Climatological Report (Annual)
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000
CXUS53 KIWX 011612
CLASBN

CLIMATE REPORT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NORTHERN INDIANA
1025 AM EST SAT JAN 1 2011

...................................

...THE SOUTH BEND CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR THE YEAR OF 2010...

CLIMATE NORMAL PERIOD 1971 TO 2000
CLIMATE RECORD PERIOD 1893 TO 2010

WEATHER         OBSERVED          NORMAL  DEPART  LAST YEAR`S
                 VALUE   DATE(S)  VALUE   FROM    VALUE
                                          NORMAL
.............................................................
TEMPERATURE (F)
RECORD
 HIGH             109   07/24/1934
 LOW              -22   01/20/1943
                        01/25/1897
HIGHEST            94   07/23        MM      MM       93
LOWEST            -10   01/03        MM      MM      -19
AVG. MAXIMUM     60.0              58.7     1.3     57.8
AVG. MINIMUM     41.6              40.1     1.5     39.4
MEAN             50.8              49.4     1.4
DAYS MAX >= 90     16              13.3     2.7        4
DAYS MAX <= 32     64              43.6    20.4       55
DAYS MIN <= 32    131             122.8     8.2      130
DAYS MIN <= 0       2               7.7    -5.7       11

PRECIPITATION (INCHES)
RECORD
 MAXIMUM        55.61   1990
 MINIMUM        25.15   1963
TOTALS          32.28E            39.70   -7.42E   41.83
DAILY AVG.       0.09              0.11   -0.02E    0.12
DAYS >= .01       139             147.8    -8.8      148
DAYS >= .10        69              81.8   -12.8       78
DAYS >= .50        18              24.3    -6.3       25
DAYS >= 1.00        7               7.9    -0.9       12

SNOWFALL (INCHES)
RECORDS
 TOTAL          141.7   5
                        0
                        -26215
TOTALS           70.7              76.5    -5.8     55.0
SINCE 7/1        24.9              27.4    -2.5     11.5
SNOWDEPTH AVG.      1                MM      MM        1
DAYS >= TRACE      59                MM      MM       63
DAYS >= 1.0        21              21.2    -0.2       22
GREATEST
 SNOW DEPTH        15   01/02                         15

DEGREE_DAYS
HEATING TOTAL    6042              6294    -252     6418
 SINCE 7/1       2402              2369      33     2381
COOLING TOTAL    1022               812     210      549
 SINCE 1/1       1022               812     210      549
..............................................................

WIND (MPH)
AVERAGE WIND SPEED              8.2
HIGHEST WIND SPEED/DIRECTION    48/230    DATE  06/18
HIGHEST GUST SPEED/DIRECTION    74/240    DATE  06/18

SKY COVER
POSSIBLE SUNSHINE (PERCENT)   MM

NUMBER OF DAYS FAIR          178
NUMBER OF DAYS PC             91
NUMBER OF DAYS CLOUDY         96

AVERAGE RH (PERCENT)     71

WEATHER CONDITIONS. NUMBER OF DAYS WITH
THUNDERSTORM             46     MIXED PRECIP               3
HEAVY RAIN               34     RAIN                      56
LIGHT RAIN              126     FREEZING RAIN              2
LT FREEZING RAIN         12     HAIL                       1
HEAVY SNOW                6     SNOW                      19
LIGHT SNOW               57     SLEET                      5
FOG                     207     FOG W/VIS <= 1/4 MILE     25
HAZE                     96

-  INDICATES NEGATIVE NUMBERS.
E  INDICATES UNOFFICIAL ESTIMATE DUE TO MISSING DATA.
R  INDICATES RECORD WAS SET OR TIED.
MM INDICATES DATA IS MISSING.
T  INDICATES TRACE AMOUNT.

&&

...WEATHER SUMMARY FOR 2010...

...THE 2010 WEATHER YEAR IN REVIEW FOR SOUTH BEND...

IT WAS AN ACTIVE 2010 WITH VERY HEAVY LAKE EFFECT SNOW...INTENSE
THUNDERSTORMS WITH WINDS OVER 80 MPH...AND A RECORD NUMBER OF
TORNADOES FOR THE NORTHERN INDIANA COUNTY WARNING AREA...CWA. BELOW
IS SUMMARY OF THE YEAR FOLLOWED BY EACH MONTHS INDIVIDUAL SUMMARY.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND ON OUR WEBSITE AT WWW.WEATHER.GOV/IWX.

THE YEAR BEGAN WITH AN ONGOING EL NINO AND A COLD AND DRY WINTER
SEASON BUT SNOWFALL IN MANY AREAS WAS ABOVE NORMAL. HOWEVER...AT
SOUTH BEND REGIONAL AIRPORT...THE WINTER SNOWFALL ENDED BELOW NORMAL
FOR THE SEASON. DESPITE THE COLD WINTER...SPRING ARRIVED QUICKLY AND
COINCIDENT WITH THE START OF MARCH. TEMPERATURES WARMED INTO THE 50S
AND 60S DURING THE FIRST PART OF MARCH AND THIS WARM SIGNAL
CONTINUED THROUGH THE ENTIRE SPRING WITH NUMEROUS DAYS IN THE 70S
AND 80S AND A FEW DAYS IN THE 90S DURING MAY. THE SPRING BEGAN DRY
BUT PRECIPITATION INCREASED EACH MONTH AND OVERALL THE SEASON ENDED
WITH SLIGHTLY ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION. THE EL NINO EVENT THAT
BEGAN IN 2009 QUICKLY CAME TO AN END DURING THE SPRING.

THE SUMMER WAS ALSO WARM AND RELATIVELY DRY. MANY AREAS EXPERIENCED
NUMEROUS DAYS IN THE 90S WITH HIGH HUMIDITY LEVELS. THE DRY
CONDITIONS LED TO LOW END DROUGHT CONDITIONS BY THE VERY END OF THE
SUMMER AND THIS CONTINUED INTO THE FALL. MOST LOCATIONS WERE
EXPERIENCING D0 OR D1 DROUGHT CONDITIONS BY THE END OF OCTOBER. THE
DROUGHT CONDITIONS WOULD EASE AS NOVEMBER PROGRESSED. A MODERATE TO
STRONG LA NINA DEVELOPED IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN DURING THE LATE SUMMER
AND THIS BEGAN TO INFLUENCE OUR LOCAL WEATHER WITH NUMEROUS STORM
SYSTEMS THAT BROUGHT MUCH NEEDED RAINFALL DURING THE LAST HALF OF
NOVEMBER. THE LA NINA CONTINUED IN DECEMBER WITH SEVERAL STRONG
STORM SYSTEMS BUT THE HEAVIEST PRECIPITATION AND SNOWFALL REMAINED
SOUTH OF THE AREA ACROSS THE OHIO VALLEY REGION. THERE WERE TWO
INTENSE LAKE EFFECT SNOW STORMS TO END THE 2010 YEAR. THE FIRST
DUMPED UP TO A FOOT OF SNOW ON MICHIANA WHILE THE SECOND JUST A WEEK
LATER PRODUCED OVER 30 INCHES OF SNOW IN NORTHWEST INDIANA.

