Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary Off
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

000
UXUS97 KPUB 191143
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0442 MST Monday, January 19, 2015

This forecast is for Monday, January 19, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 53.3 F/11.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 203 ft/min (1.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10549 ft MSL (3791 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 53.0 F/12.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1415 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast thin high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8309 ft MSL (1551 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 01/20...... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:14:22 / 17:04:10 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 49 min 48 sec (589 min 48 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:09:39 MST... 30.83 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 01/19/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 6830 ft MSL (72 ft AGL)
Additional freezing level....... 11170 ft MSL (4412 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 17513 ft MSL (10755 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15197 ft MSL (8439 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +1.5
K index......................... +4.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -61.8 -79.2   280   41   21   2.1   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.4 -73.1   280   63   32   1.5   0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -61.3 -78.3   290   65   34  -2.0  -1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -60.9 -77.6   295   65   33   4.2   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -58.3 -72.9   295   61   32   4.2   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -55.7 -68.3   295   58   30   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -51.4 -60.5   290   52   27   6.3   3.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -47.2 -53.0   290   47   24   8.5   4.6   21.6  70.9     7.6      M    M
 29000  -44.7 -48.5   285   45   23   8.5   4.7   21.1  69.9     7.3      M    M
 28000  -42.1 -43.8   285   44   23   8.5   4.7   20.7  69.2     7.1      M    M
 27000  -39.5 -39.1   285   42   22   8.5   4.6   20.3  68.5     6.9      M    M
 26000  -37.0 -34.6   285   41   21   8.4   4.6   19.7  67.4     6.5      M    M
 25000  -34.5 -30.1   285   39   20   8.4   4.6   19.2  66.6     6.1      M    M
 24000  -31.9 -25.4   285   38   19   8.8   4.8   18.9  65.9     5.9      M    M
 23000  -29.3 -20.7   285   37   19   8.9   4.9   18.5  65.2     5.7      M    M
 22000  -26.6 -15.9   285   36   18   8.9   4.9   18.2  64.7     5.5      M    M
 21000  -23.9 -11.0   285   34   18   9.5   5.2   18.0  64.4     5.4      M    M
 20000  -21.0  -5.8   285   32   16   9.5   5.2   17.8  64.1     5.3      M    M
 19500  -19.6  -3.3   285   31   16   9.5   5.2   17.8  64.0     5.3      M    M
 19000  -18.2  -0.8   280   30   15   9.6   5.2   17.8  64.0     5.3      M    M
 18500  -16.8   1.8   280   28   14   8.0   4.4   17.7  63.8     5.3      M    M
