Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
000
UXUS97 KPUB 221109
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0509 MDT Friday, August 22, 2014

This forecast is for Friday, August 22, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 68.7 F/20.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 185 ft/min (0.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 11452 ft MSL (4694 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 70.0 F/21.6 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1115 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1400 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8583 ft MSL (1825 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 08/23..... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 24749 ft MSL (17991 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 08/23........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:18:52 / 19:45:23 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 26 min 31 sec (806 min 31 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:01:44 MDT... 62.65 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/22/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15907 ft MSL (9149 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 13868 ft MSL (7110 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 11917 ft MSL (5159 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -2.1
K index......................... +30.5

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -65.8 -86.4   220   42   21   0.7   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -62.0 -79.6   220   60   31   6.3   3.5      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.3 -62.1   225   67   35   7.0   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -48.1 -54.6   225   66   34   7.1   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -43.9 -47.0   220   64   33   6.9   3.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -39.0 -38.2   220   58   30   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -33.4 -28.1   215   51   26   8.9   4.9      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -29.0 -20.2   215   42   21   7.4   4.1   41.2 106.1    15.5      M    M
 29000  -26.8 -16.2   215   37   19   7.4   4.1   40.3 104.6    15.0      M    M
 28000  -24.6 -12.3   215   33   17   6.9   3.8   39.5 103.2    14.5      M    M
 27000  -22.6  -8.7   220   32   16   6.9   3.8   38.3 101.0    13.7      M    M
 26000  -20.5  -4.9   225   32   16   6.9   3.8   37.3  99.1    12.9      M    M
 25000  -18.5  -1.3   230   31   16   6.9   3.8   36.3  97.4    12.3      M    M
 24000  -16.5   2.3   225   31   16   6.8   3.8   35.2  95.4    11.4      M    M
 23000  -14.5   5.9   225   31   16   6.9   3.8   34.2  93.5    10.6      M    M
 22000  -12.5   9.5   225   31   16   6.6   3.6   33.2  91.8     9.9      M    M
 21000  -10.7  12.7   220   31   16   6.0   3.3   31.9  89.4     8.8      M    M
 20000   -8.9  16.0   210   31   16   6.0   3.3   30.6  87.1     7.8      M    M
 19500   -8.0  17.6   210   32   16   5.9   3.2   30.0  86.0     7.3      M    M
