Extended Streamflow Guidance
Issued by NWS North Central River Forecast Center

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UPPER MIDWEST SPRING SNOWMELT AND FLOOD POTENTIAL OUTLOOK
NWS NORTH CENTRAL RIVER FORECAST CENTER TWIN CITIES/CHANHASSEN MN
910 AM CST WED FEB 14 2018

FOR A LINK TO THE NCRFC 2018 SPRING HYDROLOGIC OUTLOOK, WHICH
CONTAINS SEVERAL REFERENCE GRAPHICS THAT RELATE TO THE SNOWMELT
SEASON ANTECEDENT AND CURRENT HYDROMETEOROLOGIC CONDITIONS, REFER
TO THE NCRFC WEB PAGE:  HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.GOV/NCRFC

THIS OUTLOOK REFERENCES INFORMATION FROM THE FOLLOWING PARTNERS:
- UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS)
- REGIONAL CLIMATE CENTERS (MIDWEST-MRCC AND HIGH PLAINS-HPRCC)
- US DROUGHT MONITOR (NIDIS)
- NATIONAL OPERATIONAL HYDROLOGIC REMOTE SENSING CENTER (NOHRSC)


THE FOLLOWING 2018 SPRING OUTLOOK ISSUANCE DATES HAVE BEEN SET IN
COORDINATION WITH ALL NWS REGIONS AND NWS HQ:

NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE ISSUES SPRING FLOOD OUTLOOK WITH
PROBABILISTIC PRODUCTS ON:
  * THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 2018
  * THURSDAY, MARCH 1, 2018

FLOOD SAFETY AWARENESS INFORMATION WILL BE DISSEMINATED
  * MARCH 12-16, 2018

NOAA NATIONAL SPRING OUTLOOK PRESS BRIEFING WILL BE ON:
  * THURSDAY, MARCH 15, 2018

            ********************************
             SPRING 2018 NCRFC AREA SUMMARY
            ********************************

2018 EARLY SPRING BASIN CONDITIONS AS OF FEBRUARY 12, 2018.

GOING INTO THE FALL MONTHS, PRECIPITATION WAS BELOW NORMAL FOR MOST
OF THE NCRFC REGION, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE HUDSON BAY DRAINAGE,
WHERE RAINFALL WAS ABOVE NORMAL IN SEPTEMBER, AND BELOW NORMAL IN
OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER. TEMPERATURES IN SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER WERE
2-5 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL, BUT NOVEMBER SAW A TURN TO THE COLDER
WEATHER THAT WOULD DOMINATE THROUGH THE WINTER MONTHS. NOVEMBER AND
DECEMBER WERE 2-5 DEGREES COOLER THAN AVERAGE. JANUARY SAW A FEW
WARMER PERIODS, WITH MONTHLY AVERAGES ONLY COMING IN A FEW DEGREES
COOLER THAN NORMAL. BUT FEBRUARY SAW A PLUNGE INTO THE DEEP FREEZE,
WITH TEMPERATURES RUNNING 9-15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL THUS FAR.

THE OVERALL DRY TREND CONTINUED, WITH SOME PORTIONS OF WESTERN
MINNESOTA REMAINING VIRTUALLY SNOW-FREE ALL THE WAY INTO FEBRUARY.
OTHER THAN A STRONG STORM SYSTEM THAT BROUGHT SIGNIFICANT RAIN AND
SNOW TO THE REGION IN MID-JANUARY, VERY FEW LARGER STORM SYSTEMS
IMPACTED THE UPPER MIDWEST, LIMITING THE AMOUNT OF PRECIPITATION
THUS FAR THIS WINTER.

THAT JANUARY SYSTEM DID RESULT IN SOME MINOR FLOODING ISSUES FOR
PORTIONS OF IOWA, ILLINOIS, AND WISCONSIN, AS RAINFALL AMOUNTS OF
1-1.5 INCHES FELL ON FROZEN GROUND. THE RESULTING RAPID RUNOFF
LED TO SOME STREAMS RISING OUT OF THEIR BANKS, AND ICE CHUNKS TO
LODGE FOR A FEW LOCALIZED ICE JAMS.

