Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 011327
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0627 MST Monday, February 1, 2016

This forecast is for Monday, February 1, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 42.2 F/5.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 8695 ft MSL (1524 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 24.0 F/-4.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 02/02...... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:05:29 / 17:18:40 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 13 min 10 sec (613 min 10 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:12:26 MST... 34.00 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 02/01/2016 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 7847 ft MSL (676 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 8704 ft MSL (1533 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +9.4
K index......................... +21.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -53.1 -63.6   250   44   22   4.2   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -46.8 -52.2   250   61   31   4.5   2.5      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -44.4 -47.9   245   68   35   1.5   0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -43.7 -46.7   245   70   36  -1.6  -0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -44.6 -48.3   245   70   36  -1.3  -0.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -45.4 -49.7   245   69   36  -1.4  -0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -48.1 -54.6   240   59   30  -5.5  -3.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -51.4 -60.5   230   45   23  -5.5  -3.0      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -50.7 -59.3   225   41   21   8.3   4.6   15.6  60.2    15.5      M    M
 28000  -48.1 -54.6   225   38   19   8.7   4.8   15.1  59.2    15.3      M    M
 27000  -45.5 -49.9   220   35   18   8.7   4.8   14.8  58.6    15.2      M    M
 26000  -42.8 -45.0   220   32   17   9.0   5.0   14.5  58.1    15.1      M    M
 25000  -40.1 -40.2   220   30   16   9.1   5.0   14.1  57.4    15.0      M    M
 24000  -37.4 -35.3   220   29   15   9.1   5.0   13.9  57.0    15.0      M    M
 23000  -34.1 -29.4   225   28   14   9.0   4.9   13.6  56.5    15.0      M    M
 22000  -31.4 -24.5   230   29   15   9.0   4.9   13.3  55.9    14.9      M    M
 21000  -28.7 -19.7   235   31   16   9.0   4.9   13.1  55.5    14.9      M    M
 20000  -26.1 -15.0   235   33   17   8.5   4.7   12.7  54.8    14.7      M    M
 19500  -24.9 -12.8   235   34   17   8.5   4.7   12.5  54.4    14.6      M    M
 19000  -23.6 -10.5   235   35   18   8.5   4.7   12.3  54.1    14.5      M    M
 18500  -22.4  -8.3   235   36   18   8.5   4.7   12.1  53.7    14.4      M    M
 18000  -21.1  -6.0   235   37   19   8.3   4.5   11.9  53.5    14.3      M    M
 17500  -19.9  -3.8   235   38   19   8.1   4.4   11.6  52.9    14.1      M    M
