Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
000
UXUS97 KPUB 191005
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0405 MDT Tuesday, August 19, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, August 19, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 75.3 F/24.1 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 974 ft/min (4.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 16851 ft MSL (10093 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 80.0 F/27.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast thin middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9659 ft MSL (2901 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 08/20.... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14377 ft MSL (7619 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 08/20....... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:16:09 / 19:49:32 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 33 min 23 sec (813 min 23 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:02:29 MDT... 63.65 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/19/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15904 ft MSL (9146 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16519 ft MSL (9761 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 16229 ft MSL (9471 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -3.7
K index......................... +30.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -64.5 -84.1   285   24   13   0.5   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.7 -79.1   285   39   20   6.0   3.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.4 -62.3   290   48   25   4.5   2.5      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.7 -57.5   285   46   24   4.5   2.4      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -47.1 -52.8   280   44   23   4.1   2.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -41.9 -43.4   270   40   21   9.5   5.2      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -36.1 -33.0   265   36   19   9.3   5.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -31.1 -24.0   250   30   16   8.0   4.4   39.2 102.5     9.6      M    M
 29000  -28.1 -18.6   245   27   14   8.1   4.4   38.4 101.1     9.1      M    M
 28000  -25.8 -14.4   235   25   13   6.1   3.3   37.8 100.0     8.7      M    M
 27000  -24.2 -11.6   245   20   10   5.5   3.0   36.1  96.9     7.4      M    M
 26000  -22.5  -8.5   255   16    8   5.5   3.0   34.5  94.1     6.3      M    M
 25000  -20.9  -5.6   270   13    7   5.7   3.1   33.0  91.5     5.2      M    M
 24000  -18.8  -1.8   280   11    6   7.2   4.0   32.0  89.5     4.3      M    M
 23000  -16.7   1.9   285    8    4   7.2   4.0   31.1  87.9     3.6      M    M
 22000  -14.5   5.9   300    6    3   7.4   4.0   30.3  86.5     2.9      M    M
 21000  -12.3   9.9   290    6    3   7.9   4.3   29.5  85.1     2.2      M    M
 20000  -10.0  14.0   280    5    3   8.0   4.4   28.9  84.0     1.6      M    M
 19500   -8.9  16.0   270    6    3   8.1   4.4   28.6  83.5     1.3      M    M
