELOW
FREEZING THAN 2016. THE FEWEST WAS 94 SET IN 1973.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE YEAR WAS 46.60 INCHES...8.60 INCHES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 5TH WETTEST YEAR. THERE WERE 10 DAYS THIS
YEAR WITH 1 OR MORE INCHES OF PRECIPITATION. THIS WAS ABOUT 3 DAYS
ABOVE NORMAL.

SNOWFALL FOR THE CALENDAR YEAR WAS 83.9 INCHES...17.3 INCHES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 19TH SNOWIEST YEAR ON RECORD.

BELOW IS A MONTH BY MONTH REVIEW OF THE WEATHER IN 2016

JANUARY

...A NEAR NORMAL START TO THE YEAR...

OVERALL IT WAS A NEAR NORMAL JANUARY IN TERMS OF
TEMPERATURES...PRECIPITATION AND SNOWFALL. THERE WERE PERIODS OF
COLD WEATHER THANKS TO RELATIVELY BRIEF SHOTS OF ARCTIC AIR. BETWEEN
THESE ARCTIC INTRUSIONS...RELATIVELY MILD WEATHER COURTESY OF THE
ONGOING EL NINO HELPED BOOST TEMPERATURES ABOVE NORMAL.

THE FIRST FEW DAYS OF JANUARY SAW TEMPERATURES NEAR OR SLIGHTLY
ABOVE NORMAL. THE FIRST ARCTIC INTRUSION OF THE NEW YEAR ON THE 4TH
BROUGHT SINGLE DIGIT LOW TEMPERATURES ALONG WITH JUST OVER 5 INCHES
OF NEW SNOW AT SOUTH BEND. THIS COLD AIR DID NOT LAST LONG AND
TEMPERATURES QUICKLY RECOVERED AND ROSE ABOVE NORMAL BY THE 7TH.
THIS UP AND DOWN PATTERN WOULD CONTINUE THROUGH THE MONTH WITH THE
COLD AND WARMTH NEARLY OFFSETTING EACH OTHER FOR A NEAR NORMAL
AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE WAS 24.7 DEGREES...0.3 DEGREES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 57TH WARMEST JANUARY...TIED WITH
1958...1965 AND 2008. THE COLDEST TEMPERATURES OCCURRED ON THE
13TH...A LOW OF 2 BELOW ZERO...AND ON THE 18TH WITH A LOW OF 3 BELOW
ZERO. THE WARMEST DAY OF THE MONTH WAS ACTUALLY THE LAST DAY. THE
HIGH TEMPERATURE ON THE 31ST WAS 52 WHILE THE LOW WAS 36.

PRECIPITATION WAS 1.60 INCHES...0.69 INCHES BELOW NORMAL. THIS
RANKED AS THE 37TH DRIEST JANUARY. MEASURABLE PRECIPITATION FELL ON
18 DAYS. SNOWFALL WAS 18.7 INCHES...1.9 INCHES BELOW NORMAL. THIS
RANKED AS THE 66TH LEAST SNOWIEST JANUARY...TIED WITH 1962.
MEASURABLE SNOW FELL ON 13 DAYS.

FEBRUARY

...ABOVE NORMAL SNOWFALL DESPITE ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES AND NEAR
NORMAL PRECIPITATION...

FEBRUARY WAS A ROLLER COASTER MONTH IN TERMS OF TEMPERATURES AND
PRECIPITATION. THERE WERE PERIODS OF VERY COLD AND SNOWY WEATHER BUT
ALSO TIMES OF VERY WARM TEMPERATURES WITH RAIN. OVERALL THE MONTH
TRENDED TOWARD NEAR NORMAL FOR TEMPERATURES AND PRECIPITATION BUT
SNOWFALL WAS WELL ABOVE NORMAL...THANKS IN LARGE PART TO LAKE EFFECT
SNOW OFF OF LAKE MICHIGAN.

THE MONTH BEGAN MILD WITH HIGHS IN THE MID TO UPPER 40S FOR THE
FIRST THREE DAYS. TEMPERATURES CAME BACK CLOSER TO NORMAL AHEAD OF A
STRONG CLIPPER SYSTEM WHICH BROUGHT LIGHT SNOW TO THE REGION BY THE
8TH. THIS WAS FOLLOWED BY MUCH COLDER AIR AND AVERAGE TEMPERATURES
BETWEEN 10 AND 20 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL FROM THE 10TH THROUGH THE
14TH. BECAUSE LAKE MICHIGAN REMAINS LARGELY FREE OF ICE AND
RELATIVELY WARM FOR FEBRUARY...MODERATE TO HEAVY LAKE EFFECT SNOW
SHOWERS DUMPED BETWEEN ONE AND TWO FEET OF SNOW ON THE REGION DURING
THIS COLD PERIOD. SOUTH BEND OFFICIALLY RECORDED 18.3 INCHES OF
SNOWFALL DURING THIS PERIOD...MORE THAN HALF OF THE MONTHLY TOTAL.

