Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 241256
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0656 MDT Friday, October 24, 2014

This forecast is for Friday, October 24, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 70.6 F/21.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 766 ft/min (3.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 15196 ft MSL (8438 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 76.0 F/24.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10591 ft MSL (3833 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 10/25..... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Poor
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 45855 ft MSL (39097 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 10/25........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:17:51 / 18:09:26 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 51 min 35 sec (651 min 35 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:43:16 MDT... 39.16 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 10/24/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15378 ft MSL (8620 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 22087 ft MSL (15329 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 19749 ft MSL (12991 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +3.5
K index......................... -0.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -69.9 -93.8   315   35   18   1.0   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -66.9 -88.4   320   51   26   5.9   3.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -57.3 -71.1   315   52   27   8.0   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -52.6 -62.7   315   48   25   7.9   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -47.8 -54.0   315   45   23   7.9   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -43.3 -45.9   305   41   21   7.4   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -38.9 -38.0   300   38   20   7.5   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -33.9 -29.0   295   38   20   8.8   4.8   36.1  97.0     9.0      M    M
 29000  -30.6 -23.1   290   39   20   8.8   4.8   35.7  96.3     8.8      M    M
 28000  -28.1 -18.6   290   39   20   8.0   4.4   35.4  95.8     8.7      M    M
 27000  -25.8 -14.4   290   37   19   7.6   4.2   34.5  94.1     8.0      M    M
 26000  -23.6 -10.5   295   34   18   7.6   4.2   33.7  92.6     7.4      M    M
 25000  -21.3  -6.3   300   31   16   7.6   4.2   33.0  91.4     6.9      M    M
 24000  -19.2  -2.6   300   31   16   7.2   3.9   32.0  89.7     6.1      M    M
 23000  -17.0   1.4   305   31   16   7.2   3.9   31.1  88.0     5.4      M    M
 22000  -14.9   5.2   310   31   16   7.3   4.0   30.3  86.5     4.7      M    M
 21000  -12.6   9.3   315   30   16   7.8   4.3   29.5  85.1     4.1      M    M
 20000  -10.3  13.5   315   30   15   7.8   4.3   28.8  83.9     3.6      M    M
 19500   -9.1  15.6   315   30   15   7.8   4.3   28.6  83.4     3.3      M    M
 19000   -7.9  17.8   315   29   15   8.1   4.4   28.3  82.9     3.1      M    M
