Fire Weather Point Forecast Matrices
Issued by NWS

Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
000
FOUS54 KLUB 292135
PFWLUB

FIRE WEATHER POINT FORECAST MATRICES
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LUBBOCK TX
335 PM CST TUE NOV 29 2016

TXZ024-301100-
CAPROCK RAWS-BRISCOE TX
34.41N 101.05W ELEV. 2561 FT
335 PM CST TUE NOV 29 2016

DATE           11/29/16      WED 11/30/16            THU 12/01/16            FRI
UTC 3HRLY     21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12
CST 3HRLY     15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06

MIN/MAX                      31          56          30          59          31
TEMP          56 50 42 38 35 33 36 49 55 49 41 37 34 32 36 51 58 51 42 38 35 33
DEWPT         17 19 19 19 20 20 22 19 18 21 20 19 18 17 18 18 18 18 19 20 21 22
MAX/MIN RH                   62          23          53          21          69
RH            21 29 40 47 55 60 58 30 23 33 42 49 52 53 47 27 21 27 39 48 57 62
WIND DIR      NW  N  N  N NW NW  W  W SW SW SW SW SW  W  W  W  W  S  N  N NW  N
WIND SPD       8 10  6  6  5  6  6  8 11  9  6  8  8  8  8  8  8  4  4  4  4  5
CLOUDS        FW SC B1 SC FW FW CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL FW FW FW FW FW SC SC SC
CLOUDS(%)     22 43 59 39 23  7  2  1  1  1  2  2  3  3  8 12 15 17 21 26 31 35
POP 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
QPF 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
RAIN SHWRS                                                                    S
LAL                     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
HAINES                  3     3     2     4     4     4     4     3     3     3
MIX HGT               200   100  5600  7300   100   100  2800  4600   200   200
T WIND DIR             NW    NW     W    SW    SW     W     W    NW     N    NW
T WIND SPD              8     8    10    13     8     8     9     6     4     5
RFTI           0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
RFTI CATEGORY NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO


DATE           12/02/16  SAT 12/03/16  SUN 12/04/16  MON 12/05/16  TUE 12/06/16
UTC 6HRLY     18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00
CST 6HRLY     12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18

MAX/MIN          52      35    43      33    52      34    60      37    59
TEMP          47 47 39   36 41 40 36   34 47 47 39   36 53 54 43   39 53 53
DEWPT         27 34 35   34 34 36 34   32 33 33 31   30 35 32 30   30 32 32
MIN/MAX RH       43      92    73      92    52      80    39      72    37
RH            45 59 85   92 76 85 92   92 59 60 73   78 50 43 60   71 44 44
PWIND DIR        NE      NE    NE       N    NW      SW    SW       W     W
WIND CHAR       <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15
AVG CLOUDS    SC B1 B2   OV OV OV B2   B1 SC SC SC   SC SC SC FW   FW FW SC
POP 12HR         30      60    50      30    10      10     5       0     0

$$

TXZ026-301100-
CHILDRESS-CHILDRESS TX
34.43N 100.28W ELEV. 1952 FT
335 PM CST TUE NOV 29 2016

DATE           11/29/16      WED 11/30/16            THU 12/01/16            FRI
UTC 3HRLY     21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12
CST 3HRLY     15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06

MIN/MAX                      32          57          31          60          33
TEMP          59 53 44 39 36 34 37 50 56 50 42 38 35 33 37 52 59 53 44 39 37 35
DEWPT         19 19 20 20 20 20 21 19 18 20 20 21 22 22 21 21 21 22 24 25 25 26
MAX/MIN RH                   56          22          63          23          72
RH            21 26 38 46 52 56 52 29 22 30 41 50 59 63 52 29 23 29 45 57 61 69
WIND DIR       N  N  N  N NW NW NW NW  W  S  S  S SW SW SW SW SW  S SE NE  N  N
WIND SPD       9  8  6  8  6  6  6  8 10  8  6  6  5  5  5  8  9  5  4  4  4  4
CLOUDS        FW SC SC SC SC FW CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL FW FW FW FW FW FW SC SC
CLOUDS(%)     15 33 49 32 27 13  2  1  2  2  3  3  2  2  6 11 14 16 20 25 30 34
POP 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
QPF 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
RAIN SHWRS                                                                    S
LAL                     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
HAINES                  3     3     3     4     4     4     4     3     3     2
MIX HGT               100   100  4800  6300     0     0  1700  4100     0     0
T WIND DIR              N    NW    NW    SW     S    SW     W     W     N     N
T WIND SPD              6     6    10    12     6     4     6     8     5     5
RFTI           0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
RFTI CATEGORY NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO


DATE           12/02/16  SAT 12/03/16  SUN 12/04/16  MON 12/05/16  TUE 12/06/16
UTC 6HRLY     18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00
CST 6HRLY     12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18

MAX/MIN          54      38    45      34    52      35    60      37    60
TEMP          49 50 41   39 43 42 38   35 47 47 40   37 53 54 43   39 54 54
DEWPT         31 37 36   35 37 37 35   32 35 35 31   30 37 34 31   31 33 34
MIN/MAX RH       48      89    73      92    54      79    42      73    39
RH            50 61 82   85 79 82 89   89 63 63 70   75 54 46 62   73 45 46
PWIND DIR        NE      NE    NE       N     N      SW     S       W     N
WIND CHAR       <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15
AVG CLOUDS    SC B2 OV   OV OV OV B2   B2 B1 SC SC   SC SC SC FW   FW SC SC
POP 12HR         30      60    50      30    10      10    10       0     0

$$

TXZ043-301100-
JAYTON RAWS-KENT TX
33.23N 100.57W ELEV. 1905 FT
335 PM CST TUE NOV 29 2016

DATE           11/29/16      WED 11/30/16            THU 12/01/16            FRI
UTC 3HRLY     21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12
CST 3HRLY     15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06

MIN/MAX                      32          57          33          63          37
TEMP          62 55 45 39 36 34 37 50 56 50 43 40 37 35 39 55 62 56 47 43 40 38
DEWPT         22 19 21 23 22 21 22 20 20 22 24 24 24 26 28 29 27 26 28 32 32 30
MAX/MIN RH                   59          25          69          26          73
RH            21 24 38 53 57 58 54 30 25 33 47 52 58 68 65 37 26 31 47 65 73 73
WIND DIR       W  W  N  N NW NW  W  W SW  S  S  S SW SW SW SW SW  S  S SW  W NE
WIND SPD      13  9  6  5  6  4  5  5  6  5  5  6  6  5  6 10 10  5  5  4  4  4
CLOUDS        SC SC FW FW SC CL FW CL CL CL CL CL CL CL FW FW FW FW FW SC SC SC
CLOUDS(%)     43 35 25 13 31  3  7  1  2  2  2  2  2  2  7 13 13 13 21 31 41 49
POP 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
QPF 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
RAIN SHWRS                                                                    S
LAL                     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
HAINES                  2     3     3     4     4     4     4     4     3     3
MIX HGT               100   100  5100  6100   100   100  2800  4700   100   100
T WIND DIR             NW    NW     W    SW    SW    SW    SW    SW     W     N
T WIND SPD              5     6     5    10     5     5     8    13     4     5
RFTI           0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
RFTI CATEGORY NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO


DATE           12/02/16  SAT 12/03/16  SUN 12/04/16  MON 12/05/16  TUE 12/06/16
UTC 6HRLY     18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00
CST 6HRLY     12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18

MAX/MIN          53      39    43      35    51      35    60      39    62
TEMP          49 49 42   39 42 41 38   36 47 47 40   37 53 54 45   41 56 57
DEWPT         36 42 39   37 39 38 37   34 36 36 33   32 38 37 37   35 37 37
MIN/MAX RH       61      96    86      96    59      84    45      80    41
RH            61 77 89   93 89 89 94   93 65 66 75   81 56 52 72   79 50 48
PWIND DIR        NE      NE    NE       N     N       W    SW      SW    SW
WIND CHAR       <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15
AVG CLOUDS    B1 B2 OV   OV OV OV OV   B2 B1 B1 SC   SC SC SC FW   FW FW SC
POP 12HR         40      60    60      30    20      20    20       5     0

$$

TXZ035-301100-
LUBBOCK-LUBBOCK TX
33.67N 101.82W ELEV. 3280 FT
335 PM CST TUE NOV 29 2016

DATE           11/29/16      WED 11/30/16            THU 12/01/16            FRI
UTC 3HRLY     21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12
CST 3HRLY     15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06