 19000   -7.7  18.1   265    5    3   8.9   4.9   28.4  83.1     1.0      M    M
 18500   -6.5  20.3   245    5    2   8.9   4.9   28.3  82.9     0.8      M    M
 18000   -5.2  22.6   230    5    2   8.7   4.8   28.1  82.6     0.6      M    M
 17500   -4.0  24.8   225    6    3   8.4   4.6   27.9  82.2     0.4      M    M
 17000   -2.8  27.0   220    7    3   8.4   4.6   27.7  81.8     0.1      M    M
 16500   -1.6  29.1   220    8    4   7.7   4.2   27.4  81.3    -0.2    948  4.8
 16000   -0.4  31.3   225    9    5   7.8   4.3   27.1  80.7    -0.5    899  4.6
 15500    0.7  33.3   225   11    5   8.3   4.5   26.7  80.1    -0.8    850  4.3
 15000    2.0  35.6   225   12    6   8.7   4.7   26.6  79.8    -1.0    797  4.0
 14500    3.2  37.8   225   13    7   8.7   4.7   26.4  79.5    -1.2    744  3.8
 14000    5.1  41.2   225   14    7   8.5   4.7   26.1  79.0    -1.5    666  3.4
 13500    6.4  43.5   225   14    7   8.8   4.8   25.9  78.6    -1.7    613  3.1
 13000    7.7  45.9   225   14    7   9.0   4.9   25.8  78.4    -1.8    559  2.8
 12500    9.0  48.2   220   14    7   7.9   4.3   25.6  78.2    -2.0    505  2.6
 12000   10.2  50.4   220   13    7   9.3   5.1   25.4  77.8    -2.2    453  2.3
 11750   10.9  51.6   220   13    7   8.9   4.9   25.4  77.7    -2.3    425  2.2
 11500   11.6  52.9   220   12    6   9.6   5.2   25.3  77.6    -2.4    398  2.0
 11250   12.3  54.1   220   12    6   9.3   5.1   25.3  77.6    -2.4    369  1.9
 11000   12.9  55.2   220   12    6   8.6   4.7   25.2  77.4    -2.5    342  1.7
 10750   13.6  56.5   220   11    6   8.9   4.9   25.2  77.3    -2.5    315  1.6
 10500   14.2  57.6   220   11    6   8.6   4.7   25.1  77.2    -2.6    288  1.5
 10250   14.9  58.8   220   11    6   8.0   4.4   25.0  77.0    -2.7    263  1.3
 10000   15.4  59.7   225   10    5   8.2   4.5   24.9  76.7    -2.9    238  1.2
  9750   16.1  61.0   225   10    5   8.9   4.9   24.8  76.6    -3.0    211  1.1
  9500   16.7  62.1   225   10    5   8.3   4.6   24.7  76.5    -3.1    185  0.9
  9250   17.3  63.1   230    9    5   7.1   3.9   24.5  76.2    -3.2    160  0.8
  9000   17.8  64.0   230    9    5   6.6   3.6   24.3  75.8    -3.5    137  0.7
  8750   18.3  64.9   230    8    4   8.0   4.4   24.1  75.4    -3.7    114  0.6
  8500   18.9  66.0   230    8    4   6.2   3.4   24.0  75.1    -3.8     89  0.5
  8250   19.2  66.6   240    7    4   2.9   1.6   23.5  74.4    -4.2     73  0.4
  8000   19.3  66.7   255    6    3  -0.2  -0.1   22.9  73.3    -4.9     62  0.3
  7750   19.5  67.1   270    6    3   8.3   4.5   22.3  72.2    -5.5     51  0.3
  7500   20.1  68.2   275    7    4  -3.0  -1.6   22.2  72.0    -5.6     25  0.1
  7250   18.7  65.7   280    7    3 -26.9 -14.8   20.5  68.8    -7.4     60  0.3
  7000   16.8  62.2   285    6    3 -17.1  -9.4   18.4  65.0    -9.5    108  0.5
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/19/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/19/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +26.2  LI... -1.8               | K index... +26.2  LI... -2.5