2010 WILL BE REMEMBERED FOR ITS ACTIVE AND INTENSE SEVERE WEATHER
EPISODES. IT WAS A RECORD BREAKING YEAR FOR TORNADOES WITH A TOTAL
OF 33 OCCURRING ACROSS THE CWA...WHICH INCLUDES 24 COUNTIES IN
NORTHERN INDIANA...5 COUNTIES IN SOUTHERN LOWER MICHIGAN AND 8
COUNTIES IN EXTREME NORTHWEST OHIO. THERE WERE 19 TORNADOES IN THESE
INDIANA COUNTIES...6 IN MICHIGAN AND 8 IN OHIO. THIS IS THE MOST
TORNADOES IN A SINGLE YEAR IN OUR AREA SINCE RECORDS BEGAN IN
1950...SURPASSING 1998 WHICH HAD 30 TORNADOES. THERE WERE ALSO
SEVERAL ROUNDS OF SEVERE WEATHER. IN JUNE ALONE...TWO SEPARATE
SQUALL LINES ABOUT A WEEK APART PRODUCED WIND GUSTS IN EXCESS OF 80
MPH. THE SECOND EVENT ALSO PRODUCED NUMEROUS TORNADOES ACROSS THE
AREA ON JUNE 23RD. A SIGNIFICANT SEVERE WEATHER EPISODE AND TORNADO
OUTBREAK ALSO OCCURRED IN THE FALL ON OCTOBER 26TH.

THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AT SOUTH BEND FOR 2010 WAS 50.8
DEGREES...1.4 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THIS TIES 1974 FOR THE 17TH
WARMEST YEAR ON RECORD.

PRECIPITATION AT SOUTH BEND FOR 2010 WAS ESTIMATED AT 32.28
INCHES...WHICH IS ESTIMATED AT 7.42 INCHES BELOW NORMAL. THIS RANKS
AS THE 32ND DRIEST YEAR ON RECORD. SNOWFALL FOR THE YEAR WAS 70.7
INCHES...5.8 INCHES BELOW NORMAL.

HERE IS A MONTH BY MONTH SUMMARY OF THE 2010 YEAR...


...JANUARY...

THE NEW DECADE BEGAN WITH AN ONGOING MODERATE EL NINO EVENT AND AN
IMPRESSIVE FIRST WEEK OF WEATHER FOR 2010. HEAVY LAKE EFFECT SNOW
PUMMELED PARTS OF NORTHERN INDIANA AND SOUTHWEST LOWER MICHIGAN
ALONG WITH VERY COLD ARCTIC AIR DURING THE FIRST WEEK OF THE NEW
YEAR. SOUTH BEND REGIONAL AIRPORT RECORDED THE SECOND HIGHEST
SNOWFALL TOTAL EVER FOR THE COMBINED FIRST 7 DAYS OF JANUARY. SNOW
AND COLD WEATHER CONTINUED INTO THE SECOND WEEK OF THE MONTH AS A
PERSISTENT AND NEAR RECORD BLOCKING RIDGE OF HIGH PRESSURE IN THE
ATLANTIC OCEAN KEPT A COLD ARCTIC FLOW OF AIR INTO THE CENTRAL
UNITED STATES.

AN UPPER LEVEL BLOCKING PATTERN...WHICH HAD BEEN IN PLACE SINCE
EARLY DECEMBER 2009...FINALLY BEGAN TO BREAK DOWN BY MID JANUARY. THE
UPPER LEVEL WEATHER PATTERN BEGAN TO TAKE ON A MORE TYPICAL EL NINO
TYPE OF SPLIT AND ZONAL FLOW...FEATURING WINTER STORMS AFFECTING THE
SOUTHERN UNITED STATES WHILE THE BITTERLY COLD ARCTIC AIR WAS LOCKED
UP ACROSS CENTRAL CANADA. THIS PATTERN WAS FUELED BY A STRONG SUB
TROPICAL JETSTREAM ACROSS THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES WHILE THE POLAR
JETSTREAM REMAINED BOTTLED UP WELL TO OUR NORTH IN CANADA. THIS
RESULTED IN A DRASTIC CHANGE FROM THE COLD AND SNOWY FIRST PART OF
THE MONTH...TO A MILDER AND DRIER MIDDLE PART OF THE MONTH. IF IT
WERE NOT FOR SEVERAL DAYS OF DENSE FOG AND LOW STRATUS CLOUDS...THE
MIDDLE PART OF THE MONTH WOULD LIKELY HAVE BEEN EVEN WARMER.

THE FINAL WEEK OF JANUARY WAS A RETURN TO A MORE NORMAL LATE JANUARY
PATTERN AS TWO COLD FRONTS SWEPT ACROSS THE AREA AND USHERED IN MUCH
COLDER TEMPERATURES. AFTER THE WARMEST DAY OF THE MONTH ON THE 24TH
FEATURING HIGHS IN THE 50S...A COLD FRONT BROUGHT MODERATE RAINFALL
FOLLOWED BY FALLING TEMPERATURES INTO THE 30S ON THE 25TH. A SECOND
AND MORE POTENT COLD FRONT MOVED THROUGH ON THE 27TH BRINGING LIGHT
SNOW OF 1 TO 3 INCHES AND EVEN COLDER AIR. TEMPERATURES DURING THE
LAST WEEK OF THE MONTH ENDED UP BEING BELOW NORMAL WHICH HELPED
BRING THE MONTHLY AVERAGE DOWN TO JUST BELOW NORMAL.