 19000   -7.1  19.2   205   32   16   7.6   4.2   29.5  85.1     6.8      M    M
 18500   -6.0  21.2   205   32   16   7.5   4.1   29.1  84.4     6.5      M    M
 18000   -4.9  23.2   205   32   16   7.4   4.1   28.8  83.8     6.2      M    M
 17500   -3.8  25.2   205   31   16   7.2   4.0   28.3  83.0     5.7      M    M
 17000   -2.8  27.0   205   30   15   7.1   3.9   27.9  82.2     5.4      M    M
 16500   -1.7  28.9   205   29   15   8.1   4.4   27.5  81.6     5.0      M    M
 16000    0.1  32.2   205   28   14   8.1   4.4   27.1  80.8     4.7      M    M
 15500    1.3  34.3   205   27   14   8.3   4.6   26.9  80.4     4.4      M    M
 15000    2.5  36.5   200   26   14   8.4   4.6   26.6  80.0     4.2      M    M
 14500    3.7  38.7   200   25   13   7.7   4.2   26.4  79.5     4.0      M    M
 14000    4.9  40.8   200   24   12   7.6   4.2   26.0  78.9     3.7      M    M
 13500    6.0  42.8   195   22   12   6.0   3.3   25.7  78.2     3.4      M    M
 13000    6.6  43.9   190   19   10   5.1   2.8   24.9  76.8     2.5      M    M
 12500    7.2  45.0   185   16    8   5.5   3.0   24.2  75.5     1.7      M    M
 12000    7.8  46.0   175   14    7   4.8   2.6   23.4  74.2     0.8      M    M
 11750    8.1  46.6   165   14    7   4.5   2.4   23.0  73.5     0.4      M    M
 11500    8.4  47.1   160   14    7   6.4   3.5   22.7  72.8    -0.0    384  2.0
 11250    8.9  48.0   150   14    7   7.8   4.3   22.5  72.5    -0.2    361  1.8
 11000    9.4  48.9   145   14    7   6.2   3.4   22.3  72.1    -0.5    338  1.7
 10750    9.9  49.8   140   13    7   5.9   3.2   22.0  71.6    -0.8    318  1.6
 10500   10.3  50.5   135   14    7   6.2   3.4   21.7  71.0    -1.0    298  1.5
 10250   10.8  51.4   130   13    7   6.7   3.7   21.4  70.6    -1.3    276  1.4
 10000   11.3  52.3   120   13    7   6.5   3.6   21.2  70.2    -1.5    254  1.3
  9750   11.7  53.1   115   12    6   6.2   3.4   20.9  69.7    -1.8    232  1.2
  9500   12.2  54.0   105   12    6   6.2   3.4   20.7  69.2    -2.1    211  1.1
  9250   12.7  54.9   100   11    6   6.0   3.3   20.4  68.7    -2.3    189  1.0
  9000   13.1  55.6   085   11    6   6.0   3.3   20.1  68.2    -2.6    168  0.9
  8750   13.6  56.5   075   11    5   6.3   3.4   19.8  67.7    -2.8    146  0.7
  8500   14.1  57.4   065   11    6   5.2   2.9   19.5  67.2    -3.1    125  0.6
  8250   14.4  57.9   045   10    5   4.3   2.4   19.1  66.4    -3.5    108  0.5
  8000   14.7  58.5   025   11    5   3.8   2.1   18.7  65.7    -4.0     91  0.5
  7750   15.0  59.0   010   12    6   6.5   3.6   18.3  65.0    -4.4     75  0.4
  7500   15.4  59.7   360   13    7   0.6   0.3   18.1  64.6    -4.7     56  0.3
  7250   14.9  58.8   355   11    6  -8.2  -4.5   17.3  63.2    -5.5     63  0.3
  7000   14.5  58.1   345    9    5  -1.3  -0.7   16.6  61.8    -6.3     69  0.4
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/22/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/22/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.7  LI... -3.6               | K index... +22.0  LI... -4.0
