Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 230104
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
1904 MDT Monday, September 22, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, September 23, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 73.5 F/23.1 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1156 ft/min (5.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 16085 ft MSL (10798 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 82.0 F/28.2 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1030 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11443 ft MSL (6155 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 09/24.... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Fair
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 46108 ft MSL (40821 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 09/24....... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:48:04 / 18:56:25 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 12 hr 8 min 21 sec (728 min 21 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:51:45 MDT... 49.98 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 09/23/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 13916 ft MSL (8629 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 13037 ft MSL (7750 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14091 ft MSL (8804 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -2.0
K index......................... +26.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -63.8 -82.8   305   27   14   2.8   1.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.2 -72.8   300   44   23   5.4   3.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -50.1 -58.2   290   46   24   5.6   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.7 -52.1   290   46   23   5.6   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -43.4 -46.1   295   45   23   5.6   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -40.3 -40.5   290   45   23   4.8   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -37.4 -35.3   290   45   23   4.9   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -33.0 -27.4   290   44   23   7.3   4.0   42.5 108.6    11.2      M    M
 29000  -30.8 -23.4   290   44   22   7.3   4.0   41.6 106.9    10.7      M    M
 28000  -28.6 -19.5   285   43   22   7.6   4.2   40.8 105.5    10.2      M    M
 27000  -26.2 -15.2   285   42   21   7.9   4.4   40.0 104.0     9.6      M    M
 26000  -23.9 -11.0   285   40   21   7.9   4.4   39.3 102.7     9.2      M    M
 25000  -21.5  -6.7   285   39   20   7.9   4.3   38.7 101.7     8.8      M    M
 24000  -19.0  -2.2   285   38   20   8.6   4.7   38.2 100.7     8.5      M    M
 23000  -16.4   2.5   285   38   20   8.6   4.7   37.7  99.9     8.2      M    M
 22000  -13.8   7.2   290   38   20   8.7   4.7   37.4  99.3     8.0      M    M
 21000  -11.9  10.6   290   37   19   6.0   3.3   36.2  97.2     7.1      M    M
 20000  -10.1  13.8   290   34   18   6.2   3.4   34.9  94.9     6.0      M    M
 19500   -9.2  15.4   290   33   17   6.4   3.5   34.3  93.8     5.5      M    M
 19000   -8.4  16.9   290   32   16   4.5   2.5   33.7  92.7     4.9      M    M
 18500   -7.9  17.8   285   29   15   4.0   2.2   32.7  90.8     3.9      M    M