AT SOUTH BEND...THE AVERAGE HIGH TEMPERATURE FOR JANUARY 2010 WAS
29.0 DEGREES...2.0 DEGREES BELOW THE NORMAL OF 31. THE AVERAGE LOW
TEMPERATURE WAS 16.9 DEGREES...1.2 DEGREES WARMER THAN THE NORMAL OF
15.7 DEGREES. THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE WAS 23.0 DEGREES...0.4 DEGREES
BELOW NORMAL. THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE WAS 50 ON THE 24TH WHILE THE
COLDEST TEMPERATURE WAS NEGATIVE 10 ON THE 3RD. 15 DAYS OF THE MONTH
WERE ABOVE NORMAL AND 16 DAYS WERE BELOW NORMAL.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 1.22 INCHES...1.05 INCHES BELOW
NORMAL. SNOWFALL FOR THE MONTH WAS 27.4 INCHES...4.2 INCHES ABOVE
NORMAL. ALL BUT ABOUT 3 INCHES OF THIS SNOW FELL DURING THE FIRST 8
DAYS OF THE MONTH.


...FEBRUARY...


FEBRUARY FELT LIKE A VERY COLD AND SNOWY MONTH TO MANY PEOPLE. ON
THE LARGE SCALE...A STRONG EL NINO CONTINUED IN THE EQUATORIAL
PACIFIC OCEAN WHILE A STRONG BLOCKING PATTERN IN THE MID LEVELS
DOMINATED OVER THE NORTHERN ATLANTIC AND EASTERN CANADIAN PROVINCES.
THIS BLOCKING PATTERN HELPED CREATE A RECORD NEGATIVE ARCTIC
OSCILLATION INDEX...KNOWN AS AO. THIS NEGATIVE AO KEPT AREAS NORTH
OF THE ARCTIC CIRCLE UNSEASONABLY WARM BUT ALLOWED THE COLDER POLAR
AIR TO PLUNGE SOUTH AND KEEP THE MID LATITUDES UNSEASONABLY COLD.
THE COMBINATION OF THESE NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC PATTERNS MADE FOR AN
INTERESTING FEBRUARY AROUND THE ENTIRE UNITED STATES.

THE TYPICAL STRONG SUB TROPICAL JETSTREAM DRIVEN BY EL NINO
CONTINUED TO BRING COOL AND WET WEATHER TO MUCH OF THE SOUTHERN
UNITED STATES. SNOW FELL IN MANY PARTS OF THE DEEP SOUTH...INCLUDING
FLORIDA...ON MORE THAN ONE OCCASION. AS THIS SUB TROPICAL JET AND
ITS STORMS MOVED UP THE EAST COAST...THEY ENCOUNTERED COLD AIR WHICH
WAS IN PLACE THANKS TO THE STRONG RIDGING IN THE NORTHERN ATLANTIC
AND NEGATIVE AO INDEX WHICH HELPED BRING COLDER AIR SOUTH INTO THE
NORTHEAST UNITED STATES. THE CLASH OF THESE TWO HEMISPHERIC DRIVEN
PATTERNS HELPED GENERATE INCREDIBLE SNOW STORMS OVER THE EASTERN
SEABOARD WITH RECORD SNOWFALL IN MANY AREAS SUCH AS WASHINGTON D.C.
AND PHILADELPHIA PA. OUR LOCAL AREA REMAINED ON THE NORTHERN FRINGES
OF THE SUBTROPICAL JET AND THE NEGATIVE ARCTIC OSCILLATION KEPT
SEASONABLY COLD TEMPERATURES LOCKED IN PLACE IN OUR REGION WITH MUCH
COLDER TEMPERATURES FURTHER EAST. THIS HELPED GENERATE MODERATE TO
HEAVY SNOWFALL AT TIMES DURING THE MONTH OVER THE AREA AS WAVES
MOVED ALONG THE SUBTROPICAL JET. THE MOST SNOWFALL FOR THE MONTH
ACTUALLY FELL IN LOCATIONS ACROSS NORTH CENTRAL INDIANA AND
NORTHWEST OHIO.

A LOOK AT THE MONTHLY DATA REVEALS A SEASONABLY COOL MONTH AT SOUTH
BEND WITH BELOW NORMAL TEMPERATURES AND PRECIPITATION BUT ABOVE
NORMAL SNOWFALL. WHILE THERE WERE NO BITTERLY COLD ARCTIC
OUTBREAKS...THE HEMISPHERIC PATTERN DESCRIBED ABOVE DID KEEP A
NORTHERLY FLOW OVER THE REGION FOR MUCH OF THE MONTH WHICH KEPT
TEMPERATURES NEAR OR BELOW NORMAL. THE WARMEST TEMPERATURE WAS JUST
39 DEGREES ON THE 21ST. ONLY THREE OTHER YEARS DATING BACK TO 1893
HAVE SEEN A FEBRUARY WITHOUT A 40 DEGREE DAY...1905...1923...AND
1978. IRONICALLY...THERE WERE ALSO NO DAYS WITH BELOW ZERO
TEMPERATURES...WHICH ACTUALLY IS NOT THAT UNCOMMON. THE COLDEST HIGH
TEMPERATURE FOR THE MONTH WAS ONLY 27 DEGREES...MEANING THE SPREAD
BETWEEN THE WARMEST AND COLDEST HIGH TEMPERATURE ALL MONTH WAS ONLY
12 DEGREES. THERE WAS ONLY 1 DAY IN WHICH THE LOW TEMPERATURE WAS IN
THE SINGLE DIGITS. THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE WAS 25.7
DEGREES...1.6 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL. SO WHILE THE MONTH WAS BELOW
NORMAL AND IT FELT COLD...THE ACTUAL DATA SHOWS IT WAS NOT REALLY
THAT COLD...THERE WERE JUST NO WARM PERIODS.

THE RELATIVELY DRY WINTER CONTINUED AS FEBRUARY PRECIPITATION WAS
BELOW NORMAL BY 0.64 INCHES. THE TOTAL PRECIPITATION WAS 1.34
INCHES. SNOWFALL HOWEVER WAS ABOVE NORMAL. THE MONTHLY TOTAL WAS
18.4 INCHES...2.9 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL. THE BIGGEST SNOWFALL OF THE
MONTH OCCURRED ON THE 9TH AND 10TH WHEN 6.5 INCHES WAS
RECORDED...5.6 ON THE 9TH AND 0.9 INCHES ON THE 10TH. THE SNOW DEPTH
AT SOUTH BEND REGIONAL AIRPORT WAS AT LEAST 1 INCH ON EVERY DAY OF
THE MONTH EXCEPT THE 7TH AND 8TH WHEN THERE WAS ONLY A TRACE.


...MARCH...