TEMPERATURES FINALLY WARMED BACK CLOSER TO NORMAL BY THE 16TH THEN
WARMED WELL ABOVE NORMAL FROM THE 19TH TO THE 21ST. THESE THREE DAYS
HAD AVERAGE TEMPERATURES 10 TO 20 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL WITH THE
WARMEST TEMPERATURE OF THE MONTH ON THE 19TH WITH A HIGH OF 62
DEGREES. THIS HELPED MELT ALL THE SNOW ON THE GROUND AS SOUTH BENDS
OFFICIAL SNOW DEPTH WENT FROM 3 INCHES ON THE MORNING OF THE 19TH TO
0 ON THE 20TH.

WHAT COULD ARGUABLY BE THE STRONGEST WINTER STORM OF THE SEASON
IMPACTED THE REGION ON THE 24TH AND 25TH. A CLASSIC PANHANDLE HOOK
LOW DEVELOPED IN THE PANHANDLE OF TEXAS ON THE 23RD AND RAPIDLY
INTENSIFIED AS IT MOVED TO NEAR LOUISVILLE KY BY THE MORNING OF THE
24TH THEN TO UPSTATE NEW YORK BY THE MORNING OF THE 25TH. THE
COMBINATION OF VERY STRONG WINDS AND HEAVY WET SNOW NORTH OF THE LOW
TRACK LEFT MANY MOTORISTS STRANDED AND CLOSED SCHOOLS AND BUSINESSES
ACROSS NORTHERN INDIANA AND SOUTHWEST LOWER MICHIGAN. BLIZZARD
CONDITIONS WERE EVEN OBSERVED IN PARTS OF NORTHWEST INDIANA. NEARLY
A FOOT OF SNOW WAS OFFICIALLY RECORDED AT SOUTH BEND WHILE NEARLY A
FOOT AND A HALF OF SNOW FELL IN PARTS OF LAPORTE COUNTY WITH LAKE
ENHANCED SNOWFALL THAT AIDED IN THESE HIGHEST STORM TOTAL AMOUNTS.
IRONICALLY THIS STORM WAS QUICKLY FOLLOWED BY A WARMING TREND TO END
THE MONTH AS HIGH TEMPERATURES CLIMBED BACK INTO THE 40S AND 50S.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE WAS 29.0 DEGREES...1.2 DEGREES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 35TH WARMEST FEBRUARY ON RECORD. THE
WARMEST TEMPERATURE WAS 62 ON THE 19TH AND THE COLDEST WAS 1 BELOW
ZERO ON THE 14TH. THERE WERE JUST 12 DAYS WHERE THE HIGH TEMPERATURE
WAS 32 DEGREES OR COLDER.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 2.18 INCHES...0.23 INCHES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 32ND WETTEST FEBRUARY ON RECORD...TIED
WITH THE YEAR 1899. THERE WERE 14 DAYS WITH MEASURABLE PRECIPITATION
AND 1 DAY WITH MORE THAN A HALF INCH.

IT WAS SNOWFALL THAT WAS WELL ABOVE NORMAL FOR THE MONTH...THANKS
PRIMARILY TO THE ABNORMALLY HIGH AMOUNT OF LAKE EFFECT SNOW. THERE
WAS 30.1 INCHES OF SNOW RECORDED...15.0 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL. THIS
RANKED AS THE 6TH SNOWIEST FEBRUARY ON RECORD. MORE SNOW FELL IN
FEBRUARY THIS YEAR THAN ALL OF NOVEMBER...DECEMBER AND JANUARY THIS
SEASON COMBINED.

MARCH

...A WARM AND WET MARCH...

THE FIRST MONTH OF SPRING CAME IN LIKE A LION WITH COLD AND SNOW BUT
ENDED WITH MILD TEMPERATURES AND SCATTERED STRONG TO SEVERE
THUNDERSTORMS.

STRONG LOW PRESSURE TRACKED THROUGH CENTRAL AND NORTHEAST INDIANA ON
THE FIRST OF THE MONTH. RAIN CHANGED TO SNOW IN THE WAKE OF THIS LOW
WITH SEVERAL INCHES OF ACCUMULATION ACROSS THE AREA...MUCH OF IT
FROM LAKE EFFECT SNOW.  ANOTHER LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM MOVED THROUGH
THE OHIO VALLEY ON THE THIRD AND THIS SYSTEM BROUGHT ANOTHER ROUND
OF ACCUMULATING SNOW. THESE WEATHER SYSTEMS AND THE SNOWPACK THEY
PRODUCED HELPED TO DROP LOW TEMPERATURES INTO THE TEENS AND SINGLE
DIGITS DURING THE FIRST 4 DAYS OF MARCH.