SNOW COVER AROUND THE REGION IS WIDESPREAD AS OF FEBRUARY 13TH,
BUT AMOUNTS ARE RELATIVELY LIGHT. SNOW DEPTH IS ONLY AN INCH OR
LESS FOR PORTIONS OF WESTERN MINNESOTA, AND EXTENDING UP INTO
SOUTHEAST, CENTRAL, AND WESTERN NORTH DAKOTA. EASTERN NORTH DAKOTA
TO NORTHERN MINNESOTA HAS A SNOW PACK OF UP TO 7 TO 12 INCHES,
WITH HIGHER AMOUNTS OF 15-20 INCHES CLOSER TO THE INTERNATIONAL
BORDER AND IN THE ARROWHEAD REGION.  A BAND OF SNOW EXTENDS FROM
SOUTHERN MINNESOTA ACROSS WISCONSIN, WITH DEPTHS AS MUCH AS 8 TO
12 INCHES, WHILE ANOTHER BAND STRETCHES ACROSS IOWA, THROUGH
SOUTHERN WISCONSIN AND NORTHERN ILLINOIS, AND INTO LOWER MICHIGAN.

WATER EQUIVALENT IN THE SNOW IS HIGHEST OVER THE UPPER PENINSULA
OF MICHIGAN, WHERE LIQUID AMOUNTS ARE UP TO 8 TO 10 INCHES IN THE
FAVORED LAKE EFFECT REGIONS. LIQUID EQUIVALENT OF 3 TO 4 INCHES IS
SEEN OVER PARTS OF FAR NORTHERN MINNESOTA, NORTHERN WISCONSIN,
AND NORTHERN PORTIONS OF LOWER MICHIGAN. WATER AMOUNTS OF 1 TO
2 INCHES EXTENDED ACROSS PORTIONS OF IOWA, INTO SOUTHERN WISCONSIN
AND NORTHERN ILLINOIS, NORTHERN INDIANA, AND ACROSS MICHIGAN.

SOIL CONDITIONS ARE RATHER DRY FOR MUCH OF THE REGION, WITH THE
EXCEPTION OF NEAR THE GREAT LAKES. THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR
INDICATES ABNORMALLY DRY OR MODERATE DROUGHT CONDITIONS ACROSS THE
DAKOTAS, AND ALSO FROM MISSOURI AND SOUTHEAST IOWA, INTO ADJACENT
PORTIONS OF ILLINOIS AND SOUTHERN WISCONSIN.  SOIL MOISTURE
RANKING FROM THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER SHOWS THAT PORTIONS OF
NORTH DAKOTA, MISSOURI, AND ILLINOIS ARE ALL IN THE LOWEST 5 OR 10
PERCENT WHEN COMPARED TO HISTORICAL RECORDS.   THE ONLY AREA THAT
IS SEEING EXCESSIVE SOIL MOISTURE IS FROM THE MINNESOTA ARROWHEAD,
ACROSS THE WESTERN GREAT LAKES, AND INTO LOWER MICHIGAN.

AS A RESULT OF THE COLD TEMPERATURES AND GENERAL LACK OF DEEP SNOW
ACROSS MOST OF THE NCRFC AREA, THE FROST HAS GONE DEEPER THAN
NORMAL. WITHOUT SNOW COVER TO INSULATE THE GROUND, THE COLD AIR
HELPED PUSH FROST DEPTH TO 3-4 FEET FROM NORTH DAKOTA, ACROSS MUCH
OF MINNESOTA AND INTO WISCONSIN. FOR AREAS THAT HAVE SEEN A LITTLE
SNOW COVER, FROM IOWA INTO SOUTHERN WISCONSIN, FROST DEPTH RANGES
FROM 18 TO 36 INCHES.  A BIT FURTHER TO THE SOUTH, FROM MISSOURI,
ACROSS ILLINOIS AND INDIANA, AND INTO SOUTHERN LOWER MICHIGAN, THE
WARM SPELL AND RAIN EVENT IN MID-JANUARY HAVE HELPED KEEP THE FROST
FROM GETTING TOO DEEP, WITH REPORTS BETWEEN 3 AND 12 INCHES.

STREAM FLOW ACROSS MUCH OF THE REGION IS BELOW NORMAL, WITH THE
EXCEPTION OF AREAS CLOSER TO THE GREAT LAKES, FROM THE MINNESOTA
ARROWHEAD, ACROSS THE U.P. AND NORTHERN WISCONSIN, INTO LOWER
MICHIGAN. THERE, RIVER FLOW IS ABOVE NORMAL.