CAPE... +659.2  CIN... -54.6               | CAPE... +744.9  CIN... -8.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.9 -84.8  220  37 19   0.5   0.3 | -65.6 -86.1  215  37 19   0.7   0.4
 45000 -61.6 -78.9  220  57 30   5.9   3.3 | -61.9 -79.4  215  58 30   6.2   3.4
 40000 -52.5 -62.5  220  63 32   7.2   4.0 | -52.4 -62.3  215  60 31   7.6   4.2
 38000 -48.1 -54.6  220  63 32   7.2   4.0 | -47.8 -54.0  215  60 31   7.6   4.2
 36000 -43.8 -46.8  220  62 32   7.1   3.9 | -43.2 -45.8  220  60 31   7.6   4.2
 34000 -38.4 -37.1  220  57 30   8.1   4.4 | -38.0 -36.4  215  55 28   7.6   4.2
 32000 -33.5 -28.3  215  52 27   8.8   4.9 | -33.4 -28.1  215  51 26   8.3   4.6
 30000 -29.3 -20.7  215  45 23   7.0   3.8 | -28.7 -19.7  210  44 23   7.9   4.3
 29000 -27.2 -17.0  215  41 21   7.0   3.8 | -26.4 -15.5  210  41 21   7.9   4.3
 28000 -25.1 -13.2  215  37 19   7.2   3.9 | -24.1 -11.4  210  37 19   7.3   4.0
 27000 -23.0  -9.4  215  34 18   7.2   4.0 | -22.0  -7.6  210  36 18   7.2   3.9
 26000 -20.9  -5.6  215  32 16   7.3   4.0 | -19.8  -3.6  210  34 18   7.2   3.9
 25000 -18.7  -1.7  215  29 15   7.2   4.0 | -17.7   0.1  210  33 17   7.1   3.9
 24000 -16.7   1.9  220  28 14   6.6   3.6 | -15.7   3.7  210  31 16   6.9   3.8
 23000 -14.8   5.4  220  26 14   6.6   3.6 | -13.6   7.5  210  29 15   6.9   3.8
 22000 -12.9   8.8  225  25 13   6.6   3.6 | -11.6  11.1  210  27 14   6.5   3.6
 21000 -11.0  12.2  220  26 13   6.5   3.6 | -10.1  13.8  210  27 14   5.0   2.7
 20000  -9.1  15.6  215  27 14   6.5   3.6 |  -8.6  16.5  205  27 14   5.0   2.8
 19500  -8.1  17.4  210  27 14   6.6   3.6 |  -7.9  17.8  205  27 14   4.9   2.7
 19000  -7.3  18.9  210  28 14   5.5   3.0 |  -7.1  19.2  200  27 14   6.0   3.3
 18500  -6.5  20.3  205  28 14   5.5   3.0 |  -6.1  21.0  200  27 14   6.1   3.3
 18000  -5.7  21.7  205  28 14   5.8   3.2 |  -5.2  22.6  195  27 14   6.4   3.5
 17500  -4.7  23.5  205  28 14   6.4   3.5 |  -4.2  24.4  195  27 14   7.3   4.0
 17000  -3.8  25.2  205  27 14   6.1   3.4 |  -3.1  26.4  195  26 14   7.3   4.0
 16500  -2.7  27.1  205  27 14   9.1   5.0 |  -2.1  28.2  195  26 13   7.2   4.0
 16000  -0.6  30.9  210  26 13   9.0   4.9 |  -0.6  30.9  200  26 13   7.2   4.0
 15500   0.8  33.4  210  25 13   9.8   5.4 |   0.5  32.9  200  25 13   7.7   4.2
 15000   2.2  36.0  210  24 12   9.8   5.4 |   1.6  34.9  205  24 12   7.7   4.2
 14500   3.6  38.5  215  23 12   9.3   5.1 |   2.8  37.0  205  23 12   8.0   4.4
 14000   5.0  41.0  215  22 11   9.2   5.0 |   3.9  39.0  210  22 11   8.0   4.4
 13500   6.3  43.3  215  21 11   8.4   4.6 |   5.1  41.2  210  21 11   8.0   4.4
 13000   7.4  45.3  215  19 10   7.8   4.3 |   6.3  43.3  210  19 10   7.9   4.3
 12500   8.6  47.5  210  18  9   5.5   3.0 |   7.4  45.3  215  18  9   8.1   4.4
 12000   9.1  48.4  210  14  7   5.1   2.8 |   8.3  46.9  220  15  8   5.4   3.0
 11750   9.4  48.9  210  12  6   4.9   2.7 |   8.7  47.7  220  13  7   6.1   3.3
 11500   9.7  49.5  210  11  6   4.6   2.5 |   9.1  48.4  220  12  6   4.9   2.7
 11250   9.8  49.6  205   9  5   3.0   1.6 |   9.3  48.7  220  10  5   3.4   1.8