 17000  -18.7  -1.7   235   38   20   8.1   4.4   11.3  52.4    13.9      M    M
 16500  -17.5   0.5   235   39   20   7.8   4.3   11.0  51.9    13.7      M    M
 16000  -16.4   2.5   235   39   20   7.9   4.3   10.7  51.3    13.5      M    M
 15500  -15.2   4.6   235   39   20   7.7   4.2   10.4  50.7    13.3      M    M
 15000  -14.1   6.6   230   39   20   7.7   4.2   10.1  50.1    13.0      M    M
 14500  -13.0   8.6   230   39   20   7.6   4.2    9.7  49.5    12.8      M    M
 14000  -11.9  10.6   230   37   19   7.5   4.1    9.4  48.9    12.5      M    M
 13500  -10.8  12.6   225   36   19   7.4   4.1    9.0  48.2    12.2      M    M
 13000   -9.7  14.5   220   35   18   7.2   3.9    8.6  47.5    11.8      M    M
 12500   -8.7  16.3   215   34   18   7.1   3.9    8.2  46.7    11.5      M    M
 12000   -7.7  18.1   215   34   17   6.2   3.4    7.7  45.9    11.1      M    M
 11750   -7.3  18.9   210   33   17   6.0   3.3    7.4  45.4    10.8      M    M
 11500   -6.9  19.6   205   33   17   5.4   2.9    7.1  44.8    10.5      M    M
 11250   -6.6  20.1   205   33   17   2.6   1.4    6.7  44.0    10.1      M    M
 11000   -6.5  20.3   200   32   16   1.2   0.7    6.0  42.9     9.5      M    M
 10750   -6.4  20.5   200   31   16   1.1   0.6    5.4  41.7     8.9      M    M
 10500   -6.4  20.5   195   31   16  -0.5  -0.3    4.7  40.4     8.2      M    M
 10250   -6.5  20.3   190   30   16  -3.5  -1.9    3.7  38.7     7.4      M    M
 10000   -6.8  19.8   185   30   15  -4.6  -2.5    2.6  36.8     6.3      M    M
  9750   -7.1  19.2   180   29   15  -4.9  -2.7    1.6  34.8     5.3      M    M
  9500   -7.8  18.0   175   28   14  -4.7  -2.6   -0.7  30.7     3.2      M    M
  9250   -8.2  17.2   170   28   14  -3.2  -1.7   -1.8  28.8     2.1      M    M
  9000   -8.5  16.7   165   28   14  -8.4  -4.6   -2.9  26.8     1.1      M    M
  8750   -9.1  15.6   165   27   14  -4.2  -2.3   -4.3  24.2    -0.3    338  1.7
  8500   -9.0  15.8   160   26   13   4.0   2.2   -4.9  23.2    -0.9    326  1.7
  8250   -8.8  16.2   160   24   12   2.1   1.1   -5.5  22.2    -1.4    313  1.6
  8000   -8.6  16.5   160   22   12   1.7   0.9   -6.0  21.2    -2.0    301  1.5
  7750   -8.4  16.9   155   19   10   5.6   3.1   -6.6  20.2    -2.5    288  1.5
  7500   -7.7  18.1   160   15    8  15.4   8.5   -6.5  20.3    -2.5    257  1.3
  7250   -6.9  19.6   160   11    6  -3.2  -1.7   -6.4  20.5    -2.4    226  1.1
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           02/01/2016 at 0800 MST          |       02/01/2016 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +19.1  LI... +273.5             | K index... +19.2  LI... +273.1
CAPE... +18.7  CIN... -74.9                | CAPE... +46.5  CIN... -27.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -52.1 -61.8  245  50 26   4.3   2.3 | -51.3 -60.3  245  49 25   3.8   2.1
 45000 -45.7 -50.3  245  64 33   4.5   2.5 | -45.6 -50.1  240  66 34   4.0   2.2
