Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 311111
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0411 MST Saturday, January 31, 2015

This forecast is for Saturday, January 31, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 41.0 F/5.0 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10010 ft MSL (3252 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 38.0 F/3.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7818 ft MSL (1060 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 02/01....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:06:09 / 17:17:47 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 11 min 38 sec (611 min 38 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:12:20 MST... 33.79 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 01/31/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 16444 ft MSL (9686 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 10277 ft MSL (3519 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +11.8
K index......................... +12.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -60.4 -76.7   270   34   18   3.3   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -55.4 -67.7   260   50   26   0.8   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -58.1 -72.6   235   54   28  -1.7  -0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -57.4 -71.3   225   56   29   3.3   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -55.5 -67.9   225   56   29   3.3   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -52.8 -63.0   220   57   29   8.7   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -47.7 -53.9   220   58   30   8.6   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -42.4 -44.3   220   59   30   9.5   5.2   27.9  82.2    18.8      M    M
 29000  -39.5 -39.1   220   57   29   9.5   5.2   27.7  81.9    18.9      M    M
 28000  -36.7 -34.1   225   55   28   9.5   5.2   27.7  81.8    19.1      M    M
 27000  -33.2 -27.8   225   53   27   8.2   4.5   27.6  81.7    19.3      M    M
 26000  -30.8 -23.4   225   50   25   8.0   4.4   26.8  80.3    18.9      M    M
 25000  -28.5 -19.3   230   46   24   8.0   4.4   26.2  79.1    18.6      M    M
 24000  -26.1 -15.0   230   43   22   7.8   4.3   25.6  78.2    18.4      M    M
 23000  -23.8 -10.8   230   38   19   7.7   4.2   24.8  76.6    17.9      M    M
 22000  -21.6  -6.9   230   32   16   7.7   4.2   24.1  75.3    17.4      M    M
 21000  -19.3  -2.7   230   26   14   7.4   4.0   23.4  74.2    17.0      M    M
 20000  -17.2   1.0   230   26   13   7.2   4.0   22.5  72.4    16.4      M    M
 19500  -16.1   3.0   230   25   13   7.2   4.0   22.0  71.6    16.0      M    M
 19000  -15.1   4.8   235   25   13   7.2   4.0   21.6  70.9    15.8      M    M
 18500  -14.0   6.8   235   25   13   7.0   3.8   21.2  70.2    15.5      M    M
 18000  -13.0   8.6   240   24   13   6.5   3.5   20.7  69.3    15.1      M    M
 17500  -12.1  10.2   240   24   12   6.5   3.6   20.1  68.3    14.7      M    M