 18000   -7.4  18.7   285   27   14   4.1   2.2   31.7  89.1     3.0      M    M
 17500   -6.8  19.8   285   25   13   5.1   2.8   30.8  87.5     2.2      M    M
 17000   -6.1  21.0   285   23   12   5.1   2.8   30.0  86.0     1.4      M    M
 16500   -5.4  22.3   285   21   11   5.5   3.0   29.3  84.7     0.7      M    M
 16000   -4.6  23.7   285   19   10   5.6   3.1   28.5  83.4     0.0      M    M
 15500   -3.8  25.2   285   16    8   6.3   3.4   27.9  82.1    -0.6    920  4.7
 15000   -2.2  28.0   285   15    7   7.4   4.1   27.2  81.0    -1.2    849  4.3
 14500   -1.1  30.0   285   14    7   7.6   4.2   26.9  80.4    -1.6    802  4.1
 14000    0.0  32.0   290   13    7   7.8   4.3   26.5  79.8    -1.9    753  3.8
 13500    1.2  34.2   295   13    7   8.2   4.5   26.2  79.2    -2.3    704  3.6
 13000    2.5  36.5   300   13    7   8.8   4.8   26.0  78.9    -2.4    651  3.3
 12500    3.8  38.8   305   14    7   8.8   4.8   25.9  78.6    -2.6    597  3.0
 12000    5.1  41.2   305   15    8   8.7   4.8   25.7  78.3    -2.8    544  2.8
 11500    6.3  43.3   310   17    9   8.6   4.7   25.6  78.0    -3.0    491  2.5
 11000    7.5  45.5   310   18    9   7.8   4.3   25.3  77.6    -3.3    440  2.2
 10500    8.7  47.7   310   20   10   5.0   2.7   25.0  77.1    -3.6    391  2.0
 10250    8.9  48.0   310   20   10   4.8   2.6   24.5  76.2    -4.1    376  1.9
 10000    9.5  49.1   310   20   10   9.5   5.2   24.4  75.9    -4.2    351  1.8
  9750   10.2  50.4   310   20   10   9.6   5.3   24.4  75.9    -4.3    323  1.6
  9500   10.9  51.6   305   20   10   8.5   4.7   24.3  75.8    -4.3    295  1.5
  9250   11.4  52.5   305   20   10   6.6   3.6   24.2  75.5    -4.6    273  1.4
  9000   11.9  53.4   305   20   10   7.0   3.8   23.9  75.1    -4.8    251  1.3
  8750   12.4  54.3   305   20   10   7.6   4.2   23.7  74.7    -5.1    228  1.2
  8500   12.9  55.2   300   20   10   7.3   4.0   23.6  74.4    -5.3    205  1.0
  8250   13.4  56.1   300   20   10   7.3   4.0   23.4  74.1    -5.5    182  0.9
  8000   13.9  57.0   300   19   10   7.1   3.9   23.2  73.7    -5.7    160  0.8
  7750   14.4  57.9   295   19   10   6.6   3.6   23.0  73.3    -6.0    138  0.7
  7500   14.9  58.8   295   18    9   7.6   4.2   22.7  72.9    -6.3    116  0.6
  7250   15.5  59.9   295   16    8   8.3   4.5   22.6  72.7    -6.4     90  0.5
  7000   16.1  61.0   290   15    8   8.5   4.7   22.5  72.5    -6.5     65  0.3
  6750   16.7  62.1   285   14    7   6.0   3.3   22.4  72.3    -6.7     40  0.2
  6500   17.0  62.6   285   12    6   3.0   1.6   21.9  71.5    -7.2     24  0.1
  6250   17.1  62.8   275   11    6  -1.5  -0.8   21.3  70.3    -7.8     14  0.1
  6000   17.2  63.0   270   10    5  12.3   6.7   20.7  69.2    -8.4      3  0.0
  5750   18.2  64.8   265    9    5  -2.1  -1.2   21.0  69.8    -8.1      M    M
  5500   15.5  59.9   240    7    3 -65.4 -35.9   17.7  63.9   -11.6     39  0.2

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/23/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       09/23/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +24.2  LI... +0.9               | K index... +22.8  LI... +0.8