 18000  -15.7   3.7   280   25   13   7.9   4.3   17.3  63.2     5.0      M    M
 17500  -14.5   5.9   280   22   12   7.3   4.0   17.0  62.7     4.8      M    M
 17000  -13.6   7.5   285   20   10   6.1   3.3   16.5  61.6     4.2      M    M
 16500  -12.7   9.1   285   17    9   6.2   3.4   15.9  60.5     3.7      M    M
 16000  -11.8  10.8   285   14    7   5.9   3.2   15.2  59.4     3.1      M    M
 15500  -10.5  13.1   290   11    6   6.2   3.4   14.3  57.7     2.2      M    M
 15000   -9.5  14.9   295    9    5   7.4   4.1   13.8  56.9     1.7      M    M
 14500   -8.5  16.7   295    8    4   7.3   4.0   13.4  56.2     1.4      M    M
 14000   -7.3  18.9   300    6    3   8.3   4.6   13.1  55.6     1.1      M    M
 13500   -6.1  21.0   305    6    3   8.1   4.5   12.9  55.2     0.8      M    M
 13000   -4.8  23.4   315    6    3   9.6   5.3   12.7  54.9     0.7      M    M
 12500   -3.3  26.1   325    7    3   9.7   5.3   12.7  54.9     0.7      M    M
 12000   -2.0  28.4   330    8    4   8.0   4.4   12.5  54.5     0.5      M    M
 11750   -1.4  29.5   330    8    4   9.0   4.9   12.4  54.4     0.4      M    M
 11500   -0.7  30.7   330    9    5   8.4   4.6   12.4  54.2     0.4      M    M
 11250   -0.1  31.8   330   10    5   9.7   5.3   12.3  54.1     0.3      M    M
 11000    0.7  33.3   330   10    5   8.8   4.8   12.3  54.1     0.3      M    M
 10750    1.2  34.2   330   12    6   6.9   3.8   12.1  53.8     0.1      M    M
 10500    1.8  35.2   325   14    7   7.5   4.1   11.9  53.5    -0.1    293  1.5
 10250    2.3  36.1   325   15    8   7.1   3.9   11.7  53.1    -0.3    270  1.4
 10000    2.8  37.0   325   16    8   6.4   3.5   11.5  52.7    -0.5    248  1.3
  9750    3.2  37.8   325   16    8   5.7   3.1   11.2  52.2    -0.8    227  1.2
  9500    3.6  38.5   325   17    9   5.7   3.1   10.9  51.6    -1.1    208  1.1
  9250    4.0  39.2   325   17    9   5.2   2.8   10.6  51.0    -1.5    189  1.0
  9000    4.4  39.9   325   16    8   4.5   2.5   10.2  50.3    -1.9    171  0.9
  8750    4.7  40.5   330   15    8   5.2   2.9    9.8  49.6    -2.3    153  0.8
  8500    5.1  41.2   330   13    7   4.7   2.6    9.5  49.0    -2.6    135  0.7
  8250    5.3  41.5   330   12    6   1.2   0.7    9.0  48.1    -3.2    121  0.6
  8000    5.2  41.4   325   12    6  -2.3  -1.2    8.2  46.7    -4.0    116  0.6
  7750    5.2  41.4   320   12    6   3.5   1.9    7.4  45.3    -4.8    110  0.6
  7500    5.3  41.5   315   11    6  -8.3  -4.6    6.8  44.2    -5.4     99  0.5
  7250    3.7  38.7   310   10    5 -29.5 -16.2    4.8  40.6    -7.4    141  0.7
  7000    1.5  34.7   300    9    5 -23.3 -12.8    2.4  36.2    -9.9    198  1.0
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           01/19/2015 at 0800 MST          |       01/19/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -4.9  LI... +2.1                | K index... -3.6  LI... +2.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.1 -76.2  300  40 20   1.6   0.9 | -61.2 -78.2  285  37 19   3.1   1.7
 45000 -57.6 -71.7  290  70 36   1.9   1.0 | -56.3 -69.3  290  76 39   4.0   2.2
 40000 -61.7 -79.1  290  76 39  -2.9  -1.6 | -61.9 -79.4  290  82 42  -4.2  -2.3
 38000 -61.8 -79.2  290  77 39   3.9   2.2 | -62.6 -80.7  290  82 42   3.7   2.1