A SIGNIFICANT PATTERN CHANGE OCCURRED AFTER THE FOURTH WITH MUCH
WARMER TEMPERATURES WHICH HELPED TO QUICKLY MELT THE SNOW. THE
WARMUP WAS SO DRAMATIC THAT HIGH TEMPERATURES REACHED THE 60S BY THE
7TH AND 70S ON THE 8TH. THE AVERAGE DAILY TEMPERATURE WENT FROM 11
DEGREES BELOW NORMAL ON THE 4TH TO 18 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL ON THE
7TH AND 29 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL ON THE 8TH. THE ABOVE NORMAL
TEMPERATURES CONTINUED THROUGH THE 17TH BEFORE A COLD FRONT BROUGHT
TEMPERATURES BACK TO NEAR OR SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL. THE REMAINDER OF
THE MONTH WOULD SEE SWINGS IN TEMPERATURES AS SEVERAL WEATHER
SYSTEMS WOULD MOVE THROUGH THE REGION.

AN ACTIVE WEATHER PATTERN OVER THE LAST WEEK OF MARCH HELPED KICK
OFF THE SEVERE WEATHER SEASON. SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS AND THE FIRST
THREE TORNADOES OF THE YEAR OCCURRED ON MARCH 24TH. DAMAGE
ASSOCIATED WITH WEAK EF0 TORNADOES WERE FOUND IN EDWARDSBURG
MICHIGAN...AS WELL AS NEAR HANNA AND WANATAH INDIANA. SEVERE
THUNDERSTORMS ALSO DEVELOPED AGAIN ON THE 27TH WITH LARGE HAIL THE
SIZE OF GOLF BALLS BEING REPORTED OVER MAINLY NORTHEAST INDIANA. THE
LAST DAY OF MARCH ALSO SAW ISOLATED SEVERE WEATHER WITH WIND AND
HAIL.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE FOR MARCH WAS 42.5 DEGREES...5.0
DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 17TH WARMEST MARCH ON
RECORD. THE WARMEST TEMPERATURE WAS 71 ON THE 8TH AND THE COLDEST
WAS 8 ON THE 4TH.

PRECIPITATION WAS WELL ABOVE NORMAL WITH 4.17 INCHES WHICH WAS 1.75
INCHES ABOVE NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 14TH WETTEST MARCH ON
RECORD. THERE WERE 12 DAYS OF MEASURABLE PRECIPITATION AND 3 DAYS
HAD OVER A HALF INCH OF PRECIPITATION.

SNOWFALL FOR THE MONTH WAS 6.8 INCHES...0.3 INCHES BELOW NORMAL.
THIS RANKED AS THE 62ND LEAST SNOWIEST MARCH ON RECORD. ALL OF THE
MEASURABLE SNOW FELL ON THE FIRST...SECOND...THIRD AND FIFTH OF THE
MONTH.

APRIL

...A COOLER AND WETTER THAN NORMAL APRIL AT SOUTH BEND...

APRIL STARTED OUT RATHER COOL ACROSS SOUTH BEND AND THE MICHIANA
REGION...WITH THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE BELOW NORMAL FOR THE FIRST 13
DAYS OF THE MONTH. THE COLDEST NIGHTS INTO THE EARLY MORNING HOURS
OF THE 3RD AND 4TH SAW TEMPERATURE DIP DOWN TO 22 AND 18
RESPECTIVELY AT SOUTH BEND. FORTUNATELY...THE GROWING SEASON IN
GENERAL HAD YET TO COMMENCE BEFORE THIS COLD STRETCH OF WEATHER. A
LAST GASP OF SNOW ON THE 8TH...9TH AND 10TH CAPPED OFF THIS COLD
STRETCH.

A PATTERN FLIP OCCURRED AROUND THE MIDDLE OF THE MONTH. AFTER AT
LEAST A TRACE OF PRECIPITATION EACH OF THE FIRST 11 DAYS OF THE
MONTH...DRY CONDITIONS PREVAILED FROM THE 12TH THROUGH THE 19TH. A
WARMING TREND CULMINATED IN HIGH TEMPERATURES IN THE 80S ON THE 17TH
AND 18TH. THIS WAS THE FIRST 80 DEGREE TEMPS OF THE YEAR...ABOUT 9
DAYS BEFORE THE LONG TERM AVERAGE FIRST 80 DEGREE DAY OF THE
YEAR...APRIL 26TH. IT WAS THE EARLIEST 80 DEGREE DAY IN THE YEAR
SINCE 2012...WHEN IT FIRST HIT 80 ON MARCH 14TH. BUT IT WAS ONLY 1
DAY EARLIER THAN THE FIRST 80 DEGREE MARK LAST YEAR...APRIL 18TH
2015.

