Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Denver/Boulder, CO

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000
UXUS97 KBOU 051146
SRGBOU

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Denver/Boulder, Colorado
0546 MDT Thursday, May 5, 2016

This forecast is for Thursday, May 5, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 72.9 F/22.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1088 ft/min (5.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 17965 ft MSL (12658 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 81.0 F/27.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast thin high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11895 ft MSL (6589 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 05/06....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Little change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 45806 ft MSL (40499 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Friday 05/06.......... Poor

Remarks... Large upper ridge over colorad0-light winds aloft.

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:54:41 / 19:57:22 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 2 min 40 sec (842 min 40 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:56:13 MDT... 66.76 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 05/05/2016 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 13492 ft MSL (8185 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16627 ft MSL (11320 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 17299 ft MSL (11993 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +0.2
K index......................... +15.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -65.8 -86.4   280   44   22  -0.8  -0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -66.5 -87.7   275   61   31   2.7   1.5      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -62.1 -79.8   295   47   24   3.8   2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -57.2 -71.0   290   44   23   8.6   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -52.0 -61.6   285   42   22   8.6   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -47.2 -53.0   285   37   19   7.6   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -42.7 -44.9   290   30   16   7.5   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -38.1 -36.6   295   25   13   8.0   4.4   37.8 100.1     8.0      M    M
 29000  -35.7 -32.3   300   24   12   8.0   4.4   37.1  98.8     7.5      M    M
 28000  -32.7 -26.9   305   23   12   7.9   4.3   36.4  97.5     7.1      M    M
 27000  -30.2 -22.4   305   22   12   8.7   4.8   35.8  96.5     6.7      M    M
 26000  -27.6 -17.7   310   23   12   8.7   4.8   35.4  95.7     6.4      M    M
 25000  -25.0 -13.0   310   23   12   8.7   4.8   35.0  95.1     6.2      M    M
 24000  -22.7  -8.9   315   22   11   7.2   4.0   34.3  93.8     5.7      M    M
 23000  -20.5  -4.9   320   21   11   7.2   3.9   33.4  92.0     5.0      M    M
 22000  -18.4  -1.1   320   20   10   7.3   4.0   32.5  90.5     4.3      M    M
 21000  -16.4   2.5   325   18    9   6.3   3.5   31.4  88.5     3.4      M    M
 20000  -14.5   5.9   325   16    8   6.3   3.5   30.1  86.3     2.4      M    M
 19500  -13.5   7.7   325   15    8   6.3   3.5   29.6  85.2     2.0      M    M
 19000  -12.5   9.5   325   15    7   5.9   3.2   29.0  84.3     1.5      M    M