 18500   -6.7  19.9   315   27   14   8.0   4.4   28.0  82.4     2.8      M    M
 18000   -5.5  22.1   315   26   13   7.6   4.2   27.7  81.9     2.6      M    M
 17500   -4.5  23.9   310   24   12   6.6   3.6   27.2  81.0     2.2      M    M
 17000   -3.5  25.7   305   22   11   6.6   3.6   26.7  80.0     1.7      M    M
 16500   -2.5  27.5   300   20   10   6.7   3.7   26.2  79.1     1.3      M    M
 16000   -1.5  29.3   295   18    9   6.7   3.7   25.6  78.2     0.8      M    M
 15500   -0.5  31.1   290   16    8   6.7   3.7   25.2  77.3     0.4      M    M
 15000    0.5  32.9   290   15    8   6.8   3.7   24.7  76.4    -0.1    759  3.9
 14500    2.1  35.8   295   13    7   7.7   4.2   24.0  75.2    -0.7    690  3.5
 14000    3.3  37.9   300   13    7   7.8   4.3   23.7  74.6    -1.0    640  3.3
 13500    4.5  40.1   300   12    6   7.8   4.3   23.4  74.1    -1.3    590  3.0
 13000    5.6  42.1   305   12    6   7.8   4.3   23.1  73.5    -1.6    540  2.7
 12500    6.8  44.2   310   12    6   7.4   4.0   22.8  73.0    -1.9    491  2.5
 12000    7.9  46.2   310   12    6   8.0   4.4   22.4  72.3    -2.2    443  2.2
 11750    8.5  47.3   310   12    6   7.7   4.2   22.3  72.1    -2.4    418  2.1
 11500    9.1  48.4   310   12    6   8.4   4.6   22.1  71.8    -2.5    393  2.0
 11250    9.7  49.5   310   12    6   8.5   4.7   22.0  71.7    -2.6    366  1.9
 11000   10.3  50.5   310   12    6   7.8   4.3   21.9  71.4    -2.8    341  1.7
 10750   10.9  51.6   310   13    7   7.7   4.2   21.7  71.1    -2.9    316  1.6
 10500   11.5  52.7   315   13    7   7.7   4.2   21.6  70.8    -3.1    292  1.5
 10250   12.0  53.6   315   13    7   7.7   4.2   21.4  70.6    -3.3    268  1.4
 10000   12.6  54.7   315   14    7   7.0   3.9   21.3  70.3    -3.5    244  1.2
  9750   13.0  55.4   310   14    7   6.3   3.4   21.0  69.8    -3.7    222  1.1
  9500   13.5  56.3   310   14    7   6.7   3.6   20.7  69.3    -4.0    201  1.0
  9250   14.0  57.2   310   14    7   7.0   3.9   20.5  68.9    -4.3    179  0.9
  9000   14.5  58.1   310   14    7   6.7   3.7   20.3  68.6    -4.5    157  0.8
  8750   14.9  58.8   310   14    7   7.1   3.9   20.1  68.1    -4.8    136  0.7
  8500   15.3  59.5   310   14    7   2.9   1.6   19.8  67.6    -5.1    116  0.6
  8250   15.3  59.5   310   15    8  -1.8  -1.0   19.0  66.2    -5.9    110  0.6
  8000   15.2  59.4   305   15    8   1.6   0.9   18.2  64.8    -6.7    104  0.5
  7750   15.2  59.4   300   15    8  -7.6  -4.2   17.5  63.4    -7.5     99  0.5
  7500   13.7  56.7   295   14    7 -27.1 -14.9   15.5  59.9    -9.6    135  0.7
  7250   11.3  52.3   295   12    6 -33.4 -18.3   12.7  54.9   -12.4    199  1.0
  7000    9.0  48.2   295   10    5 -29.4 -16.1   10.0  50.0   -15.1    263  1.3
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           10/24/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       10/24/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... -4.8  LI... +4.2                | K index... -8.2  LI... +4.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.3                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -69.9 -93.8  310  34 18   1.9   1.0 | -70.7 -95.3  310  34 17   2.4   1.3