AFTER AN UP AND DOWN...WET AND DRY PATTERN FROM THE 21ST TO THE
26TH...THE MONTH ENDED ON A COOLER NOTE WITH THE LAST 4 DAYS OF THE
MONTH EXPERIENCING BELOW NORMAL AVERAGE TEMPERATURES. A TRACE OF
PRECIPITATION WAS RECORDED 5 OUT OF THE LAST 6 DAYS OF THE MONTH.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE FOR APRIL WAS 47.5 DEGREES...1.5
DEGREES BELOW NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 45TH COLDEST APRIL ON
RECORD. THE WARMEST TEMPERATURE WAS 82 ON THE 18TH AND THE COLDEST
WAS 18 ON THE 5TH.

PRECIPITATION WAS ABOVE NORMAL FOR THE SECOND CONSECUTIVE MONTH WITH
4.67 INCHES...WHICH WAS 1.44 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE
27TH WETTEST APRIL ON RECORD. THERE WERE 15 DAYS OF MEASURABLE
PRECIPITATION AND 9 DAYS WITH OVER A TENTH OF AN INCH OF
PRECIPITATION. 2 DAYS...THE 6TH AND THE 21ST... HAD OVER AN INCH OF
PRECIPITATION. THE GREATEST 24 HOUR PRECIPITATION TOTAL WAS 1.25
INCHES FALLING ON THE 6TH AND 7TH OF THE MONTH.

SNOWFALL FOR THE MONTH WAS 4.1 INCHES...2.7 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL.
THIS RANKED AS THE 19TH SNOWIEST APRIL ON RECORD AT SOUTH BEND. ALL
OF THE MEASURABLE SNOW FELL ON THE SECOND...EIGHTH...NINTH AND TENTH
OF THE MONTH.

MAY

...COOL AND WET START TO MAY FOLLOWED BY A WARM AND DRY END...

OVERALL THE MONTH OF MAY WAS COOLER AND DRIER THAN NORMAL IN THE
SOUTH BEND AREA. THE MONTH BEGAN COOL AND WET BUT TRENDED WARM AND
DRY DURING THE LAST 10 DAYS.

DURING THE FIRST 23 DAYS OF MAY...ONLY TWO DAYS HAD AN AVERAGE DAILY
TEMPERATURE ABOVE NORMAL. THE LAST 8 DAYS OF THE MONTH WERE ALL
ABOVE NORMAL AND 5 OF THESE DAYS WERE MORE THAN 10 DEGREES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS HELPED BRING THE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE DEPARTURE UP
CLOSER TO NORMAL DESPITE THE VERY COOL FIRST THREE WEEKS.

MEASURABLE PRECIPITATION FELL ON 13 DAYS IN MAY BUT ONLY 4 OF THESE
DAYS WERE AFTER THE 14TH. THE GREATEST PRECIPITATION FELL ON THE 4TH
WITH 0.84 INCHES BEING RECORDED.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE FOR MAY WAS 58.4 DEGREES...0.9
DEGREES BELOW NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS TIED FOR THE 51ST COOLEST MAY
ON RECORD. THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE WAS 86 ON THE 31ST AND THE
COOLEST TEMPERATURE WAS 31 ON THE 15TH.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 2.49 INCHES...1.34 INCHES BELOW
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS TIED FOR THE 41ST DRIEST MAY ON RECORD.

JUNE

...NEAR NORMAL TEMPERATURES AND BELOW NORMAL PRECIPITATION...

JUNE TEMPERATURES AVERAGED NEAR NORMAL IN THE SOUTH BEND AREA WHILE
PRECIPITATION WAS SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL. TWO DAYS OF SIGNIFICANT
RAINFALL PRODUCED ABOUT 80 PERCENT OF THE MONTHLY RAINFALL TOTAL.
OUTSIDE OF THESE EVENTS...IT WAS A VERY DRY MONTH. THE AREA
EXPERIENCED SEVERE WEATHER ON THE SAME TWO DAYS AS THE HEAVY
RAINFALL...THE 20TH AND 22ND. STORMS ON THESE TWO DAYS PRODUCED
STRONG WINDS WHICH DOWNED TREES AND UTILITY LINES WHILE ALSO
DAMAGING SOME STRUCTURES.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE WAS 69.4 DEGREES...0.3 DEGREES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 53RD WARMEST JUNE ON RECORD. THE HIGHEST
TEMPERATURE WAS 93 AND OCCURRED ON THE 11TH AND 20TH. HIGH
TEMPERATURES REACHED OR EXCEEDED 90 DEGREES ON 4 DAYS...THE
10TH...11TH...19TH AND 20TH. JUNE NORMALLY EXPERIENCES 90 DEGREES OR
WARMER ON 3 DAYS. THE COOLEST TEMPERATURE WAS 44 ON THE 9TH. LOW
TEMPERATURES ALSO DROPPED INTO THE UPPER 40S ON THE 29TH.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 3.25 INCHES...0.54 INCHES BELOW
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 56TH DRIEST JUNE ON RECORD. THE MONTHLY
AMOUNT IS A BIT DECEIVING AS ABOUT 80 PERCENT OF THIS RAIN FELL ON
THE 20TH AND 22ND. A TOTAL OF 1.11 INCHES WAS RECORDED ON THE 20TH
WHILE 1.54 INCHES FELL ON THE 22ND. THE REMAINING 0.60 INCHES
OCCURRED ON 6 DIFFERENT DAYS SCATTERED THROUGH THE MONTH.