AFTER A RATHER COLD AND DREARY WINTER...MARCH BEGAN METEOROLOGICAL
SPRING WITH SEVERAL SUNNY DAYS AND CLEAR NIGHTS. WHILE THE AVERAGE
TEMPERATURE ON THESE DAYS REMAINED NEAR OR JUST BELOW NORMAL...THE
WARM EARLY MARCH SUNSHINE MADE IT FEEL VERY COMFORTABLE AFTER THE
LONG AND DREARY WINTER. THE SECOND WEEK OF THE MONTH WAS EVEN WARMER
WITH TEMPERATURES CLIMBING INTO THE 50S AND 60S AND AVERAGE DAILY
TEMPERATURES RANGING FROM 10 TO 20 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THE THIRD
AND FOURTH WEEKS WERE NOT NEAR AS WARM AS THE MIDDLE PORTION OF THE
MONTH...BUT AVERAGE TEMPERATURES WERE GENERALLY ABOVE NORMAL WITH
JUST A FEW DAYS BELOW NORMAL. THE FINAL DAY OF MARCH ENDED ON A VERY
WARM NOTE WITH HIGH TEMPERATURES FINALLY EXCEEDING THE MAGICAL 70
DEGREE MARK FOR THE FIRST TIME THIS YEAR...REACHING 77 DEGREES.

PRECIPITATION DURING MARCH WAS BELOW NORMAL AND WHAT DID FALL WAS
CONFINED TO JUST 5 DAYS. THERE WAS ALSO NO MEASURABLE SNOWFALL FOR
THE ENTIRE MONTH AND ONLY A TRACE OF SNOW FELL ON ONE DAY...MARCH
5TH. THERE HAVE ONLY BEEN FOUR OTHER YEARS IN WHICH NO MEASURABLE
SNOWFALL WAS RECORDED AT SOUTH BEND IN THE MONTH OF MARCH...
2000...1921...1918 AND 1910.

THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE FOR MARCH WAS 41.7...4.2 DEGREES ABOVE
NORMAL. THE WARMEST TEMPERATURE WAS 77 ON THE 31ST AND THE COLDEST
TEMPERATURE WAS 17 ON THE 4TH 5TH AND 6TH.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 1.72 INCHES...1.17 INCHES BELOW
NORMAL. MEASURABLE PRECIPITATION FELL ON JUST 5 DAYS WITH THE
GREATEST 24 HOUR PRECIPITATION BEING 1.03 INCHES ON THE 11TH. ONLY A
TRACE OF SNOWFALL WAS MEASURED FOR THE ENTIRE MONTH...WHICH IS 8.7
INCHES BELOW NORMAL. THIS TIES AS THE LEAST SNOWIEST MARCH ON RECORD.

THERE WAS NO SEVERE WEATHER REPORTED DURING MARCH.


...APRIL...


APRIL CONTINUED THE WARM AND RELATIVELY DRY PATTERN THAT BEGAN IN
MARCH...WHICH IS A TYPICAL SPRING PATTERN DURING EL NINO YEARS.
THERE WAS ONLY A TRACE OF SNOWFALL FOR THE MONTH WITH A FEW FLURRIES
IN THE AIR DURING THE FIRST PORTION OF APRIL.

THE MONTH BEGAN ON A VERY WARM NOTE WITH HIGHS IN THE LOWER 80S ON
THE FIRST AND SECOND. AVERAGE DAILY TEMPERATURES FOR THESE TWO DAYS
WERE 25 AND 29 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL RESPECTIVELY. THE COOLEST HIGH
TEMPERATURE DURING THE FIRST 7 DAYS OF THE MONTH WAS 64 DEGREES ON
THE 3RD. THIS WAS ALSO THE ONLY DAY IN THE FIRST WEEK WITH A HIGH
TEMPERATURE BELOW 70 DEGREES. A STRONG COLD FRONT MOVED THROUGH THE
AREA ON THE 7TH AND BROUGHT TEMPERATURES BACK DOWN CLOSER TO NORMAL.
THE REMAINDER OF THE MONTH WOULD SEE A REPEATING PATTERN WHICH WOULD
BRING WARMER TEMPERATURES FOR SEVERAL DAYS FOLLOWED BY A COLD FRONT
AND COOLER TEMPERATURES FOR A FEW DAYS.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE AT SOUTH BEND REGIONAL AIRPORT WAS
54.0 DEGREES...5.8 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THE AVERAGE HIGH
TEMPERATURE WAS 65.8 AND THE AVERAGE LOW WAS 41.9 DEGREES. THE
WARMEST TEMPERATURE WAS 83 ON THE 15TH AND THE COOLEST TEMPERATURE
WAS 29 ON THE 9TH. THERE WERE ONLY 7 DAYS DURING THE MONTH WITH AN
AVERAGE DAILY TEMPERATURE BELOW NORMAL.

PRECIPITATION AT SOUTH BEND WAS BELOW NORMAL FOR THE MONTH BUT THERE
WERE A FEW PERIODS OF DECENT RAINFALL THAT WERE SPACED CLOSED ENOUGH
TO KEEP THE AREA GREEN AND GROWING. JUST OVER AN INCH OF RAINFALL
OCCURRED BETWEEN THE 3RD AND 8TH OF APRIL WITH SCATTERED SHOWERS AND
THUNDERSTORMS IN THE AREA. THE MIDDLE PORTION OF THE MONTH WAS
GENERALLY DRY AND MOISTURE FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO STRUGGLED TO
REACH THE NORTHWEST PART OF THE STATE. SEVERAL COLD FRONTS PRODUCED
ONLY SPRINKLES OR VERY LIGHT SHOWERS. DEEPER MOISTURE FROM THE GULF
FINALLY MADE IT BACK TO THE AREA DURING THE PERIOD OF THE 24TH
THROUGH THE 26TH. AGAIN OVER AN INCH OF MUCH NEEDED RAIN FELL DURING
THIS PERIOD. ESSENTIALLY THESE TWO PERIODS ACCOUNTED FOR NEARLY ALL
THE MONTHLY RAINFALL.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 2.38 INCHES...1.12 INCHES BELOW
NORMAL. THIS IS THE 6TH STRAIGHT MONTH WITH MONTHLY PRECIPITATION
TOTALS BELOW NORMAL AT SOUTH BEND. SNOWFALL FOR THE MONTH WAS A
TRACE...THIS IS 1.7 INCHES BELOW NORMAL.

THE FIRST EPISODE OF SEVERE WEATHER FOR THE SEASON OCCURRED AT THE
BEGINNING OF APRIL FROM THE 5TH TO 7TH. SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS WITH
DAMAGING WINDS PUSHED THROUGH FAR NORTHWEST INDIANA AND SOUTHWEST
LOWER MICHIGAN.