         **********************
          GREAT LAKES DRAINAGE
         **********************

OVERALL, THE FLOOD POTENTIAL FOR THIS AREA THIS SPRING IS NEAR
NORMAL.

TEMPERATURES WERE 1 TO 4 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL IN SEPTEMBER AND
OCTOBER, AND THEN THE WINTER COLD SET IN. NOVEMBER TEMPERATURES
WERE 1 TO 3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL, AND DECEMBER WAS 2 TO 6 DEGREES
BELOW NORMAL. JANUARY HAD A MIX OF WARM AND COLD PERIODS, BUT THE
FIRST HALF OF FEBRUARY HAS BEEN QUITE COLD, AVERAGING FROM 6 TO AS
MUCH AS 15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

PRECIPITATION-WISE, SEPTEMBER WAS DRY FOR MOST OF THE GREAT LAKES
REGION, EXCEPT FOR ALONG LAKE SUPERIOR, WHICH WAS WETTER THAN THE
AVERAGE. THE PATTERN SHIFTED FOR OCTOBER, WITH PRECIPITATION FROM
125 TO 200 PERCENT OF NORMAL. NOVEMBER SAW VARIED PRECIPITATION,
WHICH RESULTED IN BELOW NORMAL VALUES OVER MINNESOTA AND WISCONSIN,
AND ABOVE NORMAL VALUES FROM ILLINOIS TO MICHIGAN. SO FAR IN 2018,
AREAS ALONG THE GREAT LAKES HAVE SEEN ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION,
WITH LENGTHY PERIODS OF COLD TEMPERATURES BRINGING PLENTY OF
LAKE-EFFECT SNOWFALL. A MID-JANUARY WARM SPELL BROUGHT WARM AIR
AND SOME RAINFALL, WHICH MELTED SOME OF THE SNOW THAT HAD
ACCUMULATED. BUT MORE HAS SINCE FALLEN TO RE-ESTABLISH A MODEST
SNOWPACK.

THE WET PERIODS LAST FALL ALLOWED SOIL MOISTURE TO BECOME QUITE
HIGH, AND MANY RESERVOIRS WERE RUNNING HIGH AS WELL. THIS HAS KEPT
OVERALL RIVER FLOWS HIGHER THAN NORMAL THROUGH THE WINTER.

THE COLD TEMPERATURES HAVE HELPED WITH ICE PRODUCTION, WITH
THE GREAT LAKES HAVING OVER 69 PERCENT ICE COVER AS OF FEB 12TH.
THIS IS REPORTED TO BE THE MOST ICE COVER SINCE 2014, AND ONLY THE
2ND TIME IN THE PAST 24 YEARS THAT THIS MUCH ICE HAS BEEN SEEN.

RIVER ICE HAS BEEN THICKER THAN NORMAL, AND SOME ICE JAMMING HAS
BEEN SEEN IN A FEW TRIBUTARIES SUCH AS THE GRAND, MENOMINEE, AND
LOOKING GLASS RIVERS.

THE SNOW IS QUITE DEEP IN THE UPPER PENINSULA THANKS TO THE
REPEATED LAKE-EFFECT, WITH SOME AREAS REPORTING OVER 30 INCHES.
AMOUNTS OVER 20 INCHES ARE NOTED AS FAR SOUTH AS NORTHERN
WISCONSIN, AND ALSO OVER NORTHERN PARTS OF LOWER MICHIGAN. SNOW
DEPTH BETWEEN 4 AND 15 INCHES ARE SEEN ACROSS THE REMAINDER OF
MICHIGAN, AS WELL AS SOUTHERN WISCONSIN AND NORTHERN PORTIONS OF
ILLINOIS AND INDIANA. WATER EQUIVALENT IN THIS SNOW COVER RANGES
FROM AROUND 8 INCHES IN THE UPPER PENINSULA, TO 1-2 INCHES
FROM CHICAGO TO DETROIT. THE LOWEST SNOW COVER AND WATER AMOUNT
RUNS FROM CENTRAL WISCONSIN, THROUGH GREEN BAY, AND OVER TOWARD
ALPENA MICHIGAN.