 17000  -11.2  11.8   245   24   12   6.2   3.4   19.6  67.3    14.2      M    M
 16500  -10.2  13.6   250   23   12   6.3   3.4   19.0  66.2    13.8      M    M
 16000   -9.3  15.3   250   23   12   6.4   3.5   18.4  65.2    13.3      M    M
 15500   -8.4  16.9   255   23   12   6.5   3.6   17.9  64.2    12.8      M    M
 15000   -7.4  18.7   255   23   12   6.4   3.5   17.4  63.2    12.4      M    M
 14500   -6.6  20.1   255   23   12   5.3   2.9   16.7  62.1    11.8      M    M
 14000   -5.9  21.4   255   23   12   5.8   3.2   16.0  60.8    11.2      M    M
 13500   -5.2  22.6   255   21   11   1.9   1.0   14.4  57.9     9.8      M    M
 13000   -4.9  23.2   255   21   11   1.1   0.6   13.2  55.7     8.7      M    M
 12500   -5.0  23.0   255   19   10  -1.5  -0.8   11.5  52.7     7.1      M    M
 12000   -5.2  22.6   255   17    9  -1.1  -0.6    9.8  49.6     5.6      M    M
 11750   -5.3  22.5   255   15    8  -1.8  -1.0    8.9  48.0     4.7      M    M
 11500   -5.4  22.3   250   14    7  -2.1  -1.1    8.0  46.4     3.9      M    M
 11250   -5.6  21.9   245   12    6  -2.1  -1.1    7.1  44.7     3.0      M    M
 11000   -5.7  21.7   240   11    5  -2.1  -1.2    6.1  43.0     2.1      M    M
 10750   -5.8  21.6   235    9    5   1.1   0.6    5.3  41.5     1.3      M    M
 10500   -5.6  21.9   225    8    4   3.8   2.1    4.8  40.6     0.8      M    M
 10250   -5.3  22.5   215    7    4   2.2   1.2    4.3  39.7     0.4      M    M
 10000   -5.1  22.8   205    7    3   5.8   3.2    3.7  38.7    -0.1    278  1.4
  9750   -4.5  23.9   205    7    3   7.6   4.2    3.6  38.5    -0.2    252  1.3
  9500   -4.0  24.8   200    6    3   5.6   3.1    3.3  38.0    -0.5    231  1.2
  9250   -3.6  25.5   200    6    3   6.1   3.3    3.0  37.5    -0.8    211  1.1
  9000   -3.1  26.4   195    5    3   6.2   3.4    2.8  37.0    -1.1    190  1.0
  8750   -2.7  27.1   220    3    1   5.0   2.8    2.5  36.4    -1.4    170  0.9
  8500   -2.4  27.7   255    2    1   3.9   2.2    2.0  35.7    -1.9    154  0.8
  8250   -2.1  28.2   290    3    2   4.3   2.4    1.6  34.9    -2.3    138  0.7
  8000   -1.8  28.8   310    4    2   4.3   2.4    1.2  34.2    -2.7    121  0.6
  7750   -1.5  29.3   330    5    2   4.9   2.7    0.8  33.5    -3.1    104  0.5
  7500   -1.1  30.0   335    5    2   6.9   3.8    0.5  32.9    -3.5     85  0.4
  7250   -0.7  30.7   340    5    3   3.2   1.8    0.2  32.4    -3.8     64  0.3
  7000   -0.8  30.6   335    4    2  -5.9  -3.3   -0.0  32.0    -4.0     61  0.3
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           01/31/2015 at 0800 MST          |       01/31/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +16.7  LI... +1.3               | K index... +20.1  LI... +0.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.0                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.5 -75.1  265  34 17   3.3   1.8 | -58.9 -74.0  260  35 18   4.0   2.2