 18500  -11.8  10.8   320   14    7   5.3   2.9   28.3  82.9     0.8      M    M
 18000  -11.0  12.2   315   13    7   5.2   2.8   27.5  81.5     0.1      M    M
 17500  -10.1  13.8   310   12    6   7.2   4.0   26.9  80.4    -0.4   1154  5.9
 17000   -9.1  15.6   305   11    6   7.2   3.9   26.4  79.6    -0.9   1109  5.6
 16500   -8.1  17.4   295   11    5   8.1   4.4   26.0  78.8    -1.3   1063  5.4
 16000   -6.8  19.8   295   10    5   8.8   4.8   25.8  78.5    -1.5   1010  5.1
 15500   -5.5  22.1   295    9    5   8.8   4.8   25.7  78.3    -1.7    957  4.9
 15000   -3.7  25.3   290    9    5   8.4   4.6   25.4  77.6    -2.1    880  4.5
 14500   -2.5  27.5   290    9    4   8.8   4.8   25.1  77.3    -2.3    829  4.2
 14000   -1.1  30.0   295    9    5   9.2   5.0   25.0  77.1    -2.4    774  3.9
 13500    0.2  32.4   300    9    5   9.2   5.0   25.0  76.9    -2.6    718  3.6
 13000    1.6  34.9   300    9    5   9.0   4.9   24.8  76.7    -2.7    663  3.4
 12500    2.9  37.2   300   10    5   9.0   4.9   24.7  76.5    -2.8    609  3.1
 12000    4.2  39.6   305   10    5   8.9   4.9   24.6  76.3    -3.0    555  2.8
 11500    5.5  41.9   305   11    5   8.9   4.9   24.5  76.0    -3.1    500  2.5
 11000    6.8  44.2   305   11    5   8.0   4.4   24.3  75.7    -3.4    448  2.3
 10500    8.0  46.4   300   11    5   6.7   3.7   24.0  75.2    -3.6    397  2.0
 10250    8.4  47.1   300   11    5   5.1   2.8   23.7  74.6    -4.0    378  1.9
 10000    8.9  48.0   300   10    5   8.5   4.7   23.4  74.2    -4.2    356  1.8
  9750    9.6  49.3   300   10    5  10.4   5.7   23.4  74.2    -4.2    326  1.7
  9500   10.3  50.5   300   10    5   9.4   5.1   23.4  74.2    -4.2    297  1.5
  9250   10.9  51.6   295   10    5   6.5   3.6   23.3  74.0    -4.4    272  1.4
  9000   11.4  52.5   295    9    5   7.3   4.0   23.0  73.5    -4.7    251  1.3
  8750   12.1  53.8   295    8    4   9.8   5.4   23.0  73.4    -4.7    223  1.1
  8500   12.7  54.9   295    8    4   8.6   4.7   22.9  73.3    -4.8    196  1.0
  8250   13.3  55.9   290    7    4   7.7   4.2   22.8  73.1    -4.9    170  0.9
  8000   13.9  57.0   285    7    4   7.1   3.9   22.6  72.8    -5.1    146  0.7
  7750   14.4  57.9   280    7    4   7.3   4.0   22.4  72.4    -5.3    123  0.6
  7500   14.9  58.8   275    8    4   5.6   3.1   22.2  72.0    -5.6    101  0.5
  7250   15.2  59.4   270    8    4   3.7   2.0   21.8  71.2    -6.0     85  0.4
  7000   15.5  59.9   265    8    4   4.5   2.5   21.4  70.4    -6.5     69  0.3
  6750   15.8  60.4   255    8    4   2.5   1.4   20.9  69.7    -6.9     53  0.3
  6500   15.6  60.1   250    8    4  -8.7  -4.8   20.0  68.0    -7.8     50  0.3
  6250   14.5  58.1   250    7    4 -17.5  -9.6   18.2  64.7    -9.7     76  0.4
  6000   13.4  56.1   250    7    4  -8.6  -4.7   16.4  61.4   -11.5    101  0.5
  5750   12.7  54.9   250    6    3 -23.1 -12.7   14.9  58.7   -13.1    117  0.6
  5500    9.0  48.2   240    5    2 -75.3 -41.3   10.5  50.9   -17.5    221  1.1

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           05/05/2016 at 0900 MDT          |       05/05/2016 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +11.1  LI... +1.9               | K index... +6.4  LI... +1.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2                   | CAPE... +4.8  CIN... -6.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.7 -86.3  280  44 22  -0.6  -0.4 | -66.4 -87.5  275  39 20  -0.4  -0.2