JULY

...NORMAL TEMPERATURES AND SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL PRECIPITATION...

SOUTH BEND ENDED UP THE MONTH OF JULY NEAR NORMAL FOR TEMPERATURES
AND ONLY SLIGHTLY DRIER THAN NORMAL.

THE AVERAGE DAILY TEMPERATURE FOR SOUTH BEND WAS 73.1 FOR JULY. THIS
COMPARES TO THE NORMAL OF 73.0. THE AVERAGE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE OF
83.3 WAS 0.4 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL...WHILE THE AVERAGE MINIMUM
TEMPERATURE WAS 63.0 OR 0.1 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

THERE WERE 2 DAYS WITH TEMPERATURES REACHING OR EXCEEDING 90 DEGREES
AND THE WARMEST DAY WAS ON THE 12TH WHEN THE TEMPERATURE TOPPED OFF
AT 92 DEGREES. THE COOLEST MORNING WAS ON THE 2ND WHEN THE
TEMPERATURE DROPPED TO 49 DEGREES.

PRECIPITATION FOR SOUTH BEND WAS SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL. THE TOTAL
RAINFALL OF 3.24 INCHES WAS 0.76 INCHES BELOW THE NORMAL OF 4.00.
THIS RANKS JULY 2016 AS THE 65TH DRIEST JULY ON RECORD.

THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF PRECIPITATION TO FALL IN A 24 HOUR PERIOD WAS
1.54 INCHES ON THE 23RD TO 24TH. THERE WERE 12 DAYS WITH MEASURABLE
RAINFALL IN JULY BUT ONLY 3 OF THESE WERE IN THE FIRST 16 DAYS OF
THE MONTH.

AUGUST

...AUGUST 2016 WAS THE WETTEST AUGUST AND 2ND WETTEST OF ANY MONTH
ON RECORD AT SOUTH BEND...

AUGUST 2016 WAS WETTER AND WARMER THAN NORMAL. IN FACT...IT WAS THE
WETTEST AUGUST ON RECORD AND THE 2ND WETTEST OF ANY MONTH ON RECORD.
THE FIRST 11 DAYS OF THE MONTH WAS WARM...DRY AND QUIET...IN THE
MIDST OF ABNORMALLY DRY TO MODERATE DROUGHT CONDITIONS ACROSS
PORTIONS OF MICHIANA. NO MEASURABLE RAINFALL WAS RECORDED IN AUGUST
UNTIL THE 12TH. THIS WAS THE DRIEST START TO AUGUST ON RECORD. SINCE
1893...MEASURABLE RAINFALL WAS RECORDED DURING THE FIRST 11 DAYS OF
AUGUST UNTIL 2016.

WHAT IS QUITE REMARKABLE IS THE PATTERN CHANGE THAT ARRIVE TOWARD
THE MIDDLE OF THE MONTH. A SLOW MOVING COLD FRONT AND LOW PRESSURE
SYSTEM COMBINED WITH COPIOUS GULF MOISTURE CULMINATED IN THE WETTEST
SINGLE DAY ON RECORD SINCE 1893. ON THE 15TH...7.69 INCHES OF
PRECIPITATION WAS RECORDED. THIS BREAKS THE PREVIOUS WETTEST SINGLE
DAY ON RECORD AT SOUTH BEND...WHICH WAS SEPTEMBER 13TH 2008...WHEN
THE REMNANTS OF HURRICANE IKE BROUGHT 6.58 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION
TO SOUTH BEND. THE RAINFALL ON THE 15TH BROUGHT SIGNIFICANT FLOODING
IN AND AROUND MICHIANA. THE REST OF THE MONTH WAS ACTIVE...WITH
PERIODS OF HEAVY RAINFALL AND SOME SEVERE WEATHER. TEMPERATURES WERE
A BIT MORE SEASONABLE FOR THE SECOND HALF OF THE MONTH...BUT STILL
SLIGHTLY ABOVE NORMAL.

THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE FOR AUGUST 2016 WAS 74.2 DEGREES...WHICH IS
2.9 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THIS RANKS AS THE 16TH WARMEST AUGUST ON
RECORD AT SOUTH BEND. THE AVERAGE HIGH TEMPERATURE WAS 83.6 AND THE
AVERAGE LOW TEMPERATURES WAS 64.9. THE WARMEST TEMPERATURE RECORDED
WAS 93 DEGREES ON THE 11TH AND THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE RECORDED WAS
55 DEGREES ON THE 22ND. THERE WERE 5 90 DEGREE DAYS IN
AUGUST...WHICH IS SLIGHTLY ABOVE THE NORMAL NUMBER OF 4 DAYS...AND
THE MOST 90 DEGREE DAYS IN AUGUST AT SOUTH BEND SINCE 2010. THERE
WERE 27 DAYS WHEN THE HIGH TEMPERATURE REACHED 80 DEGREES...WHICH IS
THE MOST 80 DEGREE DAYS IN AUGUST SINCE 1995 WHEN THERE WAS 30.

12.81 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION WAS RECORDED AT SOUTH BEND IN
AUGUST...WHICH IS 9.05 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL. THIS IS THE WETTEST
AUGUST ON RECORD...BREAKING THE PREVIOUS RECORD OF 8.88 INCHES IN
2007. IT IS THE SECOND WETTEST OF ANY MONTH ON RECORD...JUST BEHIND
SEPTEMBER 2008 WHEN 13.92 INCHES WAS RECORDED. THE GREATEST 24 HOUR
RAINFALL WAS 8.49 INCHES ON THE 15TH AND 16TH. MEASURABLE RAINFALL
WAS RECORDED ON 12 DAYS DURING THE MONTH...ALL IN THE LAST 20 DAYS
OF AUGUST. THERE WERE 3 DAYS WITH AN INCH OR MORE OF PRECIPITATION
RECORDED. THIS IS TIED WITH 9 OTHER YEARS FOR THE MOST DAYS IN
AUGUST WITH AN INCH OR MORE OF RAINFALL.

SEPTEMBER

OVERALL IT WAS A WARM SEPTEMBER WITH SLIGHTLY ABOVE NORMAL
PRECIPITATION AT SOUTH BEND INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. THE MAJORITY OF
THE PRECIPITATION DURING THE MONTH CAME FROM THREE SEPARATE SYSTEMS.
IN BETWEEN THESE SYSTEMS...MUCH OF THE MONTH WAS DRY AND VERY WARM.

THERE WERE 7 DAYS IN SEPTEMBER WITH AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE BELOW
NORMAL AND THERE WAS ALSO 7 DAYS WITH AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF AT
LEAST 10 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THERE WERE TWO DAYS WITH HIGH
TEMPERATURES IN THE 90S...THE 6TH AND 7TH. SEPTEMBER TYPICALLY
AVERAGES ABOUT ONE 90 DEGREE DAY.

THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE FOR THE MONTH WAS 67.9 DEGREES...4 DEGREES
ABOVE NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS A TIE WITH 1919 AS THE 15TH WARMEST
SEPTEMBER ON RECORD. THIS WAS THE WARMEST SEPTEMBER SINCE 1978. THE
AVERAGE HIGH TEMPERATURE WAS 77.6 WHICH WAS THE 29TH WARMEST ON
RECORD. THE AVERAGE LOW TEMPERATURE WAS 58.2 WHICH WAS THE 7TH
WARMEST ON RECORD.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 3.74 INCHES...0.21 INCHES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 46TH WETTEST SEPTEMBER ON RECORD. A TOTAL
OF 1.89 INCHES OF RAIN FELL ON THE 17TH WHICH WAS A DAILY RECORD FOR
THAT DATE. DESPITE THE SLIGHTLY ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION AT SOUTH
BEND...SOME LOCATIONS NEAR SOUTH BEND AS WELL AS SOUTH AND WEST OF
THE CITY RECEIVED A LOT MORE RAINFALL. FLASH FLOOD WARNINGS WERE
ISSUED FOR PARTS OF MARSHALL AND ST. JOSEPH COUNTIES ON THE EVENING
OF SEPTEMBER 9TH. REPORTS OF BETWEEN 4 AND 8 INCHES OF RAIN DURING
THIS EVENT WERE RECEIVED AS TROPICAL MOISTURE FROM WHAT WAS
HURRICANE NEWTON CONVERGED WITH A SLOW MOVING COLD FRONT.

OCTOBER

...WARMER THAN NORMAL OCTOBER WITH NEAR NORMAL PRECIPITATION...

THE MONTH BEGAN WITH A SLOW MOVING UPPER LEVEL LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM
THAT WAS NEARLY STATIONARY ACROSS THE OHIO VALLEY REGION. THIS LOW
GRADUALLY DRIFTED NORTHEAST INTO THE GREAT LAKES BEFORE FINALLY
BEING SWEPT EAST. SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS WERE COMMON DURING EACH
OF THE FIRST THREE DAYS OF THE MONTH NEAR THIS LOW WITH LOCALLY
HEAVY RAIN OCCURRING IN SOME LOCATIONS. AS HURRICANE MATTHEW MOVED
NORTH ALONG THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES COASTLINE...HIGH PRESSURE
BECAME PARKED OVER OUR AREA WITH GENERALLY DRY AND WARM CONDITIONS
FOR EARLY OCTOBER. HIGH TEMPERATURES REACHED CLOSE TO 80 ON FOUR
CONSECUTIVE DAYS FROM THE 4TH THROUGH THE 7TH. AVERAGE TEMPERATURES
ON THESE DAYS WERE ABOUT 12 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL.