 45000 -54.4 -65.9  255  46 24   1.1   0.6 | -53.0 -63.4  250  49 25   2.4   1.3
 40000 -55.7 -68.3  230  51 26  -0.8  -0.5 | -52.8 -63.0  235  54 28   0.0   0.0
 38000 -55.8 -68.4  225  55 28   0.7   0.4 | -53.1 -63.6  225  58 30  -1.0  -0.5
 36000 -55.4 -67.7  220  60 31   0.7   0.4 | -53.7 -64.7  220  65 34  -1.0  -0.5
 34000 -53.8 -64.8  215  65 33   8.4   4.6 | -53.6 -64.5  215  72 37   8.9   4.9
 32000 -48.8 -55.8  215  63 32   8.4   4.6 | -49.0 -56.2  210  71 36   7.8   4.3
 30000 -43.5 -46.3  220  61 31   9.5   5.2 | -44.2 -47.6  210  68 35   8.8   4.8
 29000 -40.7 -41.3  220  59 30   9.6   5.3 | -41.6 -42.9  215  65 33   8.8   4.8
 28000 -37.8 -36.0  220  57 29   9.6   5.3 | -39.0 -38.2  215  61 31   8.8   4.8
 27000 -34.9 -30.8  225  55 28   9.4   5.2 | -35.7 -32.3  225  57 29   8.7   4.8
 26000 -32.2 -26.0  225  52 27   9.2   5.0 | -33.1 -27.6  225  53 27   8.7   4.8
 25000 -29.4 -20.9  230  49 25   9.2   5.1 | -30.5 -22.9  230  49 25   8.7   4.8
 24000 -26.7 -16.1  230  46 24   9.1   5.0 | -27.9 -18.2  230  46 24   8.5   4.7
 23000 -24.4 -11.9  230  41 21   7.2   4.0 | -25.7 -14.3  235  38 20   7.2   4.0
 22000 -22.3  -8.1  230  35 18   7.2   4.0 | -23.6 -10.5  235  30 15   7.3   4.0
 21000 -20.1  -4.2  225  29 15   6.9   3.8 | -21.5  -6.7  235  21 11   7.0   3.8
 20000 -18.2  -0.8  225  26 14   6.4   3.5 | -19.5  -3.1  240  20 10   6.7   3.7
 19500 -17.3   0.9  225  25 13   6.5   3.5 | -18.5  -1.3  240  19 10   6.7   3.7
 19000 -16.3   2.7  225  24 12   6.5   3.6 | -17.5   0.5  245  18  9   6.7   3.7
 18500 -15.4   4.3  225  23 12   6.5   3.6 | -16.6   2.1  245  17  9   6.8   3.7
 18000 -14.4   6.1  230  21 11   6.6   3.6 | -15.5   4.1  250  17  9   7.1   3.9
 17500 -13.5   7.7  240  19 10   6.6   3.6 | -14.5   5.9  255  17  9   7.1   3.9
 17000 -12.5   9.5  250  19 10   6.5   3.6 | -13.5   7.7  260  17  9   7.0   3.9
 16500 -11.1  12.0  255  18  9   6.4   3.5 | -12.4   9.7  260  16  8   7.0   3.9
 16000 -10.0  14.0  260  18  9   7.6   4.2 | -11.4  11.5  260  15  8   6.9   3.8
 15500  -8.9  16.0  265  18  9   7.7   4.2 | -10.5  13.1  265  14  7   6.5   3.6
 15000  -7.8  18.0  270  17  9   7.0   3.9 |  -9.5  14.9  270  12  6   6.5   3.6
 14500  -6.8  19.8  270  17  9   6.6   3.6 |  -8.5  16.7  275  11  6   6.7   3.7
 14000  -5.9  21.4  275  16  8   6.0   3.3 |  -7.6  18.3  285  10  5   6.8   3.7
 13500  -5.1  22.8  270  16  8   4.7   2.6 |  -6.3  20.7  290  10  5   5.2   2.9
 13000  -4.4  24.1  270  16  8   4.2   2.3 |  -5.5  22.1  290  10  5   5.1   2.8
 12500  -4.2  24.4  265  16  8   0.3   0.2 |  -4.8  23.4  290  10  5   4.7   2.6
 12000  -4.2  24.4  265  15  8  -0.8  -0.5 |  -4.3  24.3  290  10  5   2.1   1.2
 11750  -4.3  24.3  260  15  8  -1.3  -0.7 |  -4.1  24.6  290  10  5   2.5   1.4
 11500  -4.4  24.1  260  14  7  -1.5  -0.8 |  -3.9  25.0  285  10  5   2.4   1.3
 11250  -4.5  23.9  255  13  7  -1.7  -0.9 |  -3.8  25.2  285  10  5   2.4   1.3
 11000  -4.6  23.7  255  13  7  -0.7  -0.4 |  -3.6  25.5  285  11  5   2.1   1.1