 45000 -65.7 -86.3  315  47 24   5.7   3.1 | -65.5 -85.9  310  40 21   6.4   3.5
 40000 -56.8 -70.2  310  46 24   8.3   4.5 | -55.7 -68.3  305  40 20   7.9   4.3
 38000 -52.0 -61.6  315  44 23   8.1   4.5 | -51.0 -59.8  305  40 21   7.9   4.3
 36000 -47.1 -52.8  315  42 22   8.1   4.5 | -46.3 -51.3  300  40 21   7.9   4.3
 34000 -42.5 -44.5  310  40 20   7.5   4.1 | -41.7 -43.1  300  39 20   7.5   4.1
 32000 -37.4 -35.3  300  37 19   7.4   4.1 | -36.7 -34.1  295  37 19   7.3   4.0
 30000 -32.6 -26.7  295  36 18   8.1   4.4 | -31.8 -25.2  295  36 18   8.3   4.5
 29000 -30.2 -22.4  295  35 18   8.1   4.5 | -29.3 -20.7  295  35 18   8.3   4.5
 28000 -27.8 -18.0  290  35 18   7.5   4.1 | -26.9 -16.4  290  33 17   7.2   3.9
 27000 -25.6 -14.1  295  32 17   7.2   4.0 | -24.8 -12.6  290  32 16   6.8   3.8
 26000 -23.5 -10.3  295  30 15   7.2   4.0 | -22.8  -9.0  290  30 15   6.9   3.8
 25000 -21.3  -6.3  295  27 14   7.3   4.0 | -20.7  -5.3  285  28 15   6.9   3.8
 24000 -19.1  -2.4  305  27 14   7.5   4.1 | -18.6  -1.5  285  27 14   7.1   3.9
 23000 -16.9   1.6  310  27 14   7.5   4.1 | -16.5   2.3  285  26 13   7.1   3.9
 22000 -14.6   5.7  320  28 15   7.7   4.2 | -14.4   6.1  290  25 13   7.4   4.1
 21000 -12.2  10.0  320  27 14   8.1   4.4 | -12.0  10.4  290  24 12   8.4   4.4
 20000  -9.8  14.4  315  26 13   8.1   4.4 |  -9.7  14.5  290  22 11   8.0   4.4
 19500  -8.6  16.5  315  25 13   7.9   4.4 |  -8.5  16.7  290  22 11   7.9   4.3
 19000  -7.4  18.7  315  24 12   9.2   5.0 |  -7.2  19.0  290  21 11   8.8   4.9
 18500  -6.0  21.2  315  22 12   9.1   5.0 |  -5.9  21.4  290  20 10   8.7   4.8
 18000  -4.6  23.7  310  21 11   8.4   4.6 |  -4.6  23.7  290  19 10   8.1   4.5
 17500  -3.5  25.7  310  20 10   7.1   3.9 |  -3.5  25.7  290  20 10   7.2   4.0
 17000  -2.4  27.7  305  19 10   7.2   4.0 |  -2.4  27.7  290  20 10   7.3   4.0
 16500  -1.4  29.5  300  18  9   5.6   3.1 |  -1.4  29.5  290  20 10   6.5   3.6
 16000  -0.6  30.9  295  17  9   5.7   3.1 |   0.1  32.2  290  19 10   6.6   3.6
 15500   0.7  33.3  290  16  8   6.4   3.5 |   1.1  34.0  290  18  9   6.8   3.7
 15000   1.7  35.1  290  15  8   6.3   3.5 |   2.1  35.8  290  17  9   6.9   3.8
 14500   2.7  36.9  290  14  7   6.6   3.6 |   3.1  37.6  290  15  8   6.2   3.4
 14000   3.7  38.7  290  13  7   6.6   3.6 |   4.0  39.2  290  14  7   6.1   3.4
 13500   4.7  40.5  290  12  6   6.7   3.7 |   4.9  40.8  290  12  6   6.0   3.3
 13000   5.7  42.3  295  10  5   6.7   3.7 |   5.8  42.4  290  10  5   5.9   3.3
 12500   6.6  43.9  300   8  4   6.6   3.6 |   6.7  44.1  290   8  4   6.1   3.3
 12000   7.7  45.9  305   7  4   7.9   4.3 |   7.6  45.7  290   6  3   6.2   3.4
 11750   8.3  46.9  310   6  3   7.5   4.1 |   8.0  46.4  295   5  3   5.9   3.3
 11500   8.9  48.0  315   6  3   8.3   4.5 |   8.5  47.3  295   4  2   7.2   4.0
 11250   9.5  49.1  325   6  3   8.6   4.7 |   9.1  48.4  300   3  1   8.0   4.4