THANKS TO THE JANUARY THAW, FROST DEPTH IS NOT TERRIBLY DEEP.
DEPTH IS ONLY 4-6 INCHES OVER SOUTHERN MICHIGAN, AND GENERALLY
LESS THAN A FOOT SOUTH OF A LINE FROM THE THUMB BACK TOWARD THE
CHICAGO AREA. MUCH DEEPER FROST IS SEEN ACROSS WISCONSIN, WHERE
SNOW COVER HAS BEEN MINIMAL. FROST IS AS DEEP AS 3 TO 4 FEET IN
SOME PLACES.

OVERALL, THE FLOOD POTENTIAL FOR THIS AREA THIS SPRING IS NEAR
NORMAL. WITH A SOMEWHAT LIMITED SNOW COVER, AT THIS POINT IN TIME
THE RISK FOR FLOODING DUE TO SNOW ITSELF IS RATHER LOW. BUT WITH
A COOL SPRING ANTICIPATED BASED ON THE LATEST OUTLOOKS, AND WITH
SOME AREAS SEEING DEEP FROST, RUNOFF RATES COULD BE ENHANCED DUE
TO THE FROZEN GROUND, ESPECIALLY IF THE FROST DOES NOT GO OUT OF
THE GROUND UNTIL LATER IN THE SPRING, OR IF HEAVY SPRING RAINS
ARE SEEN.

       **********************************
        UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER DRAINAGE
       **********************************

OVERALL, THE FLOOD RISK FOR THIS DRAINAGE AREA IS NEAR NORMAL, OR
PERHAPS SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL.

FALL TEMPERATURES WERE GENERALLY ABOVE NORMAL. SEPTEMBER AND
OCTOBER WERE 2-5 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL, BUT NOVEMBER MARKED THE
BEGINNING OF WINTER WITH TEMPERATURES BELOW THE NORM. NOVEMBER AND
DECEMBER RANGED FROM 2-5 DEGREES COOLER THAN NORMAL. IT WAS A BIT
WARMER IN JANUARY, BUT FEBRUARY SAW A PLUNGE INTO THE DEEP FREEZE,
WITH TEMPERATURES WELL BELOW NORMAL FOR THE FIRST HALF OF THE MONTH.

OTHER THAN OCTOBER, WHICH SAW PRECIPITATION AMOUNTS OVER
200 PERCENT OF NORMAL, THE REMAINDER OF THE FALL AND WINTER MONTHS
HAS BEEN RATHER DRY. SNOW COVER HAS BEEN WELL BELOW THE NORM AS
WELL, ESPECIALLY OVER MINNESOTA AND WISCONSIN. SOME PORTIONS OF
WESTERN MINNESOTA REMAINED NEARLY SNOW FREE ALL THE WAY INTO EARLY
FEBRUARY. EVEN NOW DEPTH THERE IS ONLY A FEW INCHES.

A STRONG STORM SYSTEM BROUGHT SIGNIFICANT RAIN AND SNOW TO MUCH OF
THE REGION IN MID-JANUARY. THIS THAW PRODUCED SOME MELT, AND THE
ADDED RAINFALL DID RESULT IN SOME MINOR FLOODING ISSUES FOR
PORTIONS OF IOWA, ILLINOIS, AND WISCONSIN, AS RAINFALL AMOUNTS OF
1-1.5 INCHES FELL ON FROZEN GROUND. THE RESULTING RAPID RUNOFF
LED TO SOME STREAMS RISING OUT OF THEIR BANKS, AND ICE CHUNKS TO
LODGE FOR A FEW LOCALIZED ICE JAMS. THE COLD FEBRUARY AND SOME
PASSING SYSTEMS RESULTING IN A PRETTY WIDESPREAD SNOW COVER,
REACHING ALL THE WAY TO THE IOWA/MISSOURI BORDER, AND THROUGH
CENTRAL ILLINOIS. BUT DEPTH AND WATER AMOUNTS ARE NOT THAT HIGH.
DEPTH IS ONLY AN INCH OR LESS FOR PORTIONS OF WESTERN MINNESOTA.
A BAND OF SNOW EXTENDS FROM SOUTHERN MINNESOTA ACROSS WISCONSIN,
WITH DEPTHS AS MUCH AS 8 TO 12 INCHES, WHILE ANOTHER BAND
STRETCHES FROM IOWA THROUGH SOUTHERN WISCONSIN AND NORTHERN
ILLINOIS.