 36000 -59.5 -75.1  290  74 38   3.9   2.1 | -60.4 -76.7  290  79 41   3.7   2.0
 34000 -56.9 -70.4  290  71 37   7.4   4.0 | -58.0 -72.4  290  76 39   8.0   4.4
 32000 -52.4 -62.3  290  64 33   7.5   4.1 | -52.9 -63.2  290  70 36   8.5   4.7
 30000 -47.3 -53.1  290  56 29   8.2   4.5 | -47.2 -53.0  295  63 33   7.9   4.4
 29000 -44.8 -48.6  290  53 27   8.2   4.5 | -44.8 -48.6  295  60 31   7.9   4.4
 28000 -42.4 -44.3  285  51 26   8.2   4.5 | -42.4 -44.3  295  56 29   7.9   4.4
 27000 -39.9 -39.8  280  48 25   7.6   4.2 | -40.1 -40.2  295  52 27   7.6   4.2
 26000 -37.7 -35.9  280  45 23   7.4   4.1 | -37.9 -36.2  295  47 24   7.4   4.1
 25000 -35.5 -31.9  280  42 22   7.4   4.1 | -35.6 -32.1  295  43 22   7.4   4.1
 24000 -33.3 -27.9  285  39 20   8.3   4.6 | -33.4 -28.1  290  38 20   7.9   4.3
 23000 -30.5 -22.9  285  37 19   9.2   5.1 | -30.9 -23.6  290  36 18   8.4   4.6
 22000 -27.8 -18.0  285  36 18   9.2   5.1 | -28.4 -19.1  285  34 17   8.4   4.6
 21000 -25.0 -13.0  285  33 17   8.6   4.7 | -25.8 -14.4  285  32 16   9.1   5.0
 20000 -22.4  -8.3  285  29 15   8.7   4.8 | -23.1  -9.6  285  29 15   9.1   5.0
 19500 -21.1  -6.0  285  27 14   8.7   4.8 | -21.7  -7.1  285  28 14   9.1   5.0
 19000 -19.8  -3.6  285  25 13   8.7   4.8 | -20.4  -4.7  285  27 14   9.1   5.0
 18500 -18.6  -1.5  285  23 12   7.9   4.3 | -19.0  -2.2  285  25 13   8.6   4.7
 18000 -17.4   0.7  285  21 11   7.7   4.3 | -17.7   0.1  285  24 12   8.5   4.7
 17500 -16.3   2.7  285  18  9   7.8   4.3 | -16.5   2.3  285  22 11   8.4   4.6
 17000 -15.1   4.8  285  16  8   7.8   4.3 | -15.2   4.6  285  19 10   8.0   4.4
 16500 -13.9   7.0  285  13  7   7.8   4.3 | -14.0   6.8  280  17  9   8.1   4.4
 16000 -12.7   9.1  285  11  6   8.3   4.5 | -12.9   8.8  280  14  7   7.5   4.1
 15500 -11.5  11.3  285  10  5   8.2   4.5 | -11.8  10.8  270  12  6   7.5   4.1
 15000  -9.6  14.7  285   8  4   8.8   4.8 | -10.1  13.8  265   8  4   7.5   4.1
 14500  -8.3  17.1  285   7  4   8.7   4.8 |  -9.0  15.8  265   6  3   7.6   4.2
 14000  -7.0  19.4  290   7  4   8.9   4.9 |  -7.9  17.8  260   5  2   6.7   3.7
 13500  -5.7  21.7  300   8  4   8.9   4.9 |  -6.9  19.6  245   3  2   6.8   3.7
 13000  -4.4  24.1  305   9  5   8.5   4.7 |  -5.8  21.6  255   2  1   7.8   4.3
 12500  -3.1  26.4  310  11  5   9.0   4.9 |  -4.7  23.5  320   3  2   8.4   4.6
 12000  -2.1  28.2  315  13  7   5.3   2.9 |  -3.8  25.2  330   4  2   4.7   2.6
 11750  -1.6  29.1  315  14  7   6.7   3.7 |  -3.4  25.9  335   4  2   6.6   3.6
 11500  -1.2  29.8  320  16  8   6.2   3.4 |  -2.9  26.8  340   5  2   5.9   3.2
 11250  -0.7  30.7  320  17  9   6.7   3.7 |  -2.5  27.5  345   5  3   6.8   3.7
 11000  -0.2  31.6  325  18  9   5.0   2.7 |  -2.0  28.4  350   5  3   6.7   3.7
 10750   0.0  32.0  325  18  9   3.5   1.9 |  -1.5  29.3  355   4  2   5.9   3.2
 10500   0.3  32.5  325  19 10   3.9   2.2 |  -1.1  30.0  360   4  2   6.1   3.3
 10250   0.5  32.9  330  20 10   4.0   2.2 |  -0.7  30.7  005   3  2   6.1   3.3
 10000   0.8  33.4  330  19 10   4.2   2.3 |  -0.2  31.6  010   3  2   6.4   3.5
  9750   1.1  34.0  330  18  9   4.4   2.4 |   0.3  32.5  020   2  1   6.7   3.7
  9500   1.4  34.5  330  16  8   4.1   2.3 |   0.8  33.4  030   2  1   6.8   3.7