 45000 -66.2 -87.2  275  61 31   2.7   1.5 | -66.5 -87.7  275  55 28   3.1   1.7
 40000 -61.9 -79.4  290  42 22   3.8   2.1 | -61.4 -78.5  290  41 21   4.7   2.6
 38000 -57.0 -70.6  285  39 20   8.5   4.7 | -56.4 -69.5  280  37 19   8.6   4.7
 36000 -51.9 -61.4  280  38 19   8.5   4.7 | -51.3 -60.3  270  35 18   8.6   4.7
 34000 -47.3 -53.1  280  35 18   7.2   4.0 | -46.6 -51.9  270  34 17   7.4   4.1
 32000 -42.9 -45.2  280  30 16   7.2   4.0 | -42.1 -43.8  280  32 17   7.4   4.1
 30000 -38.4 -37.1  280  26 14   8.0   4.4 | -37.7 -35.9  280  28 15   7.4   4.0
 29000 -35.4 -31.7  280  24 12   8.0   4.4 | -34.9 -30.8  280  24 12   7.4   4.0
 28000 -33.0 -27.4  280  22 11   7.9   4.3 | -32.7 -26.9  280  20 10   7.2   4.0
 27000 -30.4 -22.7  285  21 11   8.9   4.9 | -30.2 -22.4  280  19 10   8.8   4.8
 26000 -27.8 -18.0  285  20 10   8.9   4.9 | -27.5 -17.5  280  17  9   8.8   4.8
 25000 -25.1 -13.2  290  19 10   8.9   4.9 | -24.9 -12.8  280  16  8   8.8   4.8
 24000 -22.7  -8.9  295  18  9   7.6   4.2 | -22.5  -8.5  280  15  8   7.7   4.2
 23000 -20.4  -4.7  295  16  8   7.6   4.2 | -20.1  -4.2  275  14  7   7.7   4.2
 22000 -18.2  -0.8  300  15  8   7.7   4.2 | -17.8  -0.0  275  13  7   7.9   4.3
 21000 -16.2   2.8  300  13  7   6.0   3.3 | -15.9   3.4  270  12  6   5.9   3.3
 20000 -14.4   6.1  300  11  5   6.0   3.3 | -14.1   6.6  270  11  6   5.9   3.3
 19500 -13.5   7.7  305   9  5   6.0   3.3 | -13.2   8.2  265  10  5   5.9   3.2
 19000 -12.6   9.3  305   8  4   5.6   3.1 | -12.3   9.9  265  10  5   5.8   3.2
 18500 -11.8  10.8  300   8  4   5.2   2.8 | -11.5  11.3  260   9  5   5.6   3.1
 18000 -11.1  12.0  300   7  4   5.0   2.7 | -10.7  12.7  260   9  5   5.5   3.0
 17500 -10.2  13.6  295   7  4   7.6   4.2 |  -9.8  14.4  255   9  5   7.0   3.9
 17000  -9.1  15.6  290   7  3   7.4   4.1 |  -8.7  16.3  255   9  5   6.9   3.8
 16500  -8.0  17.6  285   6  3   7.7   4.2 |  -7.7  18.1  250   9  5   7.5   4.1
 16000  -6.9  19.6  290   6  3   7.9   4.3 |  -6.6  20.1  250   8  4   7.8   4.3
 15500  -5.7  21.7  295   5  3   7.9   4.4 |  -4.8  23.4  245   7  4   7.7   4.2
 15000  -4.0  24.8  305   5  3   8.0   4.4 |  -3.7  25.3  250   7  3   7.7   4.2
 14500  -2.8  27.0  310   6  3   8.7   4.8 |  -2.6  27.3  260   6  3   8.2   4.5
 14000  -1.5  29.3  320   7  3   9.2   5.0 |  -1.4  29.5  275   4  2   8.7   4.7
 13500  -0.1  31.8  325   7  4   9.2   5.0 |  -0.2  31.6  295   4  2   8.9   4.9
 13000   1.2  34.2  330   9  4   9.0   4.9 |   1.2  34.2  325   4  2   9.4   5.1
 12500   2.5  36.5  330  10  5   9.1   5.0 |   2.5  36.5  345   4  2   9.4   5.1
 12000   3.9  39.0  330  11  5   9.3   5.1 |   3.9  39.0  355   5  3   9.3   5.1
 11500   5.2  41.4  330  12  6   9.3   5.1 |   5.3  41.5  360   6  3   9.3   5.1
 11000   6.6  43.9  330  12  6   9.0   4.9 |   6.7  44.1  005   7  4   9.1   5.0
 10500   7.9  46.2  325  13  7   6.3   3.5 |   8.1  46.6  360   8  4   6.0   3.3
 10250   8.2  46.8  325  13  7   4.7   2.6 |   8.4  47.1  360   8  4   5.3   2.9
 10000   8.8  47.8  325  13  7  10.0   5.5 |   9.0  48.2  360   8  4  10.7   5.9
  9750   9.7  49.5  325  13  7  11.7   6.4 |   9.8  49.6  360   8  4  11.4   6.2
  9500  10.5  50.9  320  13  7  10.4   5.7 |  10.7  51.3  360   9  4  10.0   5.5
