Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 161016
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0416 MDT Wednesday, April 16, 2014

This forecast is for Wednesday, April 16, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 47.5 F/8.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 7946 ft MSL (776 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 44.0 F/7.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7493 ft MSL (323 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Thursday 04/17..... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Fair
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Neutral
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 21168 ft MSL (13998 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Thursday 04/17........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:21:01 / 19:36:14 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 15 min 13 sec (795 min 13 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:58:47 MDT... 61.35 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 04/16/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 9866 ft MSL (2696 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18213 ft MSL (11043 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14737 ft MSL (7567 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +7.4
K index......................... +3.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -56.1 -69.0   295   31   16   3.1   1.7      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -51.4 -60.5   290   49   25   3.4   1.9      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -59.4 -74.9   275   55   28  -6.1  -3.3      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -61.6 -78.9   275   56   29   3.6   2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -58.9 -74.0   280   53   27   4.0   2.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -56.4 -69.5   280   51   26   6.7   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -51.9 -61.4   285   52   27   7.5   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -47.4 -53.3   290   53   27   8.9   4.9   22.1  71.8    11.8      M    M
 29000  -44.7 -48.5   290   52   27   8.9   4.9   21.6  71.0    11.6      M    M
 28000  -42.0 -43.6   285   51   26   8.9   4.9   21.3  70.4    11.5      M    M
 27000  -39.4 -38.9   285   50   26   8.9   4.9   21.1  70.0    11.5      M    M
 26000  -36.6 -33.9   285   50   26   9.3   5.1   20.9  69.5    11.4      M    M
 25000  -33.9 -29.0   285   50   26   9.3   5.1   20.7  69.2    11.4      M    M
 24000  -31.1 -24.0   285   51   26   9.4   5.1   20.6  69.0    11.4      M    M
 23000  -28.0 -18.4   290   53   27   7.8   4.3   19.9  67.8    11.0      M    M
 22000  -25.7 -14.3   295   55   28   7.8   4.3   19.2  66.5    10.5      M    M
 21000  -23.3  -9.9   295   57   29   7.5   4.1   18.6  65.5    10.1      M    M
 20000  -21.2  -6.2   295   56   29   7.2   4.0   17.6  63.7     9.4      M    M
 19500  -20.1  -4.2   295   56   29   7.2   4.0   17.2  62.9     9.1      M    M