CAPE... +23.7  CIN... -76.2                | CAPE... +121.1  CIN... -91.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.4 -82.1  315  22 11   3.1   1.7 | -63.6 -82.5  305  18  9   3.1   1.7
 45000 -57.7 -71.9  310  36 19   4.9   2.7 | -57.6 -71.7  305  29 15   5.3   2.9
 40000 -50.2 -58.4  300  42 22   5.5   3.0 | -49.7 -57.5  305  37 19   4.8   2.6
 38000 -46.9 -52.4  300  41 21   5.5   3.0 | -46.8 -52.2  305  37 19   4.8   2.6
 36000 -43.6 -46.5  295  41 21   5.5   3.0 | -44.0 -47.2  300  36 19   4.8   2.6
 34000 -40.8 -41.4  295  41 21   4.4   2.4 | -41.4 -42.5  300  35 18   4.2   2.3
 32000 -38.2 -36.8  295  42 22   4.4   2.4 | -38.9 -38.0  295  35 18   4.2   2.3
 30000 -33.3 -27.9  295  42 22   8.4   4.6 | -33.6 -28.5  295  33 17   9.2   5.0
 29000 -30.8 -23.4  295  42 21   8.4   4.6 | -30.9 -23.6  295  33 17   9.2   5.0
 28000 -28.2 -18.8  300  41 21   8.2   4.5 | -28.1 -18.6  300  32 16   8.4   4.6
 27000 -25.9 -14.6  300  40 21   7.9   4.3 | -25.8 -14.4  300  32 16   7.7   4.2
 26000 -23.5 -10.3  300  39 20   7.9   4.3 | -23.5 -10.3  300  31 16   7.7   4.2
 25000 -21.1  -6.0  300  38 20   7.9   4.3 | -21.2  -6.2  300  31 16   7.6   4.2
 24000 -18.7  -1.7  295  38 19   8.2   4.5 | -18.8  -1.8  305  31 16   8.4   4.6
 23000 -16.2   2.8  295  37 19   8.2   4.5 | -16.2   2.8  305  32 16   8.4   4.6
 22000 -13.8   7.2  295  37 19   8.2   4.5 | -13.7   7.3  300  32 17   8.3   4.5
 21000 -11.9  10.6  295  34 18   5.9   3.3 | -11.6  11.1  300  31 16   6.9   3.8
 20000 -10.2  13.6  295  31 16   6.1   3.3 |  -9.6  14.7  290  28 15   7.0   3.9
 19500  -9.3  15.3  290  29 15   6.2   3.4 |  -8.5  16.7  290  27 14   7.3   4.0
 19000  -8.5  16.7  290  27 14   4.1   2.2 |  -7.7  18.1  285  26 14   3.8   2.1
 18500  -8.1  17.4  290  25 13   3.5   1.9 |  -7.3  18.9  280  25 13   3.3   1.8
 18000  -7.6  18.3  285  23 12   3.6   2.0 |  -6.8  19.8  280  24 12   3.3   1.8
 17500  -7.0  19.4  285  21 11   4.7   2.6 |  -6.4  20.5  275  22 12   3.3   1.8
 17000  -6.4  20.5  290  19 10   4.6   2.5 |  -5.9  21.4  275  20 10   3.2   1.8
 16500  -5.7  21.7  295  17  9   5.9   3.2 |  -5.4  22.3  275  18  9   5.0   2.7
 16000  -4.8  23.4  295  15  8   6.2   3.4 |  -4.7  23.5  270  15  8   5.3   2.9
 15500  -3.9  25.0  300  14  7   6.3   3.5 |  -3.9  25.0  270  13  7   6.7   3.7
 15000  -2.5  27.5  305  12  6   6.6   3.6 |  -2.1  28.2  275  10  5   8.2   4.5
 14500  -1.5  29.3  310  11  6   8.1   4.4 |  -0.9  30.4  285   9  5   9.1   5.0
 14000  -0.2  31.6  315  10  5   8.6   4.7 |   0.5  32.9  290   9  5   9.4   5.1
 13500   1.1  34.0  325  10  5   8.8   4.8 |   1.9  35.4  300  10  5   9.4   5.2
 13000   2.4  36.3  325  11  5   9.0   4.9 |   3.3  37.9  305  12  6   9.4   5.2
 12500   3.8  38.8  325  11  6   9.0   4.9 |   4.7  40.5  310  15  8   8.7   4.8
 12000   5.1  41.2  320  13  6   9.0   4.9 |   5.8  42.4  310  19 10   7.5   4.1
 11500   6.4  43.5  320  14  7   8.6   4.7 |   6.9  44.4  310  22 11   7.0   3.8
 11000   7.6  45.7  315  17  9   7.2   3.9 |   7.7  45.9  305  24 12   5.6   3.1
 10500   8.6  47.5  310  20 10   4.6   2.5 |   8.5  47.3  305  25 13   3.0   1.7
 10250   8.9  48.0  310  21 11   4.3   2.4 |   8.6  47.5  300  25 13   3.5   1.9
 10000   9.4  48.9  305  22 11   8.7   4.8 |   9.1  48.4  300  23 12   8.2   4.5