THE REMAINDER OF THE MONTH SAW SWINGS BETWEEN MUCH ABOVE NORMAL AND
SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL TEMPERATURES AS SEVERAL COLD FRONTS BROUGHT
MORE SEASONABLE AIR TO THE REGION. AHEAD OF THESE FRONTS...SOUTHWEST
WINDS BROUGHT BREEZY BUT WARM CONDITIONS WITH AVERAGE TEMPERATURES
10 TO 20 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. OCTOBER ENDED WITH THE AVERAGE
MONTHLY TEMPERATURE WELL ABOVE NORMAL AND PRECIPITATION NEAR NORMAL.

THERE WERE A FEW DAYS WITH FROST AND ONE DAY...THE 25TH...WITH A
LIGHT FREEZE AS THE LOW TEMPERATURE AT SOUTH BEND DIPPED TO 30
DEGREES. WITH THE LACK OF ANY APPRECIABLY COLD AIR...THERE WAS NO
SNOWFALL DURING THE MONTH. OCTOBER NORMAL SNOWFALL IN SOUTH BEND IS
AROUND A HALF INCH.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE WAS 55.8...3.7 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL.
THIS RANKED AS THE 24TH WARMEST OCTOBER SINCE 1893 BUT IT WAS THE
FOURTH WARMEST OCTOBER SINCE 1973. IT WAS PRIMARILY THE LOW
TEMPERATURES WHICH WERE WELL ABOVE NORMAL FOR THE MONTH. THE AVERAGE
LOW TEMPERATURE WAS 46.4 DEGREES. THIS RANKED AS THE 14TH WARMEST
AVERAGE LOW TEMPERATURE FOR OCTOBER. THE RECORD WARMEST WAS 51.6 SET
IN 1971.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 3.48 INCHES...0.16 INCHES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 46TH WETTEST OCTOBER FOR THE SOUTH BEND
AREA. MEASURABLE RAIN FELL ON 12 DAYS AND A HALF INCH OR GREATER
FELL ON 4 DAYS. THE RAINFALL WAS SPREAD OUT OVER THE ENTIRE MONTH.
THIS BENEFICIAL RAIN COUPLED WITH THE MILD TEMPERATURES LED TO AN
EXTENDED GROWING SEASON AND VIBRANT FALL COLORS.

THERE WAS NO SNOWFALL IN OCTOBER. THIS WAS 0.4 INCHES BELOW NORMAL.

NOVEMBER

IT WAS A RELATIVELY QUIET BUT WARM NOVEMBER WITH NEAR NORMAL
PRECIPITATION IN THE SOUTH BEND AREA. THE SEASONS FIRST SNOWFALL
OCCURRED MID MONTH BUT MEASURABLE SNOW WAS RECORDED ON JUST ONE DAY
AND MONTHLY SNOWFALL WAS BELOW NORMAL. THE AREA ALSO EXPERIENCED ONE
DAY OF SEVERE WEATHER ON THE 18TH WITH TREES AND POWER LINES BEING
KNOCKED DOWN ACROSS THE REGION.

TEMPERATURES REACHED 70 DEGREES OR WARMER ON 4 DAYS AND 60 DEGREES
OR WARMER ON 11 DAYS...ALL COMING BEFORE THE 19TH. A STRONG COLD
FRONT PUSHED THROUGH THE REGION LATE ON THE 18TH AND GENERATED
STRONG TO SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS AND LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL. THE FIRST
GOOD SHOT OF COLD AIR FOLLOWED WITH LIGHT SNOW...PRIMARILY LAKE
EFFECT...OCCURRING ON THE 19TH. THIS COLD AIR WAS SHORT LIVED AND
TEMPERATURES WERE GENERALLY NEAR NORMAL TO SLIGHTLY ABOVE NORMAL FOR
THE REMAINDER OF THE MONTH.

THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE FOR THE MONTH WAS 45.8 DEGREES...5 DEGREES
ABOVE NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 9TH WARMEST NOVEMBER ON RECORD.
THIS WAS ALSO THE WARMEST NOVEMBER SINCE 2001 WHICH WAS THE SECOND
WARMEST NOVEMBER ON RECORD. HOWEVER...NOVEMBER 2015 WAS THE 13TH
WARMEST NOVEMBER ON RECORD WITH AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF 44.5.