CAPE... +368.6  CIN... -73.3               | CAPE... +466.2  CIN... -4.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.7 -82.7  275  21 11   0.3   0.2 | -64.7 -84.5  280  22 11   0.5   0.3
 45000 -60.6 -77.1  280  35 18   6.1   3.4 | -61.3 -78.3  280  35 18   6.2   3.4
 40000 -51.7 -61.1  285  44 23   3.9   2.1 | -52.1 -61.8  285  46 24   5.5   3.0
 38000 -49.4 -56.9  285  37 19   3.8   2.1 | -48.8 -55.8  280  40 21   5.5   3.0
 36000 -47.1 -52.8  285  30 15   3.6   2.0 | -45.5 -49.9  270  34 18   5.3   2.9
 34000 -42.2 -44.0  275  28 14   9.3   5.1 | -41.0 -41.8  260  29 15   7.9   4.4
 32000 -36.6 -33.9  265  28 14   9.3   5.1 | -36.3 -33.3  250  24 13   8.0   4.4
 30000 -30.9 -23.6  250  28 14   8.4   4.6 | -30.9 -23.6  245  24 12   8.1   4.4
 29000 -28.4 -19.1  245  29 15   8.4   4.6 | -28.5 -19.3  245  25 13   8.1   4.4
 28000 -26.0 -14.8  240  29 15   7.0   3.8 | -26.1 -15.0  245  25 13   7.5   4.1
 27000 -24.1 -11.4  235  26 14   6.4   3.5 | -24.0 -11.2  245  25 13   7.3   4.0
 26000 -22.1  -7.8  225  24 12   6.5   3.5 | -21.8  -7.2  245  25 13   7.3   4.0
 25000 -20.2  -4.4  220  22 11   6.4   3.5 | -19.7  -3.5  245  24 13   7.3   4.0
 24000 -18.6  -1.5  215  18  9   5.5   3.0 | -17.7   0.1  240  25 13   6.7   3.7
 23000 -16.9   1.6  210  13  7   5.5   3.0 | -15.7   3.7  240  25 13   6.7   3.7
 22000 -15.3   4.5  200   9  5   6.3   3.4 | -13.7   7.3  235  25 13   6.8   3.7
 21000 -12.8   9.0  200   7  4   8.9   4.9 | -11.7  10.9  230  21 11   6.9   3.8
 20000 -10.2  13.6  195   6  3   9.0   4.9 |  -9.7  14.5  215  17  9   6.9   3.8
 19500  -8.9  16.0  195   6  3   9.0   5.0 |  -8.6  16.5  205  16  8   6.9   3.8
 19000  -7.6  18.3  195   6  3   8.6   4.7 |  -7.6  18.3  200  15  8   7.3   4.0
 18500  -6.3  20.7  195   6  3   8.6   4.7 |  -6.5  20.3  195  14  7   7.3   4.0
 18000  -5.1  22.8  195   6  3   8.5   4.6 |  -5.4  22.3  190  14  7   7.4   4.0
 17500  -3.8  25.2  200   6  3   8.2   4.5 |  -4.3  24.3  190  14  7   7.5   4.1
 17000  -2.6  27.3  200   7  4   8.3   4.5 |  -3.2  26.2  195  14  7   7.5   4.1
 16500  -1.4  29.5  205   8  4   8.1   4.5 |  -2.2  28.0  200  14  7   7.5   4.1
 16000  -0.3  31.5  205   9  5   8.2   4.5 |  -1.1  30.0  205  13  7   7.6   4.2
 15500   0.9  33.6  205  10  5   8.5   4.6 |  -0.0  32.0  205  13  7   8.3   4.6
 15000   2.2  36.0  210  11  6   8.7   4.8 |   2.0  35.6  215  13  6   9.1   5.0
 14500   4.1  39.4  210  13  7   9.0   4.9 |   3.3  37.9  220  12  6   9.9   5.5
 14000   5.4  41.7  210  13  7   9.1   5.0 |   4.8  40.6  220  12  6  10.2   5.6
 13500   6.7  44.1  210  14  7   9.0   4.9 |   6.3  43.3  225  12  6  10.1   5.5
 13000   8.0  46.4  205  13  6   8.9   4.9 |   7.8  46.0  225  11  6   9.9   5.4
 12500   9.3  48.7  205  12  6   8.4   4.6 |   9.2  48.6  225  11  6   8.8   4.8
 12000  10.6  51.1  205  11  6   9.3   5.1 |  10.5  50.9  220  10  5   9.5   5.2
 11750  11.3  52.3  210  10  5   8.9   4.9 |  11.1  52.0  220   9  5   9.5   5.2
 11500  12.0  53.6  210  10  5   9.7   5.3 |  11.8  53.2  220   8  4   8.9   4.9
 11250  12.7  54.9  210   9  5   9.5   5.2 |  12.5  54.5  220   8  4   9.2   5.1