 40000 -43.4 -46.1  240  68 35   1.3   0.7 | -43.0 -45.4  240  65 33   1.6   0.9
 38000 -42.8 -45.0  240  69 35  -1.9  -1.0 | -42.2 -44.0  240  63 32  -1.2  -0.7
 36000 -43.9 -47.0  240  63 32  -1.6  -0.9 | -43.1 -45.6  235  55 28  -1.3  -0.7
 34000 -44.8 -48.6  240  57 30  -1.6  -0.9 | -43.9 -47.0  230  48 25  -1.3  -0.7
 32000 -46.6 -51.9  235  46 24  -3.4  -1.8 | -44.6 -48.3  220  40 20  -1.2  -0.6
 30000 -48.6 -55.5  220  34 17  -3.1  -1.7 | -45.3 -49.5  210  32 16  -1.1  -0.6
 29000 -48.5 -55.3  210  30 15   4.7   2.6 | -45.3 -49.5  200  29 15   2.1   1.2
 28000 -47.0 -52.6  190  29 15   4.8   2.7 | -44.7 -48.5  190  28 14   1.9   1.0
 27000 -45.6 -50.1  175  32 16   4.8   2.7 | -44.2 -47.6  180  28 15   1.9   1.1
 26000 -44.0 -47.2  160  36 19   8.2   4.5 | -43.6 -46.5  165  30 15   3.5   1.9
 25000 -41.1 -42.0  160  35 18   9.9   5.4 | -41.5 -42.7  165  30 15   7.8   4.3
 24000 -38.1 -36.6  160  34 17   9.9   5.4 | -39.1 -38.4  165  30 16   7.8   4.3
 23000 -34.5 -30.1  165  32 16   8.9   4.9 | -36.2 -33.2  165  31 16   9.1   5.0
 22000 -31.8 -25.2  165  29 15   9.1   5.0 | -33.4 -28.1  170  30 16   9.4   5.1
 21000 -29.1 -20.4  170  26 14   9.0   5.0 | -30.6 -23.1  170  30 16   9.4   5.1
 20000 -26.5 -15.7  175  24 12   8.2   4.5 | -27.9 -18.2  175  29 15   8.6   4.7
 19500 -25.3 -13.5  175  24 12   8.2   4.5 | -26.6 -15.9  175  26 14   8.7   4.7
 19000 -24.1 -11.4  180  23 12   8.2   4.5 | -25.3 -13.5  175  24 13   8.7   4.8
 18500 -22.9  -9.2  185  23 12   8.2   4.5 | -24.1 -11.4  175  22 11   8.7   4.8
 18000 -21.7  -7.1  190  22 11   8.1   4.5 | -22.8  -9.0  175  20 10   8.7   4.8
 17500 -20.5  -4.9  195  22 12   8.1   4.4 | -21.5  -6.7  175  18  9   8.5   4.6
 17000 -19.3  -2.7  200  23 12   8.1   4.5 | -20.3  -4.5  180  16  8   8.5   4.7
 16500 -18.1  -0.6  205  23 12   7.7   4.2 | -19.0  -2.2  185  15  8   8.2   4.5
 16000 -17.0   1.4  210  24 13   7.7   4.2 | -17.8  -0.0  190  15  8   8.1   4.5
 15500 -15.8   3.6  210  26 13   7.5   4.1 | -16.6   2.1  195  15  8   8.0   4.4
 15000 -14.8   5.4  215  28 15   7.3   4.0 | -15.5   4.1  195  17  9   7.8   4.3
 14500 -13.7   7.3  215  31 16   7.3   4.0 | -14.3   6.3  195  18  9   7.8   4.3
 14000 -12.6   9.3  215  33 17   7.4   4.0 | -13.2   8.2  195  20 10   7.0   3.8
 13500 -11.6  11.1  215  35 18   7.4   4.0 | -12.2  10.0  195  22 12   7.3   4.0
 13000 -10.5  13.1  210  37 19   7.2   3.9 | -11.3  11.7  195  24 12   5.3   2.9
 12500  -9.5  14.9  210  38 19   7.5   4.1 | -10.5  13.1  190  25 13   6.1   3.3
 12000  -8.9  16.0  205  37 19   3.2   1.7 | -10.1  13.8  185  25 13   0.6   0.3
 11750  -8.5  16.7  205  36 19   6.2   3.4 |  -9.9  14.2  180  24 13   2.0   1.1
 11500  -8.1  17.4  200  36 18   6.0   3.3 |  -9.8  14.4  175  24 12   2.1   1.1
 11250  -7.7  18.1  200  35 18   2.4   1.3 |  -9.7  14.5  175  23 12   0.4   0.2
 11000  -7.7  18.1  195  34 17  -1.1  -0.6 |  -9.8  14.4  170  23 12  -2.7  -1.5
 10750  -7.8  18.0  195  33 17   0.2   0.1 | -10.0  14.0  170  22 12  -3.0  -1.6