  9250  11.2  52.2  320  13  7   7.8   4.3 |  11.3  52.3  360   9  4   7.1   3.9
  9000  11.7  53.1  320  13  7   8.0   4.4 |  11.8  53.2  360   8  4   8.3   4.5
  8750  12.4  54.3  320  13  6   9.3   5.1 |  12.5  54.5  360   8  4  10.2   5.6
  8500  13.0  55.4  320  12  6   8.4   4.6 |  13.3  55.9  360   8  4   8.9   4.9
  8250  13.6  56.5  320  12  6   7.5   4.1 |  13.9  57.0  360   8  4   7.8   4.3
  8000  14.2  57.6  315  11  6   7.5   4.1 |  14.4  57.9  360   7  4   7.9   4.3
  7750  14.8  58.6  315  11  6   8.0   4.4 |  15.0  59.0  355   7  3   8.1   4.4
  7500  15.3  59.5  315  10  5   6.4   3.5 |  15.6  60.1  355   6  3   8.4   4.6
  7250  15.7  60.3  315  10  5   4.8   2.6 |  16.2  61.2  355   5  3   8.6   4.7
  7000  16.1  61.0  315  10  5   5.7   3.1 |  16.8  62.2  350   4  2   8.6   4.7
  6750  16.4  61.5  315  10  5   3.1   1.7 |  17.4  63.3  345   3  1   9.2   5.1
  6500  16.4  61.5  315   9  5  -3.7  -2.0 |  18.1  64.6  340   2  1  10.4   5.7
  6250  15.9  60.6  310   8  4  -6.1  -3.4 |  18.9  66.0  340   2  1  11.2   6.1
  6000  15.5  59.9  305   7  3  -6.4  -3.5 |  19.7  67.5  340   2  1   9.6   5.3
  5750  15.0  59.0  305   6  3  -3.9  -2.1 |  20.5  68.9  345   2  1  13.5   7.4
  5500  14.9  58.8  285   4  2   3.9   2.2 |  21.8  71.2  345   2  1  24.2  13.3

           05/05/2016 at 1500 MDT          |       05/05/2016 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +9.8  LI... +0.5                | K index... +19.4  LI... -1.2
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.7                   | CAPE... +38.4  CIN... -50.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.5 -87.7  265  38 19  -1.0  -0.5 | -65.7 -86.3  260  37 19  -0.9  -0.5
 45000 -67.2 -89.0  270  49 25   3.7   2.0 | -66.5 -87.7  260  46 24   3.2   1.8
 40000 -61.2 -78.2  285  41 21   5.3   2.9 | -61.2 -78.2  275  38 20   4.5   2.5
 38000 -56.2 -69.2  275  38 20   8.3   4.6 | -56.5 -69.7  270  37 19   8.1   4.4
 36000 -51.3 -60.3  265  37 19   8.3   4.6 | -51.7 -61.1  260  36 18   8.1   4.4
 34000 -46.4 -51.5  265  35 18   7.9   4.3 | -46.7 -52.1  260  36 18   8.3   4.6
 32000 -41.7 -43.1  270  34 18   7.9   4.3 | -41.8 -43.2  265  36 19   8.3   4.6
 30000 -37.2 -35.0  275  28 14   7.3   4.0 | -36.4 -33.5  270  28 14   7.7   4.2
 29000 -34.4 -29.9  280  21 11   7.3   4.0 | -34.1 -29.4  275  22 11   7.7   4.2
 28000 -32.2 -26.0  280  16  8   7.3   4.0 | -31.8 -25.2  280  15  8   7.7   4.2
 27000 -29.8 -21.6  280  15  7   8.4   4.6 | -29.4 -20.9  280  13  7   8.0   4.4
 26000 -27.3 -17.1  275  14  7   8.4   4.6 | -27.0 -16.6  265  12  6   8.0   4.4
 25000 -24.8 -12.6  270  13  7   8.4   4.6 | -24.6 -12.3  255  12  6   8.0   4.4
 24000 -22.3  -8.1  265  13  7   8.2   4.5 | -22.1  -7.8  250  12  6   8.3   4.6
 23000 -19.9  -3.8  265  13  7   8.2   4.5 | -19.6  -3.3  250  13  7   8.4   4.6
 22000 -17.4   0.7  260  14  7   8.3   4.6 | -17.1   1.2  250  14  7   8.6   4.7
 21000 -15.4   4.3  255  14  7   6.0   3.3 | -15.3   4.5  250  15  8   5.1   2.8
 20000 -13.6   7.5  255  13  7   6.1   3.3 | -13.8   7.2  245  16  8   5.2   2.9
 19500 -12.7   9.1  250  13  7   6.1   3.3 | -13.1   8.4  245  16  8   5.4   3.0
 19000 -11.8  10.8  250  13  7   6.3   3.5 | -12.3   9.9  245  16  8   6.0   3.3
 18500 -10.9  12.4  250  13  7   6.5   3.6 | -11.4  11.5  245  15  8   6.6   3.6
 18000  -9.9  14.2  255  12  6   6.5   3.6 | -10.5  13.1  250  13  7   6.4   3.5
