Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Gaylord, MI

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815
FXUS63 KAPX 292338
AFDAPX

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Gaylord MI
738 PM EDT Sat Apr 29 2017

.NEAR TERM...(Tonight through Sunday)
Issued at 401 PM EDT Sat Apr 29 2017

...Rain Tonight, Heavy Rain Sunday...

High Impact Weather Potential...Heavy rain is expected tonight
through Monday morning across Northern Lower Michigan...which could
lead to minor flooding and ponding of water.

Pattern Synopsis/Forecast...Warm front is stretched out from the sfc
low in NE Texas to the Mid-Mississippi Valley. From the mid-
Mississippi Valley the baroclinic zone splits with the main warm
front still in Indiana and Ohio while the second one follows the
inverted sfc trough into the Upper Great Lakes which is beginning to
push the sfc high in Lake Superior to the north. Models show that
this will continue into the night and the baroclinic zone in Indiana
and Ohio will rejoin the separated portion in N Lower. By 06z, the
precipitation will be around Saginaw Bay and remain there as the
warm front stalls until 12z. From 12z/Sun to 00z/Mon, the warm front
begins to move north, slowly with the another 500 mb jet max moving
up over it. This will bring another wave of rain north.

Primary Forecast Concerns...As long as the convection along the warm
front doesn`t disrupt the southerly flow into the warm front then
the heavy rain that the models have been advertising will occur.
This can happen, but based on the current composite radar over
MO/IA/IL, the heaviest stratiform rain should continue its path
northeast into N Lower and looking at the slope of the cold front at
this point, intervening convection shouldn`t fire up south of the
warm front. SREF and GEFS QPF plumes continue to show the best
clustering around the mean which after 48 hours looks to be around
2.25" roughly from near HTL to around APN.

&&

.SHORT TERM...(Sunday night through Tuesday)
Issued at 401 PM EDT Sat Apr 29 2017

...Wet period of weather ahead...

High Impact Weather Potential: Early week river response to long
duration moderate to heavy rain event that unfolds tonight through
early Monday.

Pattern Synopsis/Forecast: One impressive deep layer moisture plume
will be well established across the area Sunday night as well
advertised deep layer trough and attendant surface reflection move
northeast across the western Lakes. Both surface and mid level
configurations are primed for a direct northward feed of Gulf of
Mexico moisture, a fact well evident by guidance progged overhead
precipitable water values spiking to 1 to 1.5" levels by Sunday
evening. Quick look at the SPC sounding climatology page puts this
in some rather rare air, well above the 90th percentile and
pushing near all-time record amounts for the date. Forcing to work
over this moisture plume is impressive indeed, with forced mass
convergence on nose of 50+ knot low level jet aimed right at
northern Michigan, itself collocated nicely with tightening
elevated frontogenetical response ahead of slow northward
advancing surface warm front. Embedded thunderstorms within narrow
elevated cape axis and a respectably deep warm cloud environment
will only enhance the heavy rain potential. Corridor of deepest
forcing and moisture pinwheels northeast out of the area on
Monday. Slow passage of main trough axis will continue the shower
threat (albeit of much lighter intensities) right through Tuesday.

Primary forecast concerns/challenges: Emphasis remains on rain
amounts and what impacts the associated runoff will have on area
rivers.

Details: Rounds of rain, at times moderate to heavy (especially with
any embedded elevated thunderstorms), will continue across the area
Sunday night. SREf plumes continue to target much of northern lower
Michigan for the heaviest rain amounts, that when combined with
tonight`s and Sunday`s anticipate rain, yield mean totals of 2 to 3
inches for much of the area. Do feel the areal extent of these
heavier amounts is likely overdone by quite a bit, but even most low
end sref members show amounts in excess of an inch, which is rather
rare for such a large data set. Still some uncertainty exactly where
the heaviest rain axis will reside, with some fluctuation both north
and south noted in dprog/dt`s of the high resolution and sref
guidance progs.