...MAY...


MUCH NEEDED RAINFALL OCCURRED OVER THE MONTH OF MAY WITH THE MONTHLY
RAINFALL TOTAL BEING ABOVE NORMAL FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE OCTOBER
OF 2009. IT WAS ALSO A RELATIVELY WARM MONTH AS WELL WITH AVERAGE
TEMPERATURES ENDING ABOVE NORMAL.

THE MONTH BEGAN ON A WARM AND WET NOTE AND THIS WAS BASICALLY THE
TREND FOR NEARLY THE ENTIRE MONTH. OVER AN INCH OF RAINFALL OCCURRED
ON THE FIRST AND SECOND AND MEASURABLE RAINFALL OCCURRED ON 12 OF
THE FIRST 22 DAYS. THERE WERE FIVE SEPARATE RAIN EVENTS DURING THE
MONTH IN WHICH EACH PRODUCED OVER AN INCH OF RAINFALL. CONDITIONS
DID BRIEFLY DRY OUT LATE IN THE MONTH WITH A STRETCH OF NO
PRECIPITATION FROM MAY 23RD THROUGH THE 30TH. HEAVY RAINFALL
RETURNED ON THE LAST DAY OF THE MONTH WITH OVER AN INCH OF RAIN.

HIGH TEMPERATURES EQUALED OR EXCEEDED 80 DEGREES ON 9 DAYS AND 70
DEGREES ON 15 DAYS. THERE WAS A BRIEF COOL STRETCH FROM MAY 8TH TO
THE 12TH WHERE HIGH TEMPERATURES REMAINED IN THE 50S. THIS COOL
STRETCH WAS SHORT LIVED AS THE HIGH TEMPERATURE ON THE 13TH JUMPED
TO 80 DEGREES. THERE WAS A DIFFERENCE OF 27 DEGREES BETWEEN THE HIGH
TEMPERATURES ON THE 12TH...53 DEGREES...AND THE 13TH...80 DEGREES.
THE HIGH TEMPERATURE FROM MAY 23RD THROUGH MAY 31ST WAS AT LEAST 81
DEGREES EACH DAY EXCEPT ON THE 28TH WHEN THE HIGH WAS 78. DESPITE
THE VERY WARM HIGH TEMPERATURES...MANY NIGHTS WERE COOL WITH LOW
TEMPERATURES BELOW NORMAL. IRONICALLY...13 DAYS IN MAY EXPERIENCED
DAILY AVERAGE TEMPERATURES BELOW NORMAL.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE FOR MAY AT SOUTH BEND REGIONAL
AIRPORT WAS 61.3 DEGREES...1.7 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THE HIGHEST
TEMPERATURE WAS 89 ON THE 30TH AND THE COLDEST TEMPERATURE WAS 33 ON
THE 10TH. THERE WAS 6.04 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION...2.54 INCHES ABOVE
NORMAL. NO SNOWFALL WAS RECORDED FOR THE MONTH.


...JUNE...


TEMPERATURES FOR JUNE WERE SLIGHTLY ABOVE NORMAL AT SOUTH BEND
REGIONAL AIRPORT AND PRECIPITATION WAS ALSO ABOVE NORMAL FOR THE
SECOND STRAIGHT MONTH. IT WAS A VERY ACTIVE MONTH FOR SEVERE WEATHER
AS SEVERAL ROUNDS OF THUNDERSTORMS CREATED WIDESPREAD DAMAGE AND
SEVERAL TORNADOES ACROSS THE REGION.

THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE FOR JUNE WAS 70.1 DEGREES WHICH IS 1.1
DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE WAS 90 ON THE 18TH AND
THE COOLEST TEMPERATURE WAS A LOW OF 48 ON THE 30TH. THERE WERE 9
DAYS WHICH HAD AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE BELOW NORMAL. THERE WERE 2
DAYS WITH AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE MORE THAN 10 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.
THIS OCCURRED ON THE 8TH AND 30TH WHEN BOTH OF THESE DAYS WERE 11
DEGREES BELOW NORMAL. DESPITE THE MONTHLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURE BEING
ABOVE NORMAL...THERE WERE NO DAYS IN WHICH THE AVERAGE DAILY
TEMPERATURE WAS MORE THAN 8 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. WHILE THE HEAT WAS
NOT OPPRESSIVE...THE HUMIDITY AT TIMES WAS. DEW POINTS...WHICH IS A
MEASURE OF MOISTURE IN THE AIR...REACHED WELL INTO THE 70S ON
SEVERAL DAYS THROUGHOUT THE MONTH. THIS MADE IT FEEL VERY HUMID.

RAINFALL FOR THE MONTH WAS 5.71 INCHES...1.52 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL.
MEASURABLE RAIN FELL ON 17 DAYS IN JUNE. THE GREATEST 24 HOUR
PRECIPITATION WAS ON THE 23RD WHEN 1.40 INCHES FELL.

SEVERE WEATHER OCCURRED ON SEVERAL DIFFERENT DAYS IN JUNE BUT THE
5TH...18TH AND 23RD PROVED TO BE THE MOST SIGNIFICANT DAYS.
SUPERCELL THUNDERSTORMS DEVELOPED IN THE EVENING OF THE 5TH AND
PRODUCED 8 TORNADOES ACROSS NORTHERN INDIANA...SOUTHWEST LOWER
MICHIGAN AND NORTHWEST OHIO. A VERY SEVERE LINE OF THUNDERSTORMS
MOVED THROUGH NORTHWEST INDIANA AND SOUTHWEST LOWER MICHIGAN DURING
THE EARLY EVENING HOURS ON FRIDAY THE 18TH. STRAIGHT LINE WINDS IN
EXCESS OF 80 MPH ROARED ACROSS THE REGION CREATING WIDESPREAD DAMAGE
AND CUTTING POWER TO THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE. SOUTH BEND WAS RIGHT IN
THE MIDDLE OF THE STRONGEST WINDS WITH THIS EVENT. JUST 5 DAYS LATER
ON THE 23RD...ANOTHER LINE OF VERY SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS MOVED ACROSS
NEARLY THE SAME AREAS. STRAIGHT LINE WINDS ONCE AGAIN REACHED OVER
80 MPH...BUT THIS TIME SEVERAL SMALL SCALE TORNADOES OCCURRED ALONG
THE LEADING EDGE OF THESE WINDS ACROSS NORTHERN INDIANA AND
NORTHWEST OHIO. THIS EVENT PRODUCED ANOTHER 7 TORNADOES.