MIN/MAX                      26          53          28          59          29
TEMP          55 48 38 34 30 28 32 46 52 46 39 35 33 30 34 51 58 51 41 36 33 31
DEWPT         16 16 19 18 18 17 20 19 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 17 16 18 21 21 21
MAX/MIN RH                   66          26          63          20          66
RH            21 27 46 51 60 63 61 34 26 32 44 52 56 63 54 28 20 24 39 54 61 66
WIND DIR       W NW  N  N  N  N  W SW SW SW SW SW SW  W  W SW SW SW  S SW  N NE
WIND SPD      14 11  8  8  5  5  4  9 13 10  8  8  6  6  8 10 10  5  5  4  4  5
CLOUDS        FW SC B1 SC FW CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL FW FW FW FW FW FW SC SC
CLOUDS(%)     22 30 51 36 17  2  3  2  2  2  3  3  3  4 12 20 19 17 21 25 29 33
POP 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
QPF 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
RAIN SHWRS                                                                    S
LAL                     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
HAINES                  3     3     3     4     4     4     4     4     3     3
MIX HGT               100   100  5600  6400   100   100  2000  3800   100   100
T WIND DIR             NW    NW     W    SW    SW     W     W     W    SW    NE
T WIND SPD              6     6     6    12     6     5     9    10     2     5
RFTI           0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
RFTI CATEGORY NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO


DATE           12/02/16  SAT 12/03/16  SUN 12/04/16  MON 12/05/16  TUE 12/06/16
UTC 6HRLY     18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00
CST 6HRLY     12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18

MAX/MIN          51      34    42      31    49      32    57      34    60
TEMP          45 46 38   35 40 39 35   32 44 44 37   34 50 51 40   36 53 54
DEWPT         29 32 34   33 33 34 31   30 32 32 29   30 33 30 30   29 31 30
MIN/MAX RH       46      92    73      92    54      89    40      75    34
RH            53 58 85   92 76 82 85   92 62 62 72   85 52 44 67   75 43 40
PWIND DIR        NE      NE    NE       N     N      SW    SW       W    SW
WIND CHAR       <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15
AVG CLOUDS    SC B2 B2   OV OV OV B2   B2 B1 SC SC   SC SC SC FW   FW FW FW
POP 12HR         30      60    60      30    10      20     5       0     0

$$

TXZ031-301100-
MATADOR RAWS-COTTLE TX
34.13N 100.42W ELEV. 1900 FT
335 PM CST TUE NOV 29 2016

DATE           11/29/16      WED 11/30/16            THU 12/01/16            FRI
UTC 3HRLY     21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12
CST 3HRLY     15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06

MIN/MAX                      32          59          32          63          34
TEMP          60 53 44 39 36 34 38 52 58 52 43 39 37 34 38 55 62 55 46 41 38 36
DEWPT         20 20 21 21 20 21 22 19 18 21 22 22 22 23 22 22 22 23 25 28 25 26
MAX/MIN RH                   58          21          64          21          73
RH            21 27 39 48 52 57 53 28 21 30 43 49 53 64 53 28 21 28 43 59 60 68
WIND DIR      NW  N  N  N  N NW NW NW  W  S  S  S SW SW SW SW SW  S SE  N NW  N
WIND SPD       9  8  6  6  8  6  6  6  9  8  6  8  6  6  6 10 10  5  5  4  4  4
CLOUDS        FW SC SC SC SC FW CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL FW FW FW FW FW FW SC SC
CLOUDS(%)     23 33 40 35 30  8  2  1  1  2  2  2  2  1  6 10 13 16 20 25 30 34
POP 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
QPF 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
RAIN SHWRS                                                                    S
LAL                     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
HAINES                  3     3     3     4     4     4     4     3     3     3
MIX HGT               100   100  4600  6300   100   100  2300  5000   100   100
T WIND DIR             NW    NW    NW    SW     S    SW     W     W     N     N
T WIND SPD              6     6    10    11     6     5     6     9     4     5
RFTI           0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
RFTI CATEGORY NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO


DATE           12/02/16  SAT 12/03/16  SUN 12/04/16  MON 12/05/16  TUE 12/06/16
UTC 6HRLY     18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00
CST 6HRLY     12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18

MAX/MIN          54      38    46      34    53      35    61      38    60
TEMP          49 50 41   39 43 43 38   35 48 48 40   37 54 55 44   40 54 54
DEWPT         32 39 38   36 38 38 36   33 37 36 33   31 38 36 34   32 35 36
MIN/MAX RH       50      90    74      94    55      82    44      76    42
RH            52 65 88   89 82 83 92   91 64 63 76   79 55 49 67   73 48 50
PWIND DIR        NE      NE    NE       N     N      SW    SW       W     W
WIND CHAR       <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15
AVG CLOUDS    SC B2 OV   OV OV OV B2   B2 B1 SC SC   SC SC SC FW   FW SC SC
POP 12HR         30      60    50      30    10      10    10       0     0

$$

TXZ029-301100-
PLAINVIEW-HALE TX
34.18N 101.71W ELEV. 3372 FT
335 PM CST TUE NOV 29 2016

DATE           11/29/16      WED 11/30/16            THU 12/01/16            FRI
UTC 3HRLY     21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12
CST 3HRLY     15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06

MIN/MAX                      25          52          26          56          27
TEMP          52 46 37 32 29 27 31 45 51 45 37 33 31 28 32 48 55 48 39 34 31 29
DEWPT         17 18 19 19 19 18 22 20 18 18 19 17 17 18 18 17 16 15 17 19 19 20
MAX/MIN RH                   75          27          66          21          75
RH            25 32 48 58 66 68 69 36 27 33 48 51 56 66 56 29 21 26 40 54 61 69
WIND DIR      NW  N  N  N  N NW  W SW SW SW SW SW SW  W  W  W SW SW SE NE  N NE
WIND SPD      10  9  6  6  4  4  4  9 12  9  6  6  6  5  6  9  9  4  4  3  4  4
CLOUDS        SC SC B1 SC FW FW CL FW CL CL CL CL CL FW FW FW FW FW SC SC SC SC
CLOUDS(%)     28 40 57 46 17  6  1  6  1  5  5  4  5  6 12 18 20 22 26 31 36 40
POP 12HR                      5           0           0           0           0
QPF 12HR                      0           0           0           0           0
RAIN SHWRS                                                                    S
LAL                     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
HAINES                  3     3     2     4     4     4     4     3     3     3
MIX HGT               200   100  5500  6700   100   100  2700  4000   200   100
T WIND DIR              N    NW     W    SW    SW    SW     W     W     E    NE
T WIND SPD              8     6     6    16     6     6     9     5     2     4
RFTI           0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
RFTI CATEGORY NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO


DATE           12/02/16  SAT 12/03/16  SUN 12/04/16  MON 12/05/16  TUE 12/06/16
UTC 6HRLY     18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00 06   12 18 00
CST 6HRLY     12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18

MAX/MIN          49      32    41      29    49      31    57      33    57
TEMP          43 44 36   33 38 38 33   31 44 44 36   33 50 50 39   35 51 51
DEWPT         26 30 31   31 32 34 30   28 32 31 27   28 33 30 28   29 31 29
MIN/MAX RH       42      92    73      92    54      85    40      79    37
RH            51 57 82   92 79 85 89   88 62 60 69   82 52 46 64   78 46 42
PWIND DIR        NE      NE    NE       N    NW      SW    SW       W    SW
WIND CHAR       <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15     <15   <15
AVG CLOUDS    SC B2 B2   OV OV OV B2   B1 SC SC SC   SC SC FW FW   FW FW FW
POP 12HR         30      60    50      20    10      10     5       0     0