 10750  -4.6  23.7  250  13  6   1.1   0.6 |  -3.4  25.9  285  11  6   2.8   1.6
 10500  -4.5  23.9  245  12  6   1.4   0.8 |  -3.2  26.2  280  10  5   3.4   1.9
 10250  -4.4  24.1  245  11  6   1.2   0.7 |  -2.9  26.8  280  10  5   3.9   2.1
 10000  -4.3  24.3  240  10  5   1.8   1.0 |  -2.7  27.1  280   9  5   1.4   0.8
  9750  -4.1  24.6  235  10  5   2.3   1.3 |  -2.7  27.1  275   9  4   0.6   0.3
  9500  -3.9  25.0  230  10  5   2.2   1.2 |  -2.5  27.5  270   8  4   2.6   1.4
  9250  -3.8  25.2  225   9  5   1.8   1.0 |  -2.4  27.7  265   8  4   2.1   1.1
  9000  -3.6  25.5  215   9  5   3.7   2.0 |  -2.2  28.0  260   7  4   2.2   1.2
  8750  -3.2  26.2  215   8  4   5.4   3.0 |  -2.0  28.4  250   6  3   3.9   2.1
  8500  -2.9  26.8  210   8  4   4.7   2.6 |  -1.7  28.9  235   4  2   5.3   2.9
  8250  -2.5  27.5  205   7  4   4.9   2.7 |  -1.3  29.7  215   4  2   4.9   2.7
  8000  -2.2  28.0  200   7  3   4.4   2.4 |  -0.9  30.4  195   4  2   7.1   3.9
  7750  -1.8  28.8  200   5  3   4.9   2.7 |  -0.3  31.5  190   3  2   8.7   4.8
  7500  -1.4  29.5  195   4  2   7.2   4.0 |   0.3  32.5  180   3  2   8.5   4.7
  7250  -0.9  30.4  185   3  1   3.5   1.9 |   1.0  33.8  175   3  2   8.4   4.6
  7000  -1.1  30.0  185   2  1  -6.1  -3.4 |   1.5  34.7  170   3  2   7.6   4.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           01/31/2015 at 1400 MST          |       01/31/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +20.7  LI... +1.5               | K index... +20.5  LI... +1.3
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.5 -73.3  255  36 19   3.6   2.0 | -58.4 -73.1  255  37 19   3.1   1.7
 45000 -53.1 -63.6  255  48 25   2.2   1.2 | -53.5 -64.3  250  44 23   2.1   1.1
 40000 -52.5 -62.5  245  49 25   0.4   0.2 | -52.2 -62.0  255  43 22   0.9   0.5
 38000 -52.4 -62.3  235  49 25  -0.2  -0.1 | -51.9 -61.4  255  41 21  -0.3  -0.2
 36000 -52.6 -62.7  225  51 26  -0.2  -0.1 | -52.1 -61.8  250  36 19  -0.3  -0.2
 34000 -52.3 -62.1  215  54 28   6.4   3.5 | -52.3 -62.1  245  32 16   1.8   1.0
 32000 -48.7 -55.7  215  57 29   6.0   3.3 | -49.9 -57.8  260  24 12   3.9   2.2
 30000 -44.9 -48.8  215  58 30   8.5   4.7 | -47.4 -53.3  285  19 10   8.0   4.4
 29000 -42.5 -44.5  220  50 26   8.1   4.5 | -44.5 -48.1  280  19 10   9.8   5.4
 28000 -40.1 -40.2  225  43 22   8.1   4.5 | -40.8 -41.4  270  19 10   9.8   5.4
 27000 -37.7 -35.9  235  37 19   8.0   4.4 | -37.8 -36.0  265  19 10   9.8   5.4
 26000 -35.0 -31.0  240  32 16   9.1   5.0 | -35.1 -31.2  270  19 10   9.1   5.0
 25000 -32.3 -26.1  240  27 14   9.1   5.0 | -32.3 -26.1  275  18  9   9.1   5.0
 24000 -29.6 -21.3  240  21 11   9.2   5.0 | -29.6 -21.3  280  18  9   9.4   5.1
 23000 -26.7 -16.1  245  20 10   7.5   4.1 | -27.3 -17.1  285  18  9   7.4   4.1
 22000 -24.5 -12.1  250  20 10   7.5   4.1 | -25.0 -13.0  285  17  9   7.5   4.1
 21000 -22.3  -8.1  255  20 10   7.7   4.2 | -22.8  -9.0  290  17  9   7.3   4.0
 20000 -19.9  -3.8  260  18  9   7.9   4.4 | -20.8  -5.4  300  18  9   6.7   3.7