...JULY...


WARM TEMPERATURES AND VERY HIGH DEW POINTS CONTRIBUTED TO MUGGY
CONDITIONS AND STRONG THUNDERSTORMS DURING THE MONTH. DEW POINT IS A
MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF MOISTURE IN THE AIR. DEW POINTS REACHED
WELL INTO THE 70S ON SEVERAL DAYS THIS MONTH WHILE TEMPERATURES ROSE
INTO THE 90S. THIS CREATED VERY MUGGY CONDITIONS AND HEAT INDICES
WELL OVER 100. THE HEAT AND HUMIDITY ALSO HELPED PROVIDE FUEL FOR
THUNDERSTORMS WHICH WERE SCATTERED ACROSS THE REGION THROUGHOUT THE
MONTH. SOME OF THESE THUNDERSTORMS DUMPED OVER 5 INCHES OF RAIN IN
AREAS WHILE OTHER LOCATIONS RECEIVED MUCH LESS RAINFALL.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE WAS 75.6 DEGREES...2.6 DEGREES ABOVE
NORMAL. THE AVERAGE HIGH TEMPERATURE WAS 85.7 DEGREES AND THE
AVERAGE LOW TEMPERATURE WAS 65.5 DEGREES. THERE WERE 7 DAYS WITH A
HIGH TEMPERATURE OF 90 DEGREES OR WARMER. THIS IS RIGHT AT NORMAL
FOR THE MONTH. THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE WAS 94 ON THE 23RD. THE DAILY
HIGH TEMPERATURE WAS AT OR ABOVE 80 DEGREES EVERY DAY EXCEPT THE
1ST...30TH AND 31ST. THE LAST TIME JULY HAD AT LEAST 28 DAYS WITH
HIGH TEMPERATURES AT OR ABOVE 80 DEGREES WAS IN 2002 WHEN 30 OUT OF
THE 31 DAYS WHICH REACHED AT LEAST 80 DEGREES.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 4.35 INCHES...0.62 INCHES ABOVE
NORMAL. A LARGE PART OF THIS TOTAL...3.02 INCHES...FELL ON THE 23RD
AND 24TH WHEN A STRONG COLD FRONT MOVED THROUGH THE AREA.


...AUGUST...


AFTER HAVING ABOVE NORMAL RAINFALL FOR JUNE AND JULY...AUGUST WAS A
VERY DRY MONTH ACROSS NORTHERN INDIANA AND SOUTHWEST LOWER MICHIGAN.
LESS THAN AN INCH OF RAINFALL WAS RECORDED AT SOUTH BEND REGIONAL
AIRPORT...MAKING IT THE 5TH DRIEST AUGUST ON RECORD SINCE 1895.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE WAS 74.6 DEGREES...3.6 DEGREES ABOVE
NORMAL. THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE WAS 92 ON THE 29TH AND THE LOWEST
TEMPERATURE WAS 50 ON THE 26TH. HIGH TEMPERATURES REACHED 90 DEGREES
ON 6 DAYS AND AT LEAST 80 DEGREES ON 26 DAYS. THE AVERAGE HIGH
TEMPERATURE WAS 84.2 DEGREES AND THE AVERAGE LOW TEMPERATURE WAS
65.1 DEGREES. THIS LOW TEMPERATURE RANKS AS THE 8TH WARMEST ON
RECORD.

RAINFALL FOR THE MONTH WAS 0.92 INCHES...3.06 INCHES BELOW NORMAL.
THIS RANKS AS THE 5TH DRIEST AUGUST ON RECORD SINCE 1895. THE
GREATEST SINGLE DAY RAINFALL OCCURRED ON AUGUST 21ST WHEN 0.45
INCHES FELL...NEARLY HALF OF THE ENTIRE MONTHLY RAINFALL TOTAL.
MEASURABLE RAINFALL OCCURRED ON 8 DAYS BUT ONLY 3 OF THOSE DAYS HAD
MORE THAN 0.05 INCHES OF RAINFALL.

DESPITE THE LACK OF RAIN...AUGUST WAS ANOTHER HUMID MONTH. THE DEW
POINT...A MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF MOISTURE IN THE AIR...REACHED 70
DEGREES ON 12 DAYS...AND REACHED AT LEAST 74 DEGREES ON 6 OF THOSE
DAYS. THE AIR BEGINS TO FEEL UNCOMFORTABLE WHEN THE DEW POINT
REACHES THE LOWER TO MID 60S AND REALLY FEELS UNCOMFORTABLE WHEN THE
DEW POINT EXCEEDS 70 DEGREES.


...SEPTEMBER...


DRIER THAN NORMAL CONDITIONS THAT BEGAN LATE IN THE SUMMER CONTINUED
THROUGH SEPTEMBER ACROSS NORTHWEST INDIANA AND SOUTHWEST LOWER
MICHIGAN. WHILE THERE WERE SEVERAL DAYS OF MEASURABLE RAINFALL
DURING THE MONTH...ALL BUT ONE OF THE DAILY RAINFALL TOTALS WERE
LESS THAN A QUARTER OF AN INCH. TEMPERATURES ENDED THE MONTH
SLIGHTLY ABOVE NORMAL.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE AT SOUTH BEND REGIONAL AIRPORT WAS
63.9 DEGREES...0.5 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE OF
THE MONTH WAS 90 ON THE 21ST AND 23RD. THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE WAS 39
ON THE 27TH. DESPITE TWO DAYS OF 90 DEGREES FOR HIGHS IN LATE
SEPTEMBER...NO DAILY TEMPERATURE RECORDS WERE SET.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH WAS 2.13 INCHES...1.66 INCHES BELOW
NORMAL. DESPITE THIS RELATIVELY DRY MONTH...IT DOES NOT RANK IN THE
TOP 20 DRIEST SEPTEMBERS ON RECORD. HOWEVER...THE AUGUST AND
SEPTEMBER PERIOD COMBINED DOES YIELD THE 8TH DRIEST PERIOD ON RECORD
FOR THESE 2 MONTHS WITH TOTAL RAINFALL OF ONLY 3.05 INCHES.

THE GREATEST SINGLE DAY RAINFALL TOTAL IN SEPTEMBER WAS 0.79 INCHES
ON THE 2ND AND THE GREATEST 24 HOUR PRECIPITATION TOTAL WAS 0.96
INCHES ON THE 2ND AND 3RD. THIS SINGLE RAINFALL EVENT PRODUCED
NEARLY HALF OF THE ENTIRE MONTHLY RAINFALL TOTAL. THERE WERE 11 DAYS
WITH MEASURABLE RAINFALL OF 0.01 INCHES OR GREATER. SEVEN OF THESE
DAYS HAD AT LEAST A TENTH OF AN INCH...ONLY 2 DAYS HAD MORE THAN A
QUARTER OF AN INCH...AND ONLY 1 DAY HAD GREATER THAN A HALF INCH OF
RAINFALL.