 10500  -7.7  18.1  190  31 16   0.3   0.2 | -10.2  13.6  170  22 11  -3.4  -1.9
 10250  -7.8  18.0  185  30 16  -1.4  -0.8 | -10.4  13.3  165  21 11  -1.5  -0.8
 10000  -7.9  17.8  180  30 16  -2.3  -1.3 | -10.4  13.3  165  23 12   0.9   0.5
  9750  -8.1  17.4  180  30 16  -3.3  -1.8 | -10.4  13.3  165  25 13   1.0   0.5
  9500  -8.7  16.3  170  29 15  -3.4  -1.9 | -10.2  13.6  160  28 14   2.7   1.5
  9250  -8.9  16.0  170  29 15  -1.6  -0.9 |  -9.9  14.2  155  27 14   4.5   2.5
  9000  -9.1  15.6  165  28 14  -4.3  -2.4 |  -9.6  14.7  150  26 14   4.3   2.3
  8750  -9.4  15.1  160  27 14  -2.8  -1.5 |  -9.2  15.4  145  26 13   6.5   3.6
  8500  -9.3  15.3  160  26 13   3.9   2.1 |  -8.7  16.3  140  24 12   8.0   4.4
  8250  -8.9  16.0  160  24 12   5.8   3.2 |  -8.1  17.4  140  21 11   7.9   4.3
  8000  -8.6  16.5  155  23 12   4.0   2.2 |  -7.5  18.5  140  19 10   7.7   4.2
  7750  -8.2  17.2  155  20 11   7.3   4.0 |  -6.9  19.6  135  17  9  11.6   6.3
  7500  -7.3  18.9  155  16  8  16.5   9.0 |  -5.8  21.6  135  15  8  18.3  10.1
  7250  -6.5  20.3  155  13  6  -0.9  -0.5 |  -4.7  23.5  135  12  6   4.8   2.6
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           02/01/2016 at 1400 MST          |       02/01/2016 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +11.8  LI... +274.2             | K index... +13.6  LI... +276.5
CAPE... +21.3  CIN... -19.6                | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -49.6 -57.3  245  55 28   3.3   1.8 | -49.1 -56.4  245  55 28   2.8   1.5
 45000 -44.3 -47.7  240  67 34   3.5   1.9 | -44.7 -48.5  240  65 33   2.9   1.6
 40000 -42.5 -44.5  235  59 30   1.0   0.6 | -43.0 -45.4  240  56 29   1.0   0.5
 38000 -42.0 -43.6  235  55 28  -0.2  -0.1 | -42.4 -44.3  240  51 26   0.1   0.1
 36000 -42.2 -44.0  235  48 25  -0.3  -0.2 | -42.4 -44.3  240  41 21  -0.0  -0.0
 34000 -42.3 -44.1  230  41 21  -0.3  -0.2 | -42.4 -44.3  235  32 16   0.0   0.0
 32000 -43.4 -46.1  225  31 16  -2.4  -1.3 | -43.1 -45.6  235  22 11  -2.1  -1.1
 30000 -44.9 -48.8  220  23 12  -2.4  -1.3 | -44.5 -48.1  235  11  5  -2.1  -1.2
 29000 -45.1 -49.2  210  19 10   2.5   1.4 | -45.0 -49.0  240   6  3   0.0   0.0
 28000 -44.5 -48.1  200  16  8   2.2   1.2 | -45.1 -49.2  325   3  1  -0.2  -0.1
 27000 -43.9 -47.0  180  14  7   2.2   1.2 | -45.1 -49.2  015   7  4  -0.1  -0.1
 26000 -43.2 -45.8  165  14  7   3.2   1.8 | -45.2 -49.4  025  13  7   1.7   0.9
 25000 -41.3 -42.3  150  13  7   6.9   3.8 | -42.6 -44.7  030  13  7   9.6   5.3
 24000 -39.3 -38.7  140  13  7   6.9   3.8 | -39.8 -39.6  035  13  7   9.6   5.3
 23000 -37.2 -35.0  130  13  7   7.3   4.0 | -36.9 -34.4  040  12  6   9.4   5.2
 22000 -34.6 -30.3  130  12  6   9.2   5.1 | -34.4 -29.9  050  10  5   8.1   4.5
 21000 -31.8 -25.2  135  11  6   9.2   5.1 | -32.0 -25.6  065   9  5   8.1   4.5
 20000 -29.1 -20.4  135  10  5   8.8   4.8 | -29.6 -21.3  085   8  4   7.5   4.1
 19500 -27.8 -18.0  130   9  5   8.6   4.7 | -28.5 -19.3  090   9  4   7.3   4.0