 17500  -8.9  16.0  260  12  6   6.8   3.7 |  -9.4  15.1  250  11  6   8.9   4.9
 17000  -8.0  17.6  265  13  7   6.8   3.8 |  -8.2  17.2  250  10  5   8.7   4.8
 16500  -7.0  19.4  270  14  7   7.7   4.2 |  -6.9  19.6  255   8  4   8.5   4.7
 16000  -5.8  21.6  275  12  6   8.1   4.4 |  -5.6  21.9  255   7  4   8.4   4.6
 15500  -4.0  24.8  280  10  5   8.3   4.6 |  -3.7  25.3  260   6  3   8.7   4.8
 15000  -2.7  27.1  280   9  5   8.4   4.6 |  -2.4  27.7  260   5  3   8.8   4.8
 14500  -1.5  29.3  285   8  4   8.2   4.5 |  -1.1  30.0  255   4  2   8.7   4.8
 14000  -0.3  31.5  280   6  3   8.1   4.4 |   0.2  32.4  235   4  2   8.6   4.7
 13500   0.9  33.6  275   5  3   8.0   4.4 |   1.5  34.7  210   5  2   8.5   4.6
 13000   2.1  35.8  255   4  2   7.9   4.4 |   2.7  36.9  190   6  3   8.1   4.4
 12500   3.2  37.8  225   3  2   8.0   4.4 |   3.9  39.0  175   8  4   8.1   4.5
 12000   4.4  39.9  190   3  1   8.7   4.8 |   5.2  41.4  165   9  4   9.1   5.0
 11500   5.7  42.3  160   3  2   8.7   4.8 |   6.5  43.7  160   9  5   9.0   4.9
 11000   7.0  44.6  140   4  2   8.8   4.8 |   7.8  46.0  155   9  5   8.6   4.7
 10500   8.3  46.9  130   4  2   5.8   3.2 |   9.1  48.4  150   9  5   4.5   2.5
 10250   8.5  47.3  125   4  2   6.3   3.5 |   9.3  48.7  150   9  5   5.7   3.1
 10000   9.3  48.7  125   4  2  11.6   6.4 |  10.1  50.2  150   9  4  12.1   6.6
  9750  10.1  50.2  125   4  2  11.1   6.1 |  10.8  51.4  145   8  4  10.5   5.8
  9500  10.9  51.6  120   4  2  10.6   5.8 |  11.6  52.9  145   8  4  10.8   5.9
  9250  11.6  52.9  120   4  2   8.5   4.7 |  12.3  54.1  140   8  4   9.1   5.0
  9000  12.2  54.0  120   4  2   9.6   5.3 |  12.9  55.2  140   7  4   9.0   5.0
  8750  13.0  55.4  120   4  2  11.1   6.1 |  13.7  56.7  140   7  4   9.9   5.4
  8500  13.8  56.8  120   4  2  10.5   5.7 |  14.4  57.9  140   7  4   9.7   5.3
  8250  14.5  58.1  120   4  2  10.1   5.5 |  15.1  59.2  140   7  3   9.9   5.5
  8000  15.3  59.5  120   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  15.8  60.4  140   6  3   9.6   5.3
  7750  16.0  60.8  120   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  16.5  61.7  140   6  3   9.0   4.9
  7500  16.7  62.1  120   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  17.2  63.0  140   5  3   9.5   5.2
  7250  17.5  63.5  120   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  17.9  64.2  140   5  3  10.3   5.6
  7000  18.2  64.8  120   4  2   9.8   5.4 |  18.6  65.5  140   5  2  10.1   5.6
  6750  19.0  66.2  120   4  2   9.4   5.1 |  19.4  66.9  140   4  2   9.5   5.2
  6500  19.7  67.5  120   3  2  10.1   5.5 |  20.1  68.2  140   4  2   9.7   5.3
  6250  20.5  68.9  120   3  2  11.1   6.1 |  20.8  69.4  140   4  2  10.3   5.6
  6000  21.3  70.3  120   3  2   9.9   5.4 |  21.6  70.9  140   4  2  10.0   5.5
  5750  22.0  71.6  120   3  2  12.9   7.1 |  22.3  72.1  140   4  2   9.9   5.4
  5500  23.2  73.8  120   3  2  21.4  11.8 |  23.0  73.4  140   3  2  10.8   5.9
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the old Stapleton
Airport site in Denver, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  39 deg 46 min 5.016 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 52 min 9.984 sec
                   Elevation: 5285 feet (1611 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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