 19000  -19.0  -2.2   295   55   28   7.2   4.0   16.8  62.2     8.8      M    M
 18500  -17.9  -0.2   295   55   28   6.9   3.8   16.4  61.5     8.5      M    M
 18000  -17.0   1.4   295   55   28   5.9   3.3   15.8  60.4     8.0      M    M
 17500  -16.1   3.0   295   54   28   6.0   3.3   15.2  59.3     7.5      M    M
 17000  -15.3   4.5   295   54   28   5.4   3.0   14.5  58.1     6.9      M    M
 16500  -14.5   5.9   295   54   28   5.5   3.0   13.8  56.8     6.3      M    M
 16000  -13.7   7.3   295   54   28   5.7   3.1   13.1  55.5     5.6      M    M
 15500  -12.8   9.0   295   53   27   6.0   3.3   12.4  54.4     5.1      M    M
 15000  -12.0  10.4   290   52   27   6.3   3.5   11.8  53.3     4.5      M    M
 14500  -10.9  12.4   290   50   26   8.1   4.5   11.4  52.6     4.2      M    M
 14000   -9.7  14.5   290   48   25   8.1   4.4   11.2  52.1     3.9      M    M
 13500   -8.6  16.5   295   45   23   6.8   3.7   10.8  51.4     3.6      M    M
 13000   -7.6  18.3   295   42   22   6.9   3.8   10.4  50.6     3.2      M    M
 12500   -6.5  20.3   295   38   20   7.9   4.3   10.0  49.9     2.8      M    M
 12000   -5.4  22.3   300   33   17   6.7   3.7    9.6  49.3     2.5      M    M
 11750   -4.9  23.2   300   30   16   7.0   3.8    9.4  48.9     2.3      M    M
 11500   -4.3  24.3   305   28   14   7.9   4.3    9.2  48.5     2.1      M    M
 11250   -3.7  25.3   305   26   13   8.1   4.4    9.1  48.3     2.0      M    M
 11000   -3.1  26.4   310   23   12   7.5   4.1    8.9  48.0     1.8      M    M
 10750   -2.6  27.3   310   21   11   7.7   4.2    8.7  47.7     1.7      M    M
 10500   -1.9  28.6   315   19   10   8.7   4.8    8.6  47.5     1.6      M    M
 10250   -1.3  29.7   320   18    9   8.7   4.8    8.5  47.4     1.5      M    M
 10000   -0.6  30.9   325   16    8   8.8   4.8    8.5  47.2     1.4      M    M
  9750   -0.0  32.0   330   15    8   7.8   4.3    8.4  47.1     1.3      M    M
  9500    1.2  34.2   335   13    7   9.0   5.0    8.1  46.6     1.1      M    M
  9250    1.9  35.4   345   12    6   8.9   4.9    8.1  46.5     1.0      M    M
  9000    2.5  36.5   350   12    6   8.1   4.4    8.0  46.4     1.0      M    M
  8750    3.1  37.6   350   13    7   7.1   3.9    7.8  46.0     0.8      M    M
  8500    3.6  38.5   355   14    7   7.7   4.2    7.6  45.7     0.6      M    M
  8250    4.1  39.4   355   15    8   5.8   3.2    7.4  45.4     0.4      M    M
  8000    4.4  39.9   355   16    8   1.7   0.9    7.0  44.5    -0.1      6  0.0
  7750    4.1  39.4   355   15    8 -13.9  -7.6    5.9  42.7    -1.1      8  0.0
  7500    2.1  35.8   345   11    6 -36.4 -20.0    3.2  37.8    -3.9     62  0.3
  7250    0.1  32.2   325    8    4   3.3   1.8    0.6  33.0    -6.6    115  0.6
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           04/16/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       04/16/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +1.9  LI... +4.4                | K index... +9.0  LI... +2.8
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.2                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -56.9 -70.4  290  26 13   2.7   1.5 | -56.6 -69.9  280  27 14   1.8   1.0