A LA NINA ADVISORY WAS ISSUED FOR THIS WINTER BY THE CLIMATE
PREDICTION CENTER AS LA NINA CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN BEGAN
DEVELOPING. A LA NINA OCCURS WHEN EQUATORIAL PACIFIC OCEAN
TEMPERATURES BECOME COOLER THAN NORMAL FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME.


...OCTOBER...


THE WARM AND DRY FALL SEASON CONTINUED THROUGH MOST OF OCTOBER AT
SOUTH BEND REGIONAL AIRPORT AND SURROUNDING AREAS. THE ENTIRE AREA
REMAINED IN D0 DROUGHT CONDITIONS...WHICH IS THE FIRST LEVEL OF
DROUGHT MONITORING AND INDICATES ABNORMALLY DRY CONDITIONS. D1
DROUGHT CONDITIONS DEVELOPED TOWARDS THE END OF THE MONTH IN
PORTIONS OF THE AREA...WHICH INDICATES A MODERATE DROUGHT. THERE WAS
SOME DECENT RAINFALL TOWARD THE END OF THE MONTH...BUT NOT ENOUGH TO
MAKE UP SIGNIFICANT DEFICITS THAT HAVE DEVELOPED SINCE THE LATTER
PART OF SUMMER.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE AT SOUTH BEND WAS 53.9 DEGREES...1.8
DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THE WARMEST TEMPERATURE WAS 85 ON THE 9TH AND
THE COLDEST TEMPERATURE WAS 29 ON THE 22ND.

PRECIPITATION CONTINUED TO BE BELOW NORMAL WITH THE MONTHLY TOTAL
BEING 1.87 INCHES...1.40 INCHES BELOW NORMAL. MEASURABLE
PRECIPITATION FELL ON JUST 10 DAYS AND THREE FOURTHS OF THE TOTAL
PRECIPITATION FELL ON THE 25TH AND 26TH. PRIOR TO THE 25TH...SOUTH
BEND HAD ONLY RECEIVED 0.36 INCHES OF RAIN DURING THE MONTH.

SEVERE WEATHER OCCURRED ACROSS THE REGION ON THE 26TH OF OCTOBER AS
AN INTENSE AND RECORD BREAKING STORM SYSTEM DEVELOPED IN THE UPPER
MIDWEST. ONE OF THE LOWEST MEASURED PRESSURE READINGS EVER RECORDED
IN THE UNITED STATES OCCURRED AS LOW PRESSURE DEEPENED TO 955.2
MILLIBARS OVER BIGFORK MINNESOTA. THIS IS A RECORD FOR MINNESOTA.
THIS INTENSE STORM SYSTEM HELPED DEVELOP A SQUALL LINE OF SEVERE
WEATHER THAT STRETCHED FROM THE GREAT LAKES TO THE GULF COAST AND
MOVED THROUGH OUR AREA ON THE MORNING OF THE 26TH. NUMEROUS TORNADOES
OCCURRED ALONG THE LINE...INCLUDING OVER A DOZEN ACROSS NORTHERN
INDIANA...SOUTHWEST LOWER MICHIGAN AND NORTHWEST OHIO. ALL OF THESE
TORNADOES IN OUR AREA WERE RATED AS EF0 OR EF1 ON THE ENHANCED
FUJITA SCALE.


...NOVEMBER...


DRY CONDITIONS THAT HAD BEEN PRESENT ACROSS SOUTH BEND AND VICINITY
THROUGHOUT THE FALL CONTINUED INTO THE FIRST HALF OF NOVEMBER.
HOWEVER...A MORE TYPICAL LA NINA PATTERN DEVELOPED ACROSS THE AREA
THROUGHOUT THE LAST HALF OF THE MONTH. LA NINA IS A PHASE OF THE EL
NINO SOUTHERN OSCILLATION WHERE CENTRAL EQUATORIAL PACIFIC OCEAN SEA
SURFACE TEMPERATURES ARE BELOW NORMAL...WHICH HAS A LARGE INFLUENCE
ON WEATHER PATTERNS ACROSS NORTH AMERICA. TYPICAL LA NINA CONDITIONS
DURING THE LATE FALL AND WINTER MONTHS ACROSS THE AREA CAN INCLUDE
NORMAL OR ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES AND ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE AT SOUTH BEND WAS 41.3 DEGREES...1.2
DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL. THE WARMEST TEMPERATURE WAS 71 ON THE 11TH AND
THE COLDEST TEMPERATURE WAS 19 ON THE 28TH...26TH AND 6TH. THE LOW
TEMPERATURE OF 19 ON THE 6TH SET A NEW RECORD LOW TEMPERATURE FOR
THAT DAY. THE PREVIOUS RECORD LOW FOR THE 6TH WAS 20 SET IN 1953.

PRECIPITATION FOR THE MONTH CONTINUED TO BE BELOW NORMAL...WITH THE
MONTHLY TOTAL BEING 2.76 INCHES...0.63 INCHES BELOW NORMAL.
MEASURABLE PRECIPITATION FELL ON 10 DAYS...WITH ALMOST A THIRD
OF THE MONTHLY PRECIPITATION FALLING ON ONE DAY...WHEN 0.87 INCHES
FELL ON THE 22ND. THIS IS THE HIGHEST DAILY RAINFALL TOTAL AT SOUTH
BEND SINCE 2.63 INCHES OF RAIN FELL ON JULY 24TH. SNOWFALL FOR THE
MONTH WAS 1.3 INCHES...WHICH IS 6.4 INCHES BELOW NORMAL. ALTHOUGH
SNOW WAS OBSERVED ON THREE DAYS IN NOVEMBER...MEASURABLE SNOWFALL ONLY
FELL ON ONE DAY...WITH ALL 1.3 INCHES FALLING ON THE 5TH.

PRIOR TO THE 17TH...ONLY 0.40 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION FELL IN
NOVEMBER. FROM THE 17TH UNTIL THE END OF THE MONTH...2.36 INCHES OF
PRECIPITATION FELL. TO PUT THIS PATTERN CHANGE INTO PERSPECTIVE...
ONLY 2.28 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION FELL FROM SEPTEMBER 23RD THROUGH
NOVEMBER 16TH. MORE RAIN FELL IN THE LAST 14 DAYS OF THE MONTH THAN
THE PREVIOUS 55 DAYS.