WATER EQUIVALENT IN THE SNOW IS HIGHEST FROM NORTHERN MINNESOTA
INTO NORTHERN WISCONSIN, WHERE LIQUID AMOUNTS ARE UP TO 3 TO 4
INCHES. WATER AMOUNTS OF 1 TO 2 INCHES EXTENDED ACROSS PORTIONS OF
IOWA, INTO SOUTHERN WISCONSIN AND NORTHERN PARTS OF ILLINOIS
AND INDIANA.

SOIL CONDITIONS ARE RATHER DRY, WITH THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR
SHOWING ABNORMALLY DRY OR MODERATE DROUGHT CONDITIONS FROM
MISSOURI AND SOUTHEAST IOWA, INTO ADJACENT PORTIONS OF ILLINOIS
AND SOUTHERN WISCONSIN.  SOIL MOISTURE RANKING FROM THE CLIMATE
PREDICTION CENTER SHOWS THAT PORTIONS OF MISSOURI AND ILLINOIS
ARE IN THE LOWEST 5 OR 10 PERCENT WHEN COMPARED TO HISTORICAL
RECORDS.

AS A RESULT OF THE COLD TEMPERATURES AND GENERAL LACK OF DEEP SNOW,
THE FROST HAS GONE DEEPER THAN NORMAL. WITHOUT SNOW COVER TO
INSULATE THE GROUND, THE COLD AIR HELPED PUSH FROST DEPTH TO
3-4 FEET ACROSS MUCH OF MINNESOTA AND INTO WISCONSIN. SOME REPORTS
OF FROZEN WATER LINES HAVE BEEN RECEIVED IN MINNESOTA RECENTLY.
FOR AREAS THAT HAVE SEEN A LITTLE SNOW COVER, FROM IOWA INTO
SOUTHERN WISCONSIN, FROST DEPTH RANGES FROM 18 TO 36 INCHES.  A BIT
FURTHER TO THE SOUTH, FROM MISSOURI, ACROSS ILLINOIS AND INDIANA,
THE WARM SPELL AND RAIN EVENT IN MID-JANUARY HAVE HELPED KEEP THE
FROST FROM GETTING TOO DEEP, WITH REPORTS BETWEEN 3 AND 12 INCHES.

STREAM FLOW ACROSS MUCH OF THE REGION IS NORMAL OR BELOW NORMAL.

OVERALL, THE FLOOD POTENTIAL FOR THIS AREA THIS SPRING IS NEAR
NORMAL, OR PERHAPS SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL FOR SOME SPOTS. WITH A
SOMEWHAT LIMITED SNOW COVER, AT THIS POINT IN TIME THE RISK FOR
FLOODING DUE TO SNOW ITSELF IS RATHER LOW. BUT WITH A COOL SPRING
ANTICIPATED BASED ON THE LATEST OUTLOOKS, AND WITH SOME AREAS
SEEING DEEP FROST, RUNOFF RATES COULD BE ENHANCED DUE TO THE FROZEN
GROUND, ESPECIALLY IF THE FROST DOES NOT GO OUT OF THE GROUND UNTIL
LATER IN THE SPRING, OR IF HEAVY SPRING RAINS ARE SEEN. BEHAVIOR
LIKE THIS WAS ALREADY SEEN IN A FEW PLACES DURING THE RAIN EVENT
IN MID-JANUARY, SO THIS WILL BEAR WATCHING LATER THIS SPRING.

       *********************
        HUDSON BAY DRAINAGE
       *********************

RED RIVER OF THE NORTH RIVER BASIN

GOING INTO THE FALL MONTHS, PRECIPITATION WAS ABOVE NORMAL IN
SEPTEMBER, AND BELOW NORMAL IN OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER. OVER THE
WINTER MONTHS, PRECIPITATION HAS BEEN NEAR NORMAL.

SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER SAW TEMPERATURES 1 TO 3 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL,
BUT NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER SAW TEMPERATURES 1 TO 3 DEGREES BELOW
AVERAGE. JANUARY SAW A FEW WARMER PERIODS, RESULTING IN AN AVERAGE
TEMPERATURE, BUT FEBRUARY SAW A DRASTIC CHANGE, WITH TEMPERATURES
RUNNING 11-15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL SO FAR.