 45000 -52.7 -62.9  295  44 23   3.0   1.7 | -53.8 -64.8  295  39 20   2.1   1.1
 40000 -58.2 -72.8  280  53 27  -4.1  -2.3 | -56.8 -70.2  290  50 26  -2.3  -1.3
 38000 -59.8 -75.6  275  57 29   0.8   0.4 | -57.8 -72.0  285  55 28  -0.4  -0.2
 36000 -59.2 -74.6  275  62 32   1.0   0.5 | -58.0 -72.4  285  62 32  -0.4  -0.2
 34000 -58.7 -73.7  280  66 34   3.4   1.9 | -58.2 -72.8  280  69 36   2.3   1.3
 32000 -52.5 -62.5  275  62 32   9.5   5.2 | -52.2 -62.0  275  66 34   9.4   5.2
 30000 -46.8 -52.2  275  58 30   8.5   4.6 | -46.6 -51.9  275  62 32   8.3   4.5
 29000 -44.2 -47.6  275  56 29   8.6   4.7 | -44.1 -47.4  275  60 31   8.3   4.5
 28000 -41.6 -42.9  275  54 28   8.6   4.7 | -41.6 -42.9  275  58 30   8.3   4.5
 27000 -39.1 -38.4  275  51 26   8.6   4.7 | -39.2 -38.6  280  56 29   8.3   4.6
 26000 -36.5 -33.7  280  51 26   8.7   4.8 | -36.9 -34.4  280  53 27   7.4   4.0
 25000 -33.9 -29.0  280  51 26   8.7   4.8 | -34.7 -30.5  280  50 26   7.4   4.0
 24000 -31.3 -24.3  285  51 26   8.8   4.8 | -32.5 -26.5  280  47 24   7.3   4.0
 23000 -28.9 -20.0  285  50 26   7.7   4.2 | -30.1 -22.2  285  45 23   8.3   4.6
 22000 -26.6 -15.9  290  49 25   7.7   4.2 | -27.6 -17.7  290  43 22   8.3   4.6
 21000 -24.2 -11.6  290  49 25   7.6   4.1 | -25.1 -13.2  295  42 22   8.1   4.4
 20000 -22.2  -8.0  295  47 24   6.7   3.7 | -23.0  -9.4  295  40 21   7.0   3.8
 19500 -21.2  -6.2  295  46 24   6.7   3.7 | -21.9  -7.4  295  39 20   7.0   3.9
 19000 -20.2  -4.4  295  46 24   6.7   3.7 | -20.9  -5.6  295  38 20   7.0   3.9
 18500 -19.2  -2.6  300  45 23   6.7   3.7 | -19.8  -3.6  300  37 19   7.1   3.9
 18000 -18.2  -0.8  300  45 23   6.4   3.5 | -18.9  -2.0  300  37 19   5.0   2.7
 17500 -17.3   0.9  300  44 23   6.5   3.6 | -18.2  -0.8  300  36 19   5.2   2.8
 17000 -16.3   2.7  300  43 22   6.3   3.5 | -17.4   0.7  300  36 18   5.3   2.9
 16500 -15.3   4.5  300  43 22   6.3   3.5 | -16.6   2.1  300  35 18   5.4   2.9
 16000 -14.4   6.1  300  43 22   6.4   3.5 | -15.8   3.6  300  34 18   5.5   3.0
 15500 -12.9   8.8  300  42 21   6.7   3.7 | -14.5   5.9  295  33 17   6.0   3.3
 15000 -11.9  10.6  300  41 21   6.8   3.8 | -13.6   7.5  290  31 16   6.7   3.7
 14500 -10.9  12.4  300  40 20   6.9   3.8 | -12.5   9.5  290  29 15   7.2   3.9
 14000  -9.8  14.4  300  39 20   6.9   3.8 | -11.5  11.3  285  27 14   7.5   4.1
 13500  -8.8  16.2  295  38 19   6.7   3.7 | -10.4  13.3  280  24 12   7.7   4.2
 13000  -7.9  17.8  295  36 19   6.6   3.6 |  -9.3  15.3  275  21 11   7.6   4.2
 12500  -7.0  19.4  295  34 18   6.1   3.4 |  -8.2  17.2  275  18  9   7.3   4.0
 12000  -6.1  21.0  295  32 17   5.3   2.9 |  -7.2  19.0  275  14  7   6.6   3.6
 11750  -5.7  21.7  295  30 16   5.4   2.9 |  -6.7  19.9  280  11  6   7.0   3.9
 11500  -5.4  22.3  295  28 15   5.4   2.9 |  -6.2  20.8  285   9  5   7.0   3.9
 11250  -5.0  23.0  295  26 13   5.3   2.9 |  -5.6  21.9  300   8  4   7.2   3.9
 11000  -4.6  23.7  295  23 12   5.2   2.9 |  -5.1  22.8  315   6  3   9.1   5.0