 19500 -18.7  -1.7  260  17  9   8.0   4.4 | -19.8  -3.6  305  19 10   6.7   3.7
 19000 -17.6   0.3  260  16  8   8.0   4.4 | -18.8  -1.8  310  20 10   6.7   3.7
 18500 -16.4   2.5  265  15  8   7.8   4.3 | -17.9  -0.2  310  21 11   6.7   3.7
 18000 -15.3   4.5  265  15  8   7.2   3.9 | -16.9   1.6  315  22 11   6.5   3.6
 17500 -14.3   6.3  265  14  7   7.3   4.0 | -15.9   3.4  315  22 12   6.6   3.6
 17000 -13.3   8.1  265  14  7   6.0   3.3 | -15.0   5.0  320  23 12   6.4   3.5
 16500 -12.4   9.7  270  13  7   5.9   3.3 | -14.0   6.8  320  24 12   6.4   3.5
 16000 -11.6  11.1  275  12  6   6.0   3.3 | -13.1   8.4  325  25 13   6.3   3.5
 15500 -10.7  12.7  285  11  6   6.2   3.4 | -12.2  10.0  325  26 13   6.1   3.4
 15000  -9.8  14.4  295  11  5   6.2   3.4 | -11.3  11.7  325  26 14   6.1   3.4
 14500  -8.9  16.0  305  11  5   5.2   2.9 | -10.4  13.3  325  27 14   6.4   3.5
 14000  -8.2  17.2  310  11  6   5.4   2.9 |  -9.4  15.1  325  27 14   6.4   3.5
 13500  -7.4  18.7  315  11  6   4.6   2.5 |  -8.5  16.7  330  27 14   6.2   3.4
 13000  -6.8  19.8  320  12  6   4.7   2.6 |  -7.6  18.3  330  27 14   6.2   3.4
 12500  -6.1  21.0  320  13  7   4.7   2.6 |  -6.7  19.9  330  26 13   6.3   3.5
 12000  -5.4  22.3  320  13  6   3.9   2.1 |  -5.8  21.6  335  24 13   5.0   2.8
 11750  -5.2  22.6  320  12  6   3.4   1.9 |  -5.5  22.1  335  23 12   4.3   2.4
 11500  -4.9  23.2  320  12  6   3.5   1.9 |  -5.2  22.6  335  22 11   5.1   2.8
 11250  -4.7  23.5  320  11  6   3.5   1.9 |  -4.8  23.4  335  21 11   5.3   2.9
 11000  -4.4  24.1  315  11  6   3.3   1.8 |  -4.4  24.1  335  19 10   5.2   2.9
 10750  -4.2  24.4  315  11  5   3.3   1.8 |  -4.0  24.8  335  18  9   5.3   2.9
 10500  -3.9  25.0  310  10  5   3.7   2.0 |  -3.6  25.5  335  17  9   5.2   2.9
 10250  -3.6  25.5  310   9  5   4.0   2.2 |  -2.9  26.8  330  14  7   5.3   2.9
 10000  -3.4  25.9  305   8  4   3.7   2.0 |  -2.5  27.5  330  13  7   4.9   2.7
  9750  -3.1  26.4  300   7  4   4.5   2.5 |  -2.2  28.0  330  12  6   3.3   1.8
  9500  -2.5  27.5  290   5  2   3.0   1.6 |  -2.0  28.4  330  11  6   2.5   1.4
  9250  -2.3  27.9  275   3  2   3.2   1.8 |  -1.8  28.8  335  10  5   2.6   1.4
  9000  -2.1  28.2  250   2  1   3.3   1.8 |  -1.6  29.1  340   8  4   3.0   1.6
  8750  -1.8  28.8  225   2  1   4.7   2.6 |  -1.4  29.5  345   7  4   3.2   1.8
  8500  -1.4  29.5  190   2  1   5.5   3.0 |  -1.2  29.8  355   7  4   2.9   1.6
  8250  -1.0  30.2  165   2  1   5.6   3.1 |  -1.0  30.2  010   7  4   3.1   1.7
  8000  -0.6  30.9  155   3  2   6.1   3.3 |  -0.7  30.7  015   7  4   3.7   2.0
  7750  -0.0  32.0  150   3  2   9.9   5.4 |  -0.4  31.3  020   7  3   5.5   3.0
  7500   0.9  33.6  145   4  2  16.1   8.8 |   0.1  32.2  020   5  3   7.5   4.1
  7250   1.9  35.4  140   4  2   5.1   2.8 |   0.5  32.9  020   4  2   4.2   2.3
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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