 11000  13.4  56.1  215   9  5   8.6   4.7 |  13.2  55.8  220   8  4  10.1   5.5
 10750  14.1  57.4  215   9  5   8.9   4.9 |  13.9  57.0  215   8  4  10.0   5.5
 10500  14.7  58.5  220   9  5   8.8   4.8 |  14.7  58.5  215   7  4   9.6   5.3
 10250  15.4  59.7  220   9  5   8.7   4.8 |  15.3  59.5  215   7  4   8.2   4.5
 10000  16.0  60.8  225   9  5   8.3   4.5 |  15.9  60.6  210   7  4   9.6   5.3
  9750  16.6  61.9  235   9  5   8.2   4.5 |  16.7  62.1  210   7  4  11.3   6.2
  9500  17.2  63.0  245  10  5   7.8   4.3 |  17.5  63.5  210   7  3  10.6   5.8
  9250  17.8  64.0  255  11  6   6.8   3.7 |  18.3  64.9  210   7  3   9.8   5.4
  9000  18.2  64.8  265  13  7   5.4   2.9 |  19.0  66.2  210   7  3   9.6   5.2
  8750  18.5  65.3  270  15  8   2.1   1.2 |  19.8  67.6  205   7  3  10.3   5.7
  8500  18.5  65.3  275  19 10   1.5   0.8 |  20.5  68.9  205   7  3  10.6   5.8
  8250  18.6  65.5  275  19 10   3.7   2.1 |  21.3  70.3  205   7  3  10.5   5.8
  8000  18.9  66.0  275  18  9   3.6   2.0 |  22.1  71.8  205   6  3  11.1   6.1
  7750  19.1  66.4  270  16  8   5.5   3.0 |  22.9  73.2  200   6  3   9.1   5.0
  7500  19.6  67.3  270  13  7   7.0   3.8 |  23.5  74.3  200   6  3   9.4   5.2
  7250  20.0  68.0  270  12  6   5.7   3.1 |  24.3  75.7  200   6  3  13.1   7.2
  7000  20.4  68.7  265  10  5   6.5   3.6 |  25.2  77.4  200   6  3  12.3   6.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           08/19/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/19/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.6  LI... -1.2               | K index... +26.0  LI... -1.2
CAPE... +132.5  CIN... -10.5               | CAPE... +56.4  CIN... -27.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.7 -84.5  290  28 14   1.3   0.7 | -65.0 -85.0  285  28 14   1.0   0.5
 45000 -60.8 -77.4  295  43 22   5.4   3.0 | -61.4 -78.5  285  46 24   5.5   3.0
 40000 -52.6 -62.7  290  53 27   6.4   3.5 | -52.8 -63.0  285  57 29   7.2   3.9
 38000 -48.7 -55.7  290  50 26   6.4   3.5 | -48.5 -55.3  285  51 26   7.2   4.0
 36000 -44.9 -48.8  285  46 24   6.3   3.4 | -44.2 -47.6  290  45 23   7.1   3.9
 34000 -40.1 -40.2  280  36 18   8.3   4.5 | -39.3 -38.7  285  37 19   8.3   4.5
 32000 -35.1 -31.2  265  25 13   8.1   4.4 | -34.3 -29.7  280  28 14   8.1   4.5
 30000 -29.6 -21.3  255  23 12   8.2   4.5 | -28.9 -20.0  270  24 12   8.0   4.4
 29000 -27.2 -17.0  255  23 12   8.2   4.5 | -26.5 -15.7  265  24 12   8.0   4.4
 28000 -24.8 -12.6  250  24 12   7.2   3.9 | -24.1 -11.4  260  24 12   7.4   4.0
 27000 -22.8  -9.0  250  24 12   6.9   3.8 | -22.0  -7.6  260  23 12   7.1   3.9
 26000 -20.7  -5.3  250  25 13   6.9   3.8 | -19.9  -3.8  255  23 12   7.2   3.9
 25000 -18.7  -1.7  245  25 13   6.9   3.8 | -17.8  -0.0  250  23 12   7.2   3.9
 24000 -16.7   1.9  245  25 13   6.6   3.6 | -16.1   3.0  245  23 12   5.7   3.1
 23000 -14.8   5.4  240  25 13   6.6   3.6 | -14.4   6.1  240  24 12   5.7   3.1
 22000 -12.9   8.8  240  25 13   6.7   3.7 | -12.7   9.1  240  25 13   5.8   3.2
 21000 -10.8  12.6  240  24 12   7.1   3.9 | -10.7  12.7  235  28 14   6.8   3.7