...DECEMBER...


DESPITE A MODERATE TO STRONG LA NINA EPISODE IN THE EQUATORIAL
PACIFIC OCEAN...LOCAL WEATHER CONDITIONS WERE NOT TYPICAL OF SUCH AN
EVENT. A LA NINA TENDS TO BRING NORMAL TO ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES
TO OUR AREA WITH A TENDENCY FOR ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION.
HOWEVER...AT SOUTH BEND REGIONAL AIRPORT DURING DECEMBER...BOTH
TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION WERE BELOW NORMAL. HOWEVER...SNOWFALL
FOR THE MONTH WAS ABOVE NORMAL. THIS WAS LIKELY DUE TO THE RETURN OF
A WINTER BLOCKING PATTERN IN THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE ACROSS THE
NORTHERN ATLANTIC OCEAN AND THE ARCTIC REGION OF THE NORTHERN
HEMISPHERE. THESE BLOCKING PATTERNS...KNOWN AS THE NORTH ATLANTIC
OSCILLATION...NAO...AND THE ARTIC OSCILLATION...AO...CAN BRING VERY
COLD ARCTIC AIR INTO THE EASTERN UNITED STATES DURING THE WINTER
TIME.

THE AO AND NAO INDICES RETURNED TO STRONGLY NEGATIVE VALUES IN
DECEMBER...SIMILAR TO THOSE SEEN DURING THE 2009...2010 WINTER
SEASON. THE COMBINATION OF AN ACTIVE LA NINA STORM TRACK THROUGH THE
OHIO AND TENNESSEE VALLEY REGIONS COUPLED WITH THE COLD ARCTIC AIR
BEING DRIVEN BY THE NEGATIVE NAO AND AO PATTERN LED TO A COLD
DECEMBER WITH ABOVE NORMAL SNOWFALL OVER MANY PARTS OF THE MIDWEST
AND MID SOUTH. PRECIPITATION FARTHER SOUTH THROUGH THE OHIO VALLEY
REGION WAS GENERALLY ABOVE NORMAL AS THE COLDER AIR FORCED STORM
SYSTEMS FURTHER SOUTH.

THE MONTH WAS DOMINATED BY RATHER PERSISTENT LIGHT SNOW SHOWERS AND
BELOW NORMAL TEMPERATURES WITH A FEW STRONG LAKE EFFECT SNOWFALL
EVENTS WHICH BROUGHT SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER ACCUMULATIONS TO PARTS OF
THE REGION. THE MONTH BEGAN WITH LIGHT ACCUMULATING SNOW ON THE
FIRST. A CLIPPER SYSTEM MOVED THROUGH THE REGION ON THE 4TH WITH
LIGHT SNOWFALL. HOWEVER...THE FIRST BLAST OF ARCTIC AIR FOLLOWED
THIS SYSTEM WHICH ALSO HELPED GENERATE THE FIRST SIGNIFICANT LAKE
EFFECT SNOW EVENT OF THE SEASON. DURING THE PERIOD OF DECEMBER 4TH
THROUGH THE 8TH...PARTS OF NORTHWEST INDIANA AND SOUTHWEST MICHIGAN
RECEIVED AROUND A FOOT OF SNOW. SOUTH BEND REGIONAL AIRPORT RECORDED
11.8 INCHES DURING THIS PERIOD. ABOUT 12.5 INCHES OF SNOW FELL IN
NORTHWEST CASS COUNTY MICHIGAN NEAR DOWAGIAC.

A BRIEF WARM UP OCCURRED AROUND THE 11TH WITH TEMPERATURES CLIMBING
INTO THE UPPER 30S. A STRONG STORM SYSTEM BROUGHT NEARLY A HALF INCH
OF RAIN TO THE AREA BEFORE MUCH COLDER ARCTIC AIR RETURNED IN ITS
WAKE. THIS SECOND BLAST OF COLD AIR ALSO CONTRIBUTED TO ANOTHER
INTENSE AND MORE EXTREME LAKE EFFECT SNOW EVENT. THIS TIME WINDS
WERE MORE NORTHERLY AND HELPED GENERATE A SINGLE BAND OF LAKE EFFECT
SNOW THAT WAS BEING ENHANCED BY MOISTURE OFF OF LAKE SUPERIOR. THIS
CONTRIBUTED TO OVER 30 INCHES OF SNOW FALLING IN A 2 DAY PERIOD ON
THE 13TH AND 14TH IN LAPORTE COUNTY INDIANA. TOTAL SNOWFALL AT
WANATAH WAS 31.5 INCHES WHILE WESTVILLE RECORDED 28 INCHES. SOUTH
BEND WAS JUST ON THE EASTERN FRINGES OF THIS INTENSE BAND AND
RECEIVED MUCH LESS SNOWFALL...5.9 INCHES ON THE 13TH AND 14TH AND
7.8 INCHES FOR THE PERIOD OF THE 12TH THROUGH THE 14TH.

THE COLD ARTIC AIR REMAINED ACROSS THE AREA THROUGH THE 20TH BEFORE
MODIFYING. TEMPERATURES GRADUALLY WARMED AFTER THE 20TH WITH THE
MAJORITY OF THE LAST 11 DAYS EXPERIENCING ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES.

THE AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE FOR DECEMBER WAS 24.7 DEGREES...4.0
DEGREES BELOW NORMAL. THIS RANKS AS THE 25TH COLDEST DECEMBER ON RECORD.
THE ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES DURING THE LAST 10 DAYS OF THE MONTH
SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED THE OVERALL AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE FOR
THE ENTIRE MONTH.

PRECIPITATION AT SOUTH BEND WAS OFFICIALLY MISSING DUE TO
PRECIPITATION SENSOR ERRORS THAT DID NOT ADEQUATELY MEASURE THE
LIQUID CONTENT OF THE LAKE EFFECT SNOW. HOWEVER...UNOFFICIALLY THE
TOTAL PRECIPITATION ESTIMATED WAS 1.84 INCHES BASED ON NEARBY
COOPERATIVE OBSERVER DATA AND UNOFFICIAL COCORAHS DATA.

SNOWFALL FOR THE MONTH WAS 23.6 INCHES...4.4 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL.
THIS RANKS AS THE 20TH SNOWIEST DECEMBER ON RECORD.

$$

LASHLEY/NDM







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