 19000 -26.5 -15.7  125   9  5   8.6   4.7 | -27.4 -17.3  095   9  5   7.2   4.0
 18500 -25.2 -13.4  120   9  5   8.7   4.7 | -26.3 -15.3  100  10  5   7.3   4.0
 18000 -23.9 -11.0  110   9  4   8.7   4.8 | -25.3 -13.5  105  11  6   7.3   4.0
 17500 -22.6  -8.7  105   9  4   8.6   4.7 | -24.2 -11.6  110  12  6   7.3   4.0
 17000 -21.4  -6.5  105   9  5   8.5   4.7 | -23.1  -9.6  100  11  6   7.4   4.0
 16500 -20.1  -4.2  105   9  5   8.4   4.6 | -22.0  -7.6  095  11  6   7.1   3.9
 16000 -19.0  -2.2  105   9  4   7.5   4.1 | -21.1  -6.0  085  10  5   5.5   3.0
 15500 -17.3   0.9  110   8  4   7.3   4.0 | -20.3  -4.5  065   9  5   5.8   3.2
 15000 -16.3   2.7  125   7  4   7.0   3.9 | -19.2  -2.6  030  10  5   4.0   2.2
 14500 -15.2   4.6  140   7  3   6.7   3.7 | -18.6  -1.5  010  11  6   4.3   2.4
 14000 -14.5   5.9  155   7  4   4.3   2.4 | -17.8  -0.0  360  11  6   6.1   3.3
 13500 -13.8   7.2  160   8  4   4.7   2.6 | -17.0   1.4  355  10  5   6.0   3.3
 13000 -13.7   7.3  165   8  4  -2.2  -1.2 | -16.0   3.2  355   7  4   7.4   4.1
 12500 -13.9   7.0  170   9  5  -2.7  -1.5 | -14.9   5.2  025   3  2   7.2   3.9
 12000 -13.5   7.7  170  11  6   5.7   3.1 | -14.1   6.6  095   4  2   5.1   2.8
 11750 -13.3   8.1  170  13  6   1.8   1.0 | -13.7   7.3  105   6  3   6.4   3.5
 11500 -13.1   8.4  170  14  7   2.1   1.1 | -13.2   8.2  110   8  4   6.4   3.5
 11250 -12.9   8.8  170  15  8   5.6   3.0 | -12.8   9.0  110  11  5   3.8   2.1
 11000 -12.3   9.9  165  16  8   7.6   4.2 | -12.6   9.3  105  12  6   3.1   1.7
 10750 -11.9  10.6  160  18  9   5.3   2.9 | -12.3   9.9  105  14  7   4.9   2.7
 10500 -11.5  11.3  160  19 10   5.8   3.2 | -11.9  10.6  100  16  8   4.6   2.5
 10250 -11.1  12.0  155  20 10   5.7   3.1 | -11.6  11.1  095  18  9   5.8   3.2
 10000 -10.7  12.7  150  20 10   5.4   3.0 | -11.1  12.0  090  18  9   6.6   3.6
  9750 -10.3  13.5  145  21 11   4.3   2.4 | -10.6  12.9  085  19 10   6.2   3.4
  9500 -10.0  14.0  135  21 11   4.2   2.3 | -10.2  13.6  080  19 10   6.7   3.7
  9250  -9.6  14.7  130  20 10   5.7   3.2 |  -9.6  14.7  075  19 10   7.7   4.2
  9000  -9.2  15.4  125  19 10   5.7   3.1 |  -9.1  15.6  070  19 10   7.7   4.2
  8750  -8.8  16.2  120  17  9   7.9   4.3 |  -8.5  16.7  060  19 10   8.8   4.8
  8500  -8.0  17.6  115  16  8  10.3   5.7 |  -7.8  18.0  055  20 10   9.3   5.1
  8250  -7.3  18.9  115  14  7   9.9   5.4 |  -7.2  19.0  050  19 10   8.5   4.6
  8000  -6.6  20.1  110  13  7   9.8   5.4 |  -6.5  20.3  050  18 10   8.7   4.7
  7750  -5.9  21.4  105  11  6  10.8   5.9 |  -5.9  21.4  045  18  9   8.6   4.7
  7500  -5.1  22.8  105  10  5   9.3   5.1 |  -5.3  22.5  040  17  9   6.1   3.4
  7250  -4.5  23.9  100  10  5   6.9   3.8 |  -5.0  23.0  040  15  8   3.9   2.1
  7000  -4.0  24.8  100   9  5   8.8   4.9 |  -4.7  23.5  035  14  7   5.6   3.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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