Still looks like the heaviest rain threat exits fairly quickly
Monday morning as surge of deepest moisture and low level jet
forcing push east of the area. Rapid approach/passage of mid level
dry slot may bring a brief respite in the wet weather for a time
Monday. However, the return of deeper moisture as intense mid level
low rotates across the area later Monday through Tuesday will
reintroduce the shower threat. Definitely not expecting too much
additional rain during this period, with the greatest amounts
(likely remaining at or under a quarter of an inch) focused in the
favored upslope enhancement areas of northwest lower Michigan. Cold
air advection ramps up through the period, resulting in a chilly and
windy period of weather. Not completely out of the question for a
bit of snow to mix in with some of the showers by Tuesday morning,
but shouldn`t be a big deal for sure.

Flooding concerns: While rain will no doubt fall heavy at times
Sunday night into early Monday, especially with any embedded thunder
activity, this does not look like a flash flood scenario as the
deepest convection looks to remain well south of our area. Northern
Michigan`s sandy soils are notorious for being able to absorb a
tremendous amount of water, with the much less than anticipated
rains from the previous event only helping the soil absorbing cause.
Still, if rain amounts are as much as currently advertised, some
ponding of water will occur, and those more susceptible river basins
(the Rifle and Manistee rivers in particular) will likely approach
or exceed flood stage. Latest river forecasts out of Minneapolis
indeed puts the Rifle river near sterling well above flood stage
early next week, and gets the Manistee river near Sherman awfully
close to it. A touch too early for any type of warnings, and simply
not seeing enough evidence to support an area flood watch. A
refreshing of the earlier issued hydrologic outlook will suffice for
now, as will a continued mention in our latest hazardous weather
products and graphics.

.LONG TERM...(Tuesday night through Saturday)
Issued at 401 PM EDT Sat Apr 29 2017

We may be dealing with just a little bit of lingering moisture at
the start of our period...in the form of a few drops or
flakes...but nothing of real note. The "big system" will be
through us and we will be quickly trending drier on Wednesday.
Quieter weather
*should* persist through the extended...with temperatures moderating
to climo by Friday.  The fly in the ointment will be a system
passing to the south, which models do not yet agree on.  The euro
has this low moving up over Lake Erie and brushing our eastern areas
with a little wrap around moisture on Friday...whereas the GFS keeps
the track south.  That said, the GFS shows a weak clipper dropping
down, providing some weak pops for Friday (which would explain why
it tracks the southern system more southerly), but the euro gives
this clipper little attention...washing it out as it arrives and the
aforementioned southern low steals it`s support.  Regardless...this
is a long way off and will likely change several times before
then...stay tuned.

&&

.AVIATION...(For the 00Z TAFS through 00Z Sunday evening)
Issued at 737 PM EDT Sat Apr 29 2017

Low pressure over the lower Mississippi River Valley and a very
warm/humid airmass over the SE CONUS...will slowly migrate up into
the Great Lakes over the next few days. Expansive rainfall already
in place from the central plains up into the lower lakes (along
that moisture gradient) and will expand up into northern lower
Michigan tonight. This will bring deteriorating flight conditions
to the terminal sites tonight with low MVFR to IFR conditions
developing overnight and persisting through the balance of the
weekend.

Along with the rainfall/lowering cigs...easterly winds increase
later tonight and persist through Sunday with some gusts into the
20 knot range.

&&

.MARINE...
Issued at 401 PM EDT Sat Apr 29 2017

Tonight through Monday...Winds this afternoon were around Small
craft criteria for a period, but will probably drop them for new
ones this evening, especially for the Lake Huron side as the ene
winds begin to ramp up as the sfc low moves into the region. The ENE
winds continue through Sunday, with some diminishing by the evening
and overnight. Monday, winds veer south and remain under small
craft criteria.


&&

.APX WATCHES/WARNINGS/ADVISORIES...
MI...NONE.
LH...SMALL CRAFT ADVISORY until 8 PM EDT Sunday for LHZ345>349.
LM...SMALL CRAFT ADVISORY until 8 PM EDT Sunday for LMZ323-341-342-
     344>346.
LS...SMALL CRAFT ADVISORY until 8 PM EDT Sunday for LSZ321-322.
&&

$$

NEAR TERM...JSL
SHORT TERM...MSB
LONG TERM...KAB
AVIATION...TBA
MARINE...JSL



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