  9750  10.0  50.0  305  23 12   9.3   5.1 |   9.6  49.3  300  21 11   7.9   4.3
  9500  10.6  51.1  305  23 12   7.5   4.1 |  10.2  50.4  300  18 10   7.7   4.2
  9250  11.0  51.8  305  23 12   4.7   2.6 |  10.7  51.3  295  16  8   7.3   4.0
  9000  11.4  52.5  305  23 12   6.9   3.8 |  11.2  52.2  295  14  7   9.1   5.0
  8750  12.0  53.6  305  22 12   9.2   5.0 |  11.9  53.4  290  12  6  10.3   5.7
  8500  12.5  54.5  305  22 11   7.4   4.1 |  12.6  54.7  285  10  5   9.7   5.3
  8250  13.0  55.4  300  21 11   6.2   3.4 |  13.4  56.1  285  10  5   9.4   5.2
  8000  13.5  56.3  300  21 11   6.7   3.7 |  14.1  57.4  285   9  5   9.8   5.4
  7750  13.9  57.0  300  20 10   7.1   3.9 |  14.8  58.6  285   9  5  10.2   5.6
  7500  14.5  58.1  295  19 10   8.0   4.4 |  15.6  60.1  285   9  5  10.0   5.5
  7250  15.1  59.2  295  17  9   8.5   4.7 |  16.3  61.3  285   9  5   9.9   5.4
  7000  15.7  60.3  295  16  8   8.5   4.7 |  17.0  62.6  285   9  4   9.8   5.4
  6750  16.3  61.3  295  15  8   7.7   4.2 |  17.8  64.0  285   9  4  10.0   5.5
  6500  16.8  62.2  290  13  7   6.1   3.3 |  18.5  65.3  285   8  4  10.4   5.7
  6250  17.3  63.1  285  12  6   7.2   3.9 |  19.3  66.7  285   8  4  10.0   5.5
  6000  17.7  63.9  280  10  5   2.6   1.5 |  20.1  68.2  285   8  4  11.4   6.3
  5750  17.6  63.7  270   8  4  -0.9  -0.5 |  21.1  70.0  285   8  4  16.0   8.8
  5500  17.7  63.9  250   6  3   6.9   3.8 |  22.4  72.3  285   7  4  19.3  10.6

           09/23/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       09/23/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +24.2  LI... -0.4               | K index... +27.6  LI... -1.0
CAPE... +220.9  CIN... -25.3               | CAPE... +340.0  CIN... -14.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.7 -82.7  295  16  8   3.0   1.6 | -63.6 -82.5  305  21 11   3.0   1.6
 45000 -57.7 -71.9  300  23 12   5.7   3.1 | -57.5 -71.5  305  28 15   6.0   3.3
 40000 -49.3 -56.7  305  32 17   4.9   2.7 | -48.8 -55.8  315  31 16   3.4   1.9
 38000 -46.3 -51.3  305  32 16   4.9   2.7 | -46.7 -52.1  315  33 17   3.4   1.9
 36000 -43.4 -46.1  305  31 16   4.9   2.7 | -44.7 -48.5  320  34 18   3.5   1.9
 34000 -40.9 -41.6  305  29 15   4.0   2.2 | -41.6 -42.9  320  33 17   5.6   3.1
 32000 -38.5 -37.3  305  28 14   4.0   2.2 | -38.3 -36.9  325  31 16   5.6   3.1
 30000 -33.9 -29.0  300  27 14   8.0   4.4 | -33.7 -28.7  325  29 15   7.4   4.0
 29000 -31.5 -24.7  300  28 14   8.0   4.4 | -31.5 -24.7  325  28 14   7.4   4.1
 28000 -29.1 -20.4  300  28 14   8.3   4.5 | -29.2 -20.6  325  27 14   7.7   4.2
 27000 -26.5 -15.7  305  29 15   8.4   4.6 | -26.9 -16.4  320  28 14   8.0   4.4
 26000 -24.0 -11.2  305  30 15   8.4   4.6 | -24.5 -12.1  320  29 15   8.0   4.4
 25000 -21.5  -6.7  305  31 16   8.4   4.6 | -22.1  -7.8  315  31 16   8.0   4.4
 24000 -19.0  -2.2  305  31 16   8.3   4.5 | -19.5  -3.1  315  29 15   8.6   4.7
 23000 -16.5   2.3  300  31 16   8.3   4.5 | -16.9   1.6  305  27 14   8.6   4.7
 22000 -14.0   6.8  300  31 16   8.1   4.4 | -14.3   6.3  300  25 13   8.4   4.6
 21000 -12.0  10.4  290  30 15   6.7   3.7 | -12.2  10.0  300  24 13   7.1   3.9
 20000 -10.0  14.0  285  28 14   6.8   3.7 | -10.1  13.8  305  24 13   7.1   3.9