 11000  10.1  50.2  330   6  3   7.9   4.3 |   9.6  49.3  310   2  1   6.9   3.8
 10750  10.7  51.3  335   6  3   7.8   4.3 |  10.1  50.2  325   2  1   6.8   3.7
 10500  11.3  52.3  340   6  3   8.0   4.4 |  10.6  51.1  350   1  1   7.3   4.0
 10250  11.9  53.4  340   6  3   8.6   4.7 |  11.2  52.2  010   1  1   7.9   4.3
 10000  12.5  54.5  340   7  3   7.9   4.3 |  11.8  53.2  040   1  1   7.7   4.2
  9750  13.1  55.6  340   7  4   7.2   4.0 |  12.3  54.1  045   2  1   7.2   4.0
  9500  13.6  56.5  340   8  4   7.1   3.9 |  12.8  55.0  050   2  1   8.3   4.5
  9250  14.1  57.4  340   8  4   6.7   3.7 |  13.4  56.1  050   2  1   9.2   5.1
  9000  14.6  58.3  335   9  5   6.6   3.6 |  14.1  57.4  050   3  1   9.2   5.0
  8750  15.1  59.2  335   9  5   6.6   3.6 |  14.8  58.6  045   3  2  10.0   5.5
  8500  15.4  59.7  330  10  5   3.5   1.9 |  15.5  59.9  045   3  2  10.4   5.7
  8250  15.5  59.9  325  11  6  -0.4  -0.2 |  16.3  61.3  045   3  2  10.4   5.7
  8000  15.5  59.9  320  12  6   4.9   2.7 |  17.1  62.8  045   3  2  10.1   5.6
  7750  15.5  59.9  315  12  6 -12.2  -6.7 |  17.8  64.0  045   3  2  11.2   6.2
  7500  13.7  56.7  310  12  6 -20.4 -11.2 |  18.7  65.7  045   3  2  10.5   5.7
  7250  12.9  55.2  305  10  5  -6.5  -3.6 |  19.3  66.7  045   3  2   8.5   4.6
  7000  12.0  53.6  300   8  4 -18.5 -10.1 |  20.0  68.0  045   3  2  10.1   5.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           10/24/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       10/24/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... -1.8  LI... +4.1                | K index... +4.0  LI... +3.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.9                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -71.4 -96.5  305  33 17   3.0   1.6 | -71.9 -97.4  295  33 17   2.9   1.6
 45000 -65.4 -85.7  305  36 18   6.7   3.7 | -65.9 -86.6  285  32 16   7.0   3.8
 40000 -55.2 -67.4  295  35 18   7.7   4.2 | -55.3 -67.5  285  33 17   7.3   4.0
 38000 -50.6 -59.1  295  36 19   7.7   4.2 | -50.9 -59.6  290  33 17   7.3   4.0
 36000 -46.0 -50.8  300  38 19   7.7   4.2 | -46.5 -51.7  300  34 18   7.2   4.0
 34000 -41.5 -42.7  300  40 21   7.4   4.1 | -41.8 -43.2  305  36 19   8.0   4.4
 32000 -36.5 -33.7  300  43 22   7.3   4.0 | -36.4 -33.5  310  39 20   8.1   4.5
 30000 -31.5 -24.7  300  41 21   8.4   4.6 | -31.4 -24.5  305  37 19   8.4   4.6
 29000 -28.9 -20.0  300  41 21   8.4   4.6 | -28.9 -20.0  305  36 19   8.4   4.6
 28000 -26.4 -15.5  305  40 20   8.2   4.5 | -26.3 -15.3  305  35 18   8.5   4.7
 27000 -24.0 -11.2  300  37 19   8.1   4.4 | -23.8 -10.8  300  33 17   8.5   4.7
 26000 -21.5  -6.7  295  35 18   8.1   4.4 | -21.2  -6.2  300  32 16   8.5   4.7
 25000 -19.1  -2.4  295  33 17   7.7   4.2 | -18.6  -1.5  295  30 16   8.1   4.4
 24000 -17.4   0.7  285  31 16   5.3   2.9 | -16.7   1.9  290  31 16   6.3   3.5
 23000 -15.8   3.6  275  30 16   5.4   3.0 | -14.8   5.4  285  32 17   6.4   3.5
 22000 -14.2   6.4  265  30 16   6.1   3.3 | -12.8   9.0  280  33 17   6.2   3.4
 21000 -12.0  10.4  265  29 15   7.7   4.2 | -11.1  12.0  275  33 17   6.0   3.3