 11000   9.9  49.8  195   8  4   2.0   1.1 |   9.4  48.9  220   7  3   3.5   1.9
 10750  10.0  50.0  175   7  4   1.7   0.9 |   9.6  49.3  220   3  2   3.5   1.9
 10500  10.0  50.0  160   7  4   2.6   1.4 |   9.7  49.5  000   0  0   4.5   2.5
 10250  10.2  50.4  145   8  4   4.4   2.4 |  10.0  50.0  040   2  1   5.6   3.1
 10000  10.5  50.9  130   9  4   4.5   2.5 |  10.4  50.7  040   4  2   7.9   4.3
  9750  10.8  51.4  120   9  5   4.0   2.2 |  11.1  52.0  040   5  3   9.9   5.4
  9500  11.1  52.0  110  10  5   4.5   2.5 |  11.8  53.2  040   6  3   9.3   5.1
  9250  11.5  52.7  100  10  5   5.0   2.8 |  12.5  54.5  035   7  3   9.1   5.0
  9000  11.9  53.4  080   9  5   5.2   2.9 |  13.2  55.8  035   7  3   9.3   5.1
  8750  12.3  54.1  065   9  5   6.1   3.3 |  13.9  57.0  035   7  4  11.0   6.0
  8500  12.8  55.0  045   9  5   6.9   3.8 |  14.8  58.6  035   7  4  11.4   6.3
  8250  13.4  56.1  035   9  4   7.2   3.9 |  15.6  60.1  035   7  4  10.7   5.9
  8000  13.9  57.0  020   9  4   6.7   3.7 |  16.4  61.5  035   7  4  10.8   6.0
  7750  14.4  57.9  005   9  5   8.4   4.6 |  17.2  63.0  035   7  4  10.7   5.9
  7500  15.1  59.2  360   9  5   8.9   4.9 |  18.0  64.4  035   7  4  12.2   6.7
  7250  15.7  60.3  360   9  5   7.2   3.9 |  19.0  66.2  035   7  4  13.5   7.4
  7000  16.2  61.2  360   8  4   8.6   4.7 |  19.9  67.8  035   7  4  12.5   6.9
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           08/22/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/22/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.7  LI... -3.1               | K index... +28.4  LI... -2.9
CAPE... +499.8  CIN... M                   | CAPE... +672.0  CIN... -1.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.3 -85.5  215  34 17   0.9   0.5 | -65.2 -85.4  210  32 17   0.6   0.3
 45000 -61.6 -78.9  210  55 28   5.7   3.1 | -62.0 -79.6  210  49 25   5.2   2.8
 40000 -52.5 -62.5  205  61 32   8.1   4.4 | -53.4 -64.1  205  45 23   9.2   5.0
 38000 -47.6 -53.7  210  60 31   8.1   4.5 | -47.9 -54.2  205  43 22   9.2   5.1
 36000 -42.8 -45.0  215  59 30   8.1   4.5 | -42.4 -44.3  210  42 22   9.2   5.1
 34000 -37.2 -35.0  215  54 28   8.1   4.5 | -36.6 -33.9  210  40 21   8.5   4.7
 32000 -32.3 -26.1  215  49 25   8.9   4.9 | -31.4 -24.5  210  39 20   9.3   5.1
 30000 -27.5 -17.5  210  46 24   8.1   4.5 | -26.7 -16.1  205  38 19   8.0   4.4
 29000 -25.1 -13.2  210  44 23   8.1   4.5 | -24.3 -11.7  205  37 19   8.0   4.4
 28000 -22.7  -8.9  205  43 22   7.3   4.0 | -22.0  -7.6  200  37 19   7.1   3.9
 27000 -20.6  -5.1  205  41 21   7.1   3.9 | -19.9  -3.8  195  36 18   7.0   3.8
 26000 -18.5  -1.3  205  40 21   7.1   3.9 | -17.9  -0.2  190  35 18   7.0   3.8
 25000 -16.4   2.5  200  38 20   7.1   3.9 | -15.8   3.6  185  35 18   7.0   3.8
 24000 -14.5   5.9  200  38 20   6.4   3.5 | -14.0   6.8  180  33 17   6.3   3.4
 23000 -12.6   9.3  195  38 20   6.5   3.5 | -12.1  10.2  175  31 16   6.3   3.5
 22000 -10.7  12.7  195  38 20   6.3   3.4 | -10.3  13.5  170  29 15   6.2   3.4
 21000  -9.2  15.4  195  37 19   4.9   2.7 |  -8.7  16.3  165  27 14   5.5   3.0