$$

BELOW IS A WEATHER ELEMENT KEY FOR THIS PRODUCT

DAY 1 THROUGH 3...
MAX/MIN TEMP OR MIN/MAX TEMP(F).....MAXIMUM/MINIMUM AIR TEMPERATURE
TEMP(F).............................AIR TEMPERATURE
DEWPT(F)............................DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
MIN/MAX RH OR MAX/MIN RH(%).........MAXIMUM/MINIMUM HUMIDITY
RH(%)...............................RELATIVE HUMIDITY
WIND DIR(8 POINT COMPASS)...........20 FT. WIND DIRECTION
WIND DIR DEG(DEGREES)...............20 FT. WIND DIRECTION IN TENS OF DEGREES
                                    RELATIVE TO DUE NORTH.
     EXAMPLE: 09 = 90 DEGREES = EAST; 18 = 180 DEGREES = SOUTH;
              27 = 270 DEGREES = WEST; 36 = 360 DEGREES = NORTH
WIND SPD(MPH).......................20 FT. WIND SPEED
WIND GUST(MPH)......................20 FT. WIND GUST
WIND CHILL..........................WIND CHILL TEMPERATURE
HEAT INDX...........................HEAT INDEX
CLOUDS(CAT).........................CLOUD COVER CATEGORY
     EXAMPLE: CL = CLEAR; FW = FEW; SC = SCATTERED;
              B1 = MOSTLY CLOUDY; B2 = CONSIDERABLE CLOUDS; OV = OVERCAST
CLOUDS(%)...........................CLOUD COVER AS A PERCENTAGE
POP 12HR(%).........................PROBABILITY FOR ACCUMULATING PRECIPITATION
QPF 12HR(IN)........................LIQUID EQUIVALENT PRECIPITATION AMOUNT
WEATHER...
     TYPE...
       RAIN...........RAIN
       RAIN SHWRS.....RAIN SHOWERS
       TSTMS..........THUNDERSTORMS
       DRIZZLE........DRIZZLE
       SNOW...........SNOW
       SNOWSHWRS......SNOW SHOWERS
       SLEET..........SLEET
       FLURRIES.......FLURRIES
       FRZG RAIN......FREEZING RAIN
       FRZG DRZL......FREEZING DRIZZLE
     COVERAGE...
       S..............SLIGHT CHANCE
       C..............CHANCE
       L..............LIKELY
       O..............OCCASIONAL
       D..............DEFINITE
       AR.............AREAS
       PA.............PATCHY
OBVIS...............................OBSTRUCTION TO VISIBILITY
     TYPE...
       F..............FOG
       PF.............PATCHY FOG
       F+.............DENSE FOG
       H..............HAZE
       BS.............BLOWING SNOW
       K..............SMOKE
       BD.............BLOWING DUST
       AF.............VOLCANIC ASHFALL
LAL(CAT)............................LIGHTNING ACTIVITY LEVEL
MIX HGT(FT AGL).....................MIXING HEIGHT
T WIND DIR(8 POINT COMPASS).........TRANSPORT WIND DIRECTION
T WIND SPD(MPH).....................TRANSPORT WIND SPEED
ADI (INDEX).........................ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION INDEX
DISPERSION..........................LDSI
MAX LVORI...........................LVORI
STA PRES (INCHES MERCURY)...........STATION PRESSURE
ADI (INDEX).........................ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION INDEX
CEILING (FT)........................CEILING
STABILITY (CAT).....................PASQUILL TURNER STABILITY
WATCH/WARNING/ADVISORY...
     EXAMPLE: W = WARNING; Y = ADVISORY; A = WATCH
     IN EFFECT FOR THE INDICATED HOUR

DAY 4 THROUGH 7...
MAX/MIN TEMP OR MIN/MAX TEMP(F).....MAXIMUM/MINIMUM AIR TEMPERATURE
TEMP(F).............................AIR TEMPERATURE
DEWPT(F)............................DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
RH(%)...............................RELATIVE HUMIDITY
WIND SPD(MPH).......................20 FT. WIND SPEED
     EXAMPLE: <15 = LESS THAN 15 MPH; 15> = 15 MPH OR GREATER
AVE CLOUDS(CAT).....................AVERAGE CLOUD COVER CATEGORY
POP 12HR(%).........................PROBABILITY FOR ACCUMULATING PRECIPITATION
WEATHER...
     SEE DAY 1 THROUGH 3 WEATHER DESCRIPTIONS


USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.