 20000  -9.7  14.5  265  27 14   7.7   4.2 |  -9.3  15.3  270  33 17   6.1   3.3
 19500  -8.6  16.5  265  27 14   7.6   4.2 |  -8.4  16.9  265  33 17   5.9   3.3
 19000  -7.4  18.7  265  26 13   8.4   4.6 |  -7.4  18.7  265  33 17   8.2   4.5
 18500  -6.1  21.0  270  26 13   8.4   4.6 |  -6.2  20.8  265  33 17   8.0   4.4
 18000  -4.9  23.2  270  25 13   8.0   4.4 |  -5.0  23.0  265  32 17   7.4   4.0
 17500  -3.7  25.3  270  24 13   7.5   4.1 |  -4.0  24.8  270  31 16   6.5   3.5
 17000  -2.6  27.3  270  23 12   7.6   4.2 |  -3.1  26.4  270  29 15   6.5   3.6
 16500  -1.6  29.1  270  23 12   6.5   3.6 |  -2.2  28.0  270  28 14   5.6   3.1
 16000  -0.1  31.8  270  21 11   6.6   3.6 |  -1.4  29.5  270  25 13   5.7   3.1
 15500   0.9  33.6  275  20 10   6.4   3.5 |  -0.0  32.0  270  22 11   7.6   4.2
 15000   1.8  35.2  275  19 10   6.4   3.5 |   1.0  33.8  265  19 10   7.5   4.1
 14500   2.8  37.0  280  18  9   6.8   3.7 |   2.1  35.8  265  16  8   8.9   4.9
 14000   3.8  38.8  280  16  8   6.8   3.7 |   3.5  38.3  260  14  7   8.9   4.9
 13500   4.8  40.6  280  15  8   6.7   3.7 |   4.8  40.6  260  12  6   8.3   4.6
 13000   5.7  42.3  280  12  6   6.6   3.6 |   6.0  42.8  260  10  5   8.1   4.4
 12500   6.7  44.1  280  10  5   5.7   3.1 |   7.2  45.0  260   8  4   6.6   3.6
 12000   7.5  45.5  275   5  2   6.8   3.7 |   8.2  46.8  255   5  3   7.5   4.1
 11750   8.0  46.4  270   3  1   6.3   3.5 |   8.7  47.7  245   5  2   7.3   4.0
 11500   8.4  47.1  235   1  1   7.1   3.9 |   9.3  48.7  235   4  2   7.1   3.9
 11250   9.0  48.2  175   2  1   8.2   4.5 |   9.8  49.6  215   3  2   6.8   3.7
 11000   9.6  49.3  160   2  1   8.4   4.6 |  10.3  50.5  200   3  2   6.9   3.8
 10750  10.2  50.4  150   3  1   8.3   4.6 |  10.8  51.4  190   4  2   6.8   3.7
 10500  10.8  51.4  145   3  2   8.9   4.9 |  11.4  52.5  175   4  2   7.1   3.9
 10250  11.5  52.7  145   3  2   9.9   5.4 |  11.9  53.4  170   4  2   7.7   4.2
 10000  12.2  54.0  150   3  2   9.4   5.2 |  12.5  54.5  165   5  2   6.9   3.8
  9750  12.9  55.2  145   4  2   9.0   4.9 |  12.9  55.2  165   5  3   5.8   3.2
  9500  13.6  56.5  145   4  2   9.4   5.1 |  13.4  56.1  160   6  3   6.9   3.8
  9250  14.3  57.7  145   4  2   9.6   5.2 |  13.9  57.0  160   6  3   7.7   4.2
  9000  15.0  59.0  145   4  2   9.7   5.3 |  14.5  58.1  160   6  3   7.5   4.1
  8750  15.8  60.4  145   4  2  10.4   5.7 |  15.1  59.2  155   7  3   7.2   4.0
  8500  16.6  61.9  145   4  2  10.5   5.8 |  15.6  60.1  155   7  4   7.7   4.3
  8250  17.3  63.1  145   5  2  10.2   5.6 |  16.2  61.2  160   7  4   7.9   4.3
  8000  18.1  64.6  145   5  2  10.2   5.6 |  16.8  62.2  160   7  4   8.9   4.9
  7750  18.9  66.0  145   5  2  10.4   5.7 |  17.4  63.3  160   7  4   4.7   2.6
  7500  19.6  67.3  145   5  3   9.6   5.3 |  17.4  63.3  160   7  4  -0.9  -0.5
  7250  20.3  68.5  140   5  3   8.7   4.8 |  17.3  63.1  155   6  3  -0.6  -0.4
  7000  20.9  69.6  140   5  3   9.4   5.2 |  17.2  63.0  155   5  3  -1.2  -0.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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