A TOTAL OF 2.38 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION WAS MEASURED...THIS WAS 0.29
INCHES BELOW NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 73RD DRIEST NOVEMBER. THERE
WERE JUST 8 DAYS IN THE MONTH WITH MEASURABLE PRECIPITATION AND 3 OF
THESE DAYS HAD MORE THAN A HALF INCH. THE GREATEST 24HR
PRECIPITATION WAS 0.88 INCHES ON THE 23RD.

THE FIRST OFFICIAL MEASURABLE SNOWFALL OCCURRED ON NOVEMBER 19TH
WITH A HALF INCH BEING MEASURED. THIS WAS THE ONLY DAY WITH
MEASURABLE SNOW AND LEFT THE MONTHLY TOTAL 4.3 INCHES BELOW NORMAL.
THIS RANKED AS THE 13TH LEAST SNOWIEST NOVEMBER ON RECORD.

UNFORTUNATELY A PROLONGED SYSTEM OUTAGE PREVENTED THE AUTOMATED
SURFACE OBSERVING SYSTEM FROM RECORDING AND TRANSMITTING WEATHER
OBSERVATIONS FROM THE 16TH THROUGH THE 28TH AT SOUTH BEND.
TEMPERATURE DATA DURING THIS PERIOD WAS TAKEN FROM A NEARBY
COOPERATIVE WEATHER OBSERVATION LOCATION IN NILES MICHIGAN.
PRECIPITATION AND SNOWFALL DATA WAS USED FROM THE SNOW PAID
OBSERVERS IN SOUTH BEND.

DECEMBER

...A COLD DECEMBER WITH BELOW NORMAL PRECIPITATION BUT ABOVE NORMAL
SNOWFALL...

THE FINAL MONTH OF 2016 EXPERIENCED A VARIETY OF WEATHER. DECEMBER
BEGAN WITH NEAR NORMAL TEMPERATURES BUT AN ARCTIC COLD FRONT ARRIVED
LATE IN THE SECOND WEEK AND BROUGHT SOME OF THE COLDEST DECEMBER
TEMPERATURES IN DECADES. THIS ARCTIC COLD AIR ALSO BROUGHT A LENGTHY
PERIOD OF LAKE EFFECT SNOW ALONG WITH SOME SNOW PRODUCED BY PASSING
AREAS OF LOW PRESSURE. THE ARCTIC COLD FINALLY BEGAN TO RETREAT
AFTER THE 20TH AND BY THE DAY AFTER CHRISTMAS...TEMPERATURES BRIEFLY
ROSE INTO THE 50S AHEAD OF A COLD FRONT. THESE MILD TEMPERATURES
HELPED PRODUCE FOG AND DRIZZLE WHICH QUICKLY DEPLETED THE SNOW PACK
THAT WAS IN PLACE. SHOWERS DEVELOPED AHEAD OF THE COLD FRONT ON THE
26TH AND BROUGHT UP TO A QUARTER INCH OF RAIN TO THE SOUTH BEND
AREA. THE MONTH ENDED WITH NEAR NORMAL TEMPERATURES AND SOME
ADDITIONAL LAKE EFFECT SNOW.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE WAS 25.4 DEGREES...3.4 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS TIED WITH 1934 FOR THE 29TH COLDEST DECEMBER
ON RECORD DATING BACK TO 1893. THE WARMEST TEMPERATURE WAS 53 ON THE
26TH AND THE COLDEST WAS 14 BELOW ZERO ON THE 19TH. THE 53 WAS THE
16TH WARMEST MAX TEMPERATURE RECORDED. THE WARMEST WAS 70 SET IN
2001. THE 14 BELOW ZERO WAS A RECORD LOW FOR THE 19TH AND ALSO THE
4TH COLDEST DECEMBER TEMPERATURE RECORDED AT SOUTH BEND. THIS WAS
ALSO THE COLDEST DECEMBER TEMPERATURE SINCE 1983 WHEN IT WAS 15
BELOW ZERO. THE LOWEST RECORDED DECEMBER TEMPERATURE WAS 18 BELOW
SET IN 1924.

PRECIPITATION WAS 1.99 INCHES...0.62 INCHES BELOW NORMAL. THIS
RANKED AS THE 47TH DRIEST DECEMBER ON RECORD. MEASURABLE
PRECIPITATION FELL ON 18 DAYS WITH A HALF INCH OR MORE ON ONE DAY.

DESPITE HAVING BELOW NORMAL PRECIPITATION...THE MONTH DID END WITH
ABOVE NORMAL SNOWFALL. THIS WAS PRIMARILY DUE TO THE VERY COLD
TEMPERATURES MID MONTH HELPING LEAD TO LARGER LIQUID TO SNOW RATIOS.
A TOTAL OF 23.7 INCHES OF SNOW WAS RECORDED...6.4 INCHES ABOVE
NORMAL. THIS RANKED AS THE 20TH SNOWIEST DECEMBER ON RECORD. THE
GREATEST SINGLE DAY SNOWFALL WAS 7.0 INCHES ON THE 11TH.

$$
LASHLEY



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