 20000  -7.8  18.0  190  36 19   5.0   2.7 |  -7.1  19.2  165  26 13   5.5   3.0
 19500  -7.1  19.2  190  35 18   5.0   2.7 |  -6.3  20.7  160  25 13   5.5   3.0
 19000  -6.3  20.7  190  35 18   5.3   2.9 |  -5.5  22.1  160  24 13   5.3   2.9
 18500  -5.6  21.9  185  34 17   5.3   2.9 |  -4.8  23.4  160  23 12   5.2   2.9
 18000  -4.8  23.4  185  33 17   5.4   2.9 |  -4.0  24.8  155  22 11   5.2   2.9
 17500  -4.0  24.8  185  32 16   5.5   3.0 |  -3.3  26.1  155  20 10   5.0   2.7
 17000  -3.2  26.2  185  31 16   5.5   3.0 |  -2.6  27.3  155  19 10   5.0   2.7
 16500  -1.9  28.6  185  29 15   6.6   3.6 |  -1.9  28.6  155  18  9   5.2   2.9
 16000  -0.9  30.4  185  29 15   6.6   3.6 |  -0.7  30.7  160  16  8   5.3   2.9
 15500   0.1  32.2  185  28 14   6.8   3.7 |   0.0  32.0  160  15  8   5.5   3.0
 15000   1.0  33.8  185  26 14   6.8   3.8 |   0.8  33.4  165  14  7   5.5   3.0
 14500   2.0  35.6  185  25 13   6.6   3.6 |   1.7  35.1  170  13  7   6.7   3.7
 14000   2.9  37.2  180  23 12   6.5   3.5 |   2.7  36.9  170  12  6   7.4   4.1
 13500   3.8  38.8  175  20 10   6.5   3.6 |   3.8  38.8  175  12  6   7.3   4.0
 13000   4.7  40.5  165  17  9   6.6   3.6 |   4.9  40.8  180  11  6   7.1   3.9
 12500   5.6  42.1  150  14  7   5.6   3.1 |   5.9  42.6  185  10  5   6.3   3.4
 12000   6.6  43.9  130  12  6   9.1   5.0 |   6.7  44.1  190   9  5   6.4   3.5
 11750   7.1  44.8  120  12  6   8.6   4.7 |   7.1  44.8  190   8  4   6.2   3.4
 11500   7.7  45.9  110  12  6   8.7   4.8 |   7.6  45.7  195   8  4   6.4   3.5
 11250   8.4  47.1  110  12  6   9.4   5.1 |   8.0  46.4  195   8  4   6.6   3.6
 11000   9.1  48.4  105  12  6  10.1   5.5 |   8.5  47.3  195   7  4   6.6   3.6
 10750   9.8  49.6  105  12  6  10.0   5.5 |   8.9  48.0  200   7  3   6.6   3.6
 10500  10.5  50.9  100  12  6   9.9   5.4 |   9.4  48.9  205   6  3   6.7   3.7
 10250  11.2  52.2  100  12  6   9.2   5.0 |   9.8  49.6  210   6  3   6.0   3.3
 10000  11.9  53.4  100  12  6   9.7   5.3 |  10.3  50.5  210   6  3   7.4   4.1
  9750  12.7  54.9  100  12  6  10.6   5.8 |  10.9  51.6  215   6  3   9.2   5.1
  9500  13.5  56.3  095  12  6  10.1   5.5 |  11.5  52.7  220   5  3   8.4   4.6
  9250  14.2  57.6  095  11  6   9.2   5.1 |  12.0  53.6  225   5  3   7.0   3.8
  9000  14.9  58.8  095  11  6   9.3   5.1 |  12.5  54.5  225   5  3   6.6   3.6
  8750  15.6  60.1  095  11  6  10.9   6.0 |  13.0  55.4  225   5  3   8.9   4.9
  8500  16.5  61.7  095  11  6  11.1   6.1 |  13.7  56.7  230   5  2   9.7   5.3
  8250  17.3  63.1  095  11  6  10.3   5.7 |  14.3  57.7  230   5  2   8.9   4.9
  8000  18.0  64.4  095  11  6  10.1   5.6 |  15.0  59.0  230   4  2   8.5   4.7
  7750  18.8  65.8  095  11  6  10.8   5.9 |  15.6  60.1  230   4  2   9.9   5.4
  7500  19.6  67.3  090  11  6  11.9   6.5 |  16.3  61.3  230   4  2   8.5   4.7
  7250  20.5  68.9  090  10  5  11.9   6.6 |  16.8  62.2  230   4  2   5.3   2.9
  7000  21.3  70.3  090  10  5  12.0   6.6 |  17.2  63.0  230   4  2   7.3   4.0
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.