 10750  -4.2  24.4  295  21 11   6.2   3.4 |  -4.3  24.3  330   6  3   9.9   5.4
 10500  -3.7  25.3  295  19 10   6.9   3.8 |  -3.6  25.5  340   6  3   9.1   5.0
 10250  -3.2  26.2  300  16  8   6.6   3.6 |  -2.9  26.8  355   6  3   9.4   5.2
 10000  -2.7  27.1  300  14  7   7.0   3.8 |  -2.3  27.9  360   7  3   8.9   4.9
  9750  -2.2  28.0  310  13  7   7.3   4.0 |  -1.6  29.1  005   7  4   9.5   5.2
  9500  -1.7  28.9  315  12  6   7.0   3.8 |  -0.8  30.6  005   7  4  10.4   5.7
  9250  -1.2  29.8  325  12  6   7.7   4.2 |  -0.1  31.8  010   7  4  10.2   5.6
  9000  -0.6  30.9  335  11  6   5.1   2.8 |   0.7  33.3  010   7  4  10.0   5.5
  8750  -0.3  31.5  345  12  6   6.6   3.6 |   1.4  34.5  010   7  4  10.2   5.6
  8500   0.4  32.7  350  13  6  10.2   5.6 |   2.2  36.0  015   8  4  10.6   5.8
  8250   1.1  34.0  355  13  7   9.2   5.0 |   3.0  37.4  015   8  4  10.5   5.7
  8000   1.8  35.2  360  13  7   9.9   5.4 |   3.8  38.8  015   8  4  10.6   5.8
  7750   2.5  36.5  360  13  7   9.4   5.2 |   4.6  40.3  015   8  4  10.0   5.5
  7500   3.2  37.8  360  13  6   8.3   4.5 |   5.3  41.5  020   8  4   8.0   4.4
  7250   3.8  38.8  360  12  6   9.0   4.9 |   5.9  42.6  020   8  4  11.3   6.2
  7000   4.5  40.1  005  12  6  10.8   5.9 |   7.0  44.6  020   8  4  19.4  10.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           04/16/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       04/16/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +19.1  LI... +1.1               | K index... +18.1  LI... +2.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.1                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -56.7 -70.1  280  35 18   1.1   0.6 | -55.7 -68.3  290  34 17   0.1   0.1
 45000 -55.1 -67.2  290  38 20   1.2   0.6 | -55.5 -67.9  300  37 19   0.1   0.1
 40000 -55.6 -68.1  290  47 24  -0.4  -0.2 | -55.6 -68.1  290  46 24  -0.1  -0.1
 38000 -55.9 -68.6  285  52 27  -1.1  -0.6 | -55.9 -68.6  285  51 26  -1.0  -0.6
 36000 -56.6 -69.9  280  63 33  -1.1  -0.6 | -56.5 -69.7  275  57 30  -1.1  -0.6
 34000 -57.2 -71.0  280  74 38   1.3   0.7 | -57.1 -70.8  265  66 34   0.7   0.4
 32000 -51.9 -61.4  275  71 37   8.3   4.6 | -52.4 -62.3  265  62 32   7.5   4.1
 30000 -46.9 -52.4  275  67 34   8.0   4.4 | -47.7 -53.9  265  57 29   9.1   5.0
 29000 -44.6 -48.3  275  63 32   7.9   4.3 | -45.1 -49.2  265  53 27   8.8   4.9
 28000 -42.2 -44.0  275  59 30   7.9   4.3 | -42.4 -44.3  265  49 25   8.8   4.9
 27000 -39.9 -39.8  280  55 28   7.9   4.3 | -39.8 -39.6  260  45 23   8.9   4.9
 26000 -37.5 -35.5  280  51 26   7.9   4.3 | -37.4 -35.3  265  42 22   7.6   4.2
 25000 -35.1 -31.2  280  46 24   7.9   4.3 | -35.2 -31.4  265  40 21   7.6   4.2
 24000 -32.8 -27.0  280  42 21   7.9   4.3 | -32.9 -27.2  265  37 19   7.7   4.2
 23000 -30.4 -22.7  280  38 20   8.0   4.4 | -30.7 -23.3  265  34 18   7.1   3.9
 22000 -28.0 -18.4  280  36 18   8.0   4.4 | -28.6 -19.5  265  31 16   7.1   3.9
 21000 -25.6 -14.1  280  33 17   7.7   4.2 | -26.5 -15.7  260  27 14   7.3   4.0
 20000 -23.7 -10.7  280  33 17   6.5   3.6 | -24.2 -11.6  260  24 12   8.0   4.4