THE OVERALL DRY TREND CONTINUED, WITH A VERY LIMITED SNOW COVER
ALL THROUGH THE WINTER MONTHS. SNOW DEPTH IS ONLY AN INCH OR LESS
FOR THE HEADWATER AREA OF WEST-CENTRAL MINNESOTA, AND REACHING UP
INTO SOUTHEAST AND CENTRAL NORTH DAKOTA. NORTHEASTERN NORTH DAKOTA
TO NORTHERN MINNESOTA HAS A SNOW PACK OF UP TO 6 TO 10 INCHES.

WATER EQUIVALENT IN THE SNOW IS HIGHEST OVER NORTHWEST MINNESOTA,
WHERE LIQUID AMOUNTS ARE UP TO AROUND 3 INCHES NEARER TO LAKE OF
THE WOODS.

ICE THICKNESSES ON USACE RESERVOIRS IS NORMAL TO ABOVE NORMAL,
SUGGESTING SIMILAR CONDITIONS IN THE RIVERS.  FURTHERMORE, RIVER
FLOWS IN THE RED RIVER BASIN WERE ABOVE NORMAL GOING INTO THE
WINTER FOLLOWING HEAVY RAINS IN SEPTEMBER. THIS HIGHER FLOW HAS
HELPED TO ENHANCE THE PRODUCTION OF FRAZIL ICE IN THE RIVERS.  IF
THE SPRING MELT AND RAINFALL GENERATE SIGNIFICANT RUNOFF, BREAK-UP
ICE JAMS COULD FORM. THE EFFECTS OF ICE JAMS ARE NOT INCLUDED IN
ANY OF THE LONG RANGE PROBABILISTIC OUTLOOKS.

FROST DEPTHS ARE DEEPER THAN NORMAL THIS WINTER. IN BOTH LATE
OCTOBER AND LATE NOVEMBER OF LAST YEAR, THE SNOWPACK MELTED OFF
COMPLETELY ACROSS THE BASIN ADDING ABOUT 0.5" TO 1.0" OF WATER
TO THE SOIL. DEPTHS OF 3 TO 4 FEET HAVE BEEN REPORTED. THIS
COMBINATION OF SOIL WATER AND FROST COULD LEAD TO HIGHER
POTENTIAL FOR RUNOFF DUE TO THE FROZEN GROUND, ESPECIALLY IF
THE MELT IS SUDDEN AND ACCOMPANIED BY RAINFALL OR MORE SNOW
BETWEEN NOW AND THE MELT.

SOURIS RIVER AND DEVILS LAKE BASINS

GOING INTO THE FALL MONTHS, PRECIPITATION WAS ABOVE NORMAL IN
SEPTEMBER, AND BELOW NORMAL IN OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER. OVER THE
WINTER MONTHS, PRECIPITATION HAS BEEN SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL.

SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER SAW TEMPERATURES A DEGREE OR TWO ABOVE
NORMAL, BUT NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER SAW TEMPERATURES DROP A FEW
DEGREES BELOW THE AVERAGE. JANUARY SAW A FEW WARMER PERIODS,
RESULTING IN AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE, BUT FEBRUARY SAW A DRASTIC
CHANGE, WITH TEMPERATURES AS MUCH AS 12 TO 15 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL.

THE OVERALL DRY TREND CONTINUED, WITH A VERY LIMITED SNOW COVER
ALL THROUGH THE WINTER MONTHS. SNOW DEPTH IS ONLY A FEW INCHES
FOR MUCH OF THE SOURIS AND DEVILS LAKE BASINS. WATER EQUIVALENT
IN THAT SNOW IS UNDER AN INCH FOR THE MOST PART. SNOW AMOUNTS
AND SNOW WATER IS A LITTLE HIGHER JUST NORTH OF DEVILS LAKE,
BUT THE MAJORITY OF THAT WILL DRAIN TO THE NORTH AND EAST.

ICE THICKNESS IS ABOVE NORMAL, AND RIVER FLOWS ARE NEAR NORMAL.

FROST DEPTHS ARE DEEPER THAN NORMAL THIS WINTER. WITH A LACK OF
DEEP SNOW COVER, FROST DEPTH HAS BEEN ALLOWED TO PENETRATE TO
BETWEEN 3 AND 4.5 FEET.


$$

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