 20000  -8.7  16.3  240  22 11   7.1   3.9 |  -8.8  16.2  235  31 16   6.8   3.7
 19500  -7.7  18.1  240  21 11   7.2   3.9 |  -7.8  18.0  235  32 17   6.8   3.7
 19000  -6.7  19.9  235  20 10   6.7   3.7 |  -6.8  19.8  235  33 17   7.1   3.9
 18500  -5.7  21.7  235  18  9   6.7   3.7 |  -5.7  21.7  235  31 16   7.2   4.0
 18000  -4.8  23.4  235  17  9   6.7   3.6 |  -4.7  23.5  235  28 14   7.3   4.0
 17500  -3.8  25.2  230  15  8   6.6   3.6 |  -3.6  25.5  235  26 13   7.6   4.2
 17000  -2.9  26.8  230  14  7   6.6   3.6 |  -2.5  27.5  230  23 12   7.6   4.2
 16500  -1.9  28.6  225  13  7   6.8   3.8 |  -1.4  29.5  230  21 11   8.0   4.4
 16000  -0.9  30.4  220  12  6   6.9   3.8 |  -0.2  31.6  225  19 10   8.1   4.4
 15500   0.1  32.2  215  11  6   7.6   4.2 |   1.0  33.8  220  17  9   8.6   4.7
 15000   2.0  35.6  205  11  6   8.7   4.8 |   3.1  37.6  215  17  9   9.9   5.4
 14500   3.3  37.9  200  11  6   9.3   5.1 |   4.6  40.3  215  16  8   9.6   5.3
 14000   4.7  40.5  200  11  6   9.5   5.2 |   6.0  42.8  210  16  8   9.5   5.2
 13500   6.1  43.0  200  11  6   9.8   5.4 |   7.4  45.3  205  16  8   9.2   5.1
 13000   7.6  45.7  200  11  6  10.3   5.6 |   8.7  47.7  200  17  9   8.6   4.7
 12500   9.1  48.4  195  11  6   8.1   4.4 |  10.0  50.0  195  17  9   9.1   5.0
 12000  10.3  50.5  195  11  6   9.9   5.4 |  11.3  52.3  195  17  9   8.1   4.5
 11750  11.0  51.8  190  11  6   9.6   5.3 |  11.9  53.4  190  17  9   8.0   4.4
 11500  11.8  53.2  190  11  6   9.4   5.2 |  12.5  54.5  190  17  9   9.0   4.9
 11250  12.4  54.3  190  11  6   9.5   5.2 |  13.2  55.8  185  17  9   9.5   5.2
 11000  13.1  55.6  190  11  6  10.0   5.5 |  13.8  56.8  185  17  9   8.8   4.8
 10750  13.9  57.0  190  12  6   9.9   5.4 |  14.5  58.1  185  17  9   8.9   4.9
 10500  14.6  58.3  190  12  6   9.8   5.4 |  15.1  59.2  180  17  9   9.1   5.0
 10250  15.3  59.5  190  12  6   8.8   4.8 |  15.8  60.4  180  17  9   7.9   4.3
 10000  16.0  60.8  185  12  6   9.5   5.2 |  16.3  61.3  180  17  9   8.5   4.7
  9750  16.8  62.2  185  12  6  10.8   5.9 |  17.1  62.8  180  16  8  10.2   5.6
  9500  17.5  63.5  185  12  6  10.5   5.7 |  17.8  64.0  180  16  8   9.8   5.4
  9250  18.3  64.9  185  12  6   9.7   5.3 |  18.5  65.3  175  16  8   9.6   5.3
  9000  19.0  66.2  185  12  6   9.4   5.2 |  19.2  66.6  175  16  8   9.5   5.2
  8750  19.7  67.5  185  12  6  10.3   5.6 |  20.0  68.0  175  16  8  10.1   5.5
  8500  20.5  68.9  185  12  6  10.4   5.7 |  20.7  69.3  175  16  8  10.3   5.6
  8250  21.3  70.3  180  12  6  10.2   5.6 |  21.4  70.5  175  16  8   9.9   5.4
  8000  22.0  71.6  180  11  6  10.5   5.7 |  22.2  72.0  175  15  8  10.0   5.5
  7750  22.8  73.0  180  11  6   9.3   5.1 |  22.9  73.2  175  15  8   9.1   5.0
  7500  23.4  74.1  180  11  6   8.5   4.6 |  23.5  74.3  175  14  7   7.6   4.2
  7250  24.0  75.2  180  11  6   9.8   5.4 |  24.0  75.2  175  13  7   6.5   3.6
  7000  24.7  76.5  180  10  5   9.8   5.4 |  24.3  75.7  170  12  6   5.0   2.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.