 19500 -22.7  -8.9  275  32 17   6.5   3.6 | -23.0  -9.4  260  22 12   8.0   4.4
 19000 -21.7  -7.1  275  32 16   6.5   3.6 | -21.8  -7.2  255  21 11   8.0   4.4
 18500 -20.8  -5.4  275  32 16   6.5   3.6 | -20.6  -5.1  255  19 10   7.9   4.4
 18000 -19.8  -3.6  275  31 16   6.5   3.5 | -19.5  -3.1  250  18  9   6.8   3.7
 17500 -18.9  -2.0  270  30 15   6.5   3.5 | -18.5  -1.3  250  17  9   6.9   3.8
 17000 -17.9  -0.2  270  28 15   7.4   4.0 | -17.5   0.5  245  16  8   6.3   3.5
 16500 -16.8   1.8  265  25 13   7.6   4.2 | -16.6   2.1  235  16  8   6.2   3.4
 16000 -15.7   3.7  260  22 12   7.4   4.1 | -15.7   3.7  230  16  8   6.2   3.4
 15500 -14.1   6.6  255  18  9   6.9   3.8 | -14.3   6.3  225  13  7   6.3   3.5
 15000 -13.1   8.4  250  16  8   6.3   3.4 | -13.4   7.9  225  11  6   6.0   3.3
 14500 -12.3   9.9  245  13  7   6.0   3.3 | -12.5   9.5  235   7  4   5.9   3.2
 14000 -11.4  11.5  235  10  5   5.9   3.2 | -11.7  10.9  270   4  2   5.9   3.2
 13500 -10.5  13.1  230   7  3   5.9   3.2 | -10.8  12.6  330   3  2   5.8   3.2
 13000  -9.7  14.5  210   3  2   6.4   3.5 | -10.0  14.0  010   5  3   5.9   3.2
 12500  -8.6  16.5  150   1  0   7.6   4.2 |  -9.1  15.6  020   7  3   6.0   3.3
 12000  -7.7  18.1  045   4  2   6.6   3.6 |  -8.2  17.2  025   9  4   6.3   3.4
 11750  -7.1  19.2  045   5  3   8.7   4.8 |  -7.8  18.0  025   9  5   5.9   3.2
 11500  -6.4  20.5  045   5  3   8.8   4.9 |  -7.3  18.9  025  10  5   6.0   3.3
 11250  -5.8  21.6  045   6  3   8.9   4.9 |  -6.9  19.6  030  10  5   5.7   3.2
 11000  -5.1  22.8  045   6  3  10.1   5.5 |  -6.5  20.3  030  11  5   6.6   3.6
 10750  -4.3  24.3  045   6  3  10.5   5.8 |  -5.9  21.4  030  11  6   7.1   3.9
 10500  -3.5  25.7  045   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  -5.4  22.3  035  11  6   6.6   3.6
 10250  -2.7  27.1  045   6  3  10.4   5.7 |  -5.0  23.0  035  11  6   6.8   3.7
 10000  -2.0  28.4  045   6  3   9.3   5.1 |  -4.5  23.9  035  11  6   6.5   3.6
  9750  -1.3  29.7  045   6  3   9.5   5.2 |  -4.0  24.8  035  11  5   6.7   3.7
  9500  -0.5  31.1  045   6  3  10.8   5.9 |  -3.5  25.7  035  10  5   7.0   3.8
  9250   0.3  32.5  045   6  3  10.4   5.7 |  -3.0  26.6  035  10  5   7.3   4.0
  9000   1.0  33.8  045   7  3   9.9   5.4 |  -2.4  27.7  035  10  5   9.6   5.2
  8750   1.8  35.2  040   7  3  10.0   5.5 |  -1.6  29.1  035  10  5   9.7   5.3
  8500   2.6  36.7  040   7  3  10.7   5.9 |  -1.0  30.2  035   9  5   8.1   4.4
  8250   3.3  37.9  040   7  3  10.4   5.7 |  -0.4  31.3  040   9  4   9.6   5.3
  8000   4.1  39.4  040   7  3  10.5   5.7 |   0.4  32.7  040   8  4  11.7   6.4
  7750   4.9  40.8  040   7  3   9.9   5.4 |   1.3  34.3  040   8  4  10.5   5.8
  7500   5.6  42.1  045   6  3   8.9   4.9 |   2.0  35.6  040   7  4   8.8   4.8
  7250   6.3  43.3  045   6  3  10.0   5.5 |   2.6  36.7  040   7  3   8.6   4.7
  7000   7.1  44.8  045   7  3  12.6   6.9 |   3.3  37.9  035   7  3   8.3   4.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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