 19500  -9.0  15.8  280  28 14   6.9   3.8 |  -9.1  15.6  305  25 13   7.2   4.0
 19000  -8.1  17.4  280  27 14   4.7   2.6 |  -8.0  17.6  310  24 13   6.9   3.8
 18500  -7.5  18.5  280  26 13   4.6   2.5 |  -7.0  19.4  305  24 12   6.9   3.8
 18000  -6.9  19.6  280  25 13   4.9   2.7 |  -6.0  21.2  305  23 12   6.8   3.7
 17500  -6.2  20.8  285  24 12   5.6   3.1 |  -5.1  22.8  305  23 12   6.5   3.6
 17000  -5.4  22.3  285  22 11   5.4   3.0 |  -4.2  24.4  310  23 12   6.7   3.7
 16500  -4.5  23.9  290  20 10   7.3   4.0 |  -3.3  26.1  310  22 12   5.6   3.1
 16000  -3.4  25.9  295  19 10   7.4   4.1 |  -2.5  27.5  310  22 11   5.7   3.1
 15500  -2.3  27.9  305  19 10   7.9   4.3 |  -1.3  29.7  315  20 10   6.9   3.8
 15000  -0.5  31.1  305  21 11   8.4   4.6 |  -0.3  31.5  310  19 10   6.8   3.7
 14500   0.7  33.3  310  22 11   6.8   3.7 |   0.7  33.3  310  19 10   6.8   3.8
 14000   1.6  34.9  305  24 12   6.5   3.6 |   1.7  35.1  305  19 10   6.9   3.8
 13500   2.5  36.5  305  25 13   6.5   3.6 |   2.6  36.7  305  20 10   7.2   4.0
 13000   3.4  38.1  300  25 13   6.6   3.6 |   3.6  38.5  300  21 11   7.5   4.1
 12500   4.3  39.7  295  25 13   7.1   3.9 |   4.7  40.5  295  21 11   8.1   4.5
 12000   5.3  41.5  295  22 11   7.7   4.2 |   5.9  42.6  295  20 10   8.9   4.9
 11500   6.4  43.5  290  19 10   8.0   4.4 |   7.2  45.0  295  19 10   8.9   4.9
 11000   7.6  45.7  290  16  8   8.3   4.6 |   8.5  47.3  295  17  9   8.5   4.7
 10500   8.9  48.0  290  12  6   4.0   2.2 |   9.8  49.6  295  16  8   4.1   2.3
 10250   9.0  48.2  290  11  6   6.1   3.3 |   9.9  49.8  295  16  8   5.4   3.0
 10000   9.9  49.8  290  11  6  13.3   7.3 |  10.7  51.3  295  15  8  12.2   6.7
  9750  10.8  51.4  290  10  5  11.9   6.5 |  11.5  52.7  300  13  7  10.9   6.0
  9500  11.7  53.1  290   9  5  10.5   5.7 |  12.3  54.1  300  12  6   9.3   5.1
  9250  12.3  54.1  290   9  5   8.4   4.6 |  12.9  55.2  300  11  6   7.3   4.0
  9000  13.0  55.4  290   9  5  10.3   5.7 |  13.6  56.5  300  10  5   9.8   5.4
  8750  13.8  56.8  290   9  5  11.6   6.4 |  14.3  57.7  300   9  5  11.2   6.1
  8500  14.7  58.5  290   9  4  10.1   5.5 |  15.1  59.2  300   8  4  10.0   5.5
  8250  15.3  59.5  290   8  4   8.6   4.7 |  15.8  60.4  300   7  4   9.3   5.1
  8000  16.0  60.8  290   8  4   9.9   5.4 |  16.5  61.7  300   7  4   9.5   5.2
  7750  16.8  62.2  290   8  4  10.8   5.9 |  17.2  63.0  300   7  3   9.6   5.3
  7500  17.6  63.7  290   8  4  10.2   5.6 |  18.0  64.4  305   6  3   9.8   5.4
  7250  18.3  64.9  290   8  4   9.9   5.5 |  18.7  65.7  305   6  3  10.0   5.5
  7000  19.1  66.4  290   8  4  10.0   5.5 |  19.5  67.1  305   6  3   9.6   5.2
  6750  19.8  67.6  290   8  4  10.3   5.6 |  20.1  68.2  305   6  3   9.4   5.2
  6500  20.6  69.1  290   8  4  10.4   5.7 |  20.9  69.6  305   6  3  10.0   5.5
  6250  21.4  70.5  290   7  4  10.7   5.9 |  21.6  70.9  305   5  3  10.5   5.8
  6000  22.2  72.0  290   7  4   9.5   5.2 |  22.4  72.3  305   5  3   9.6   5.3
  5750  22.9  73.2  290   7  4  13.7   7.5 |  23.1  73.6  310   5  3   9.5   5.2
  5500  24.3  75.7  290   7  3  24.0  13.1 |  23.8  74.8  310   5  2  11.5   6.3
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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