  9250   1.7  35.1  335  15  8   5.5   3.0 |   1.2  34.2  065   1  1   6.7   3.7
  9000   2.1  35.8  335  13  7   6.5   3.5 |   1.7  35.1  120   1  1   6.4   3.5
  8750   2.6  36.7  335  11  6   7.2   3.9 |   2.2  36.0  145   2  1   7.4   4.0
  8500   3.2  37.8  340  10  5   7.1   3.9 |   2.8  37.0  155   3  1   8.0   4.4
  8250   3.6  38.5  340   9  4   4.3   2.4 |   3.3  37.9  160   3  1   7.7   4.2
  8000   3.8  38.8  340   8  4   0.9   0.5 |   3.9  39.0  165   3  1   6.9   3.8
  7750   4.0  39.2  340   8  4   8.3   4.5 |   4.4  39.9  170   2  1   9.5   5.2
  7500   4.5  40.1  325   8  4  -4.8  -2.6 |   5.1  41.2  185   2  1   5.9   3.2
  7250   3.0  37.4  315   7  4 -28.6 -15.7 |   5.1  41.2  230   1  1  -1.1  -0.6
  7000   1.0  33.8  305   7  4 -18.7 -10.3 |   5.1  41.2  265   2  1   3.0   1.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           01/19/2015 at 1400 MST          |       01/19/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +3.9  LI... +2.1                | K index... +10.5  LI... +0.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -8.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.6 -77.1  285  40 20   2.9   1.6 | -59.6 -75.3  290  43 22   1.8   1.0
 45000 -56.1 -69.0  290  73 37   3.6   2.0 | -56.8 -70.2  290  67 35   2.2   1.2
 40000 -60.3 -76.5  290  81 42  -3.1  -1.7 | -59.4 -74.9  290  79 41  -1.9  -1.1
 38000 -61.0 -77.8  290  81 42   2.4   1.3 | -59.8 -75.6  290  81 42   1.8   1.0
 36000 -59.5 -75.1  290  77 40   2.4   1.3 | -58.8 -73.8  290  77 40   1.8   1.0
 34000 -57.9 -72.2  285  73 38   6.9   3.8 | -57.6 -71.7  285  73 38   5.6   3.1
 32000 -52.2 -62.0  285  64 33   8.5   4.7 | -53.1 -63.6  285  68 35   7.4   4.1
 30000 -47.2 -53.0  285  57 29   7.8   4.3 | -48.0 -54.4  285  61 31   8.5   4.7
 29000 -44.8 -48.6  285  55 28   7.8   4.3 | -45.4 -49.7  285  58 30   8.5   4.7
 28000 -42.5 -44.5  285  52 27   7.8   4.3 | -42.9 -45.2  280  55 28   8.5   4.7
 27000 -40.1 -40.2  290  50 26   7.6   4.2 | -40.3 -40.5  280  52 27   8.6   4.7
 26000 -37.9 -36.2  290  46 24   7.4   4.1 | -37.7 -35.9  280  51 26   8.7   4.8
 25000 -35.7 -32.3  290  43 22   7.4   4.1 | -35.1 -31.2  280  49 25   8.7   4.8
 24000 -33.5 -28.3  290  39 20   7.7   4.2 | -32.5 -26.5  285  47 24   8.5   4.7
 23000 -31.0 -23.8  290  37 19   8.5   4.7 | -30.2 -22.4  285  44 23   7.7   4.2
 22000 -28.4 -19.1  285  35 18   8.5   4.7 | -27.9 -18.2  285  41 21   7.7   4.2
 21000 -25.9 -14.6  285  33 17   8.5   4.7 | -25.6 -14.1  285  38 20   7.9   4.4
 20000 -23.3  -9.9  285  31 16   8.5   4.7 | -23.2  -9.8  285  33 17   8.0   4.4
 19500 -22.1  -7.8  285  30 16   8.5   4.7 | -22.0  -7.6  285  31 16   8.0   4.4
 19000 -20.8  -5.4  290  29 15   8.5   4.7 | -20.8  -5.4  285  29 15   8.0   4.4
 18500 -19.5  -3.1  290  28 15   8.5   4.7 | -19.6  -3.3  285  26 14   8.3   4.5
 18000 -18.3  -0.9  290  27 14   8.5   4.6 | -18.3  -0.9  285  25 13   8.5   4.7
 17500 -17.0   1.4  290  25 13   8.4   4.6 | -17.0   1.4  285  24 12   8.5   4.7
 17000 -15.8   3.6  295  23 12   8.1   4.5 | -15.9   3.4  290  23 12   6.7   3.7
 16500 -14.5   5.9  295  21 11   8.2   4.5 | -14.8   5.4  295  22 11   6.9   3.8
 16000 -13.3   8.1  290  18  9   7.6   4.2 | -13.9   7.0  300  21 11   5.6   3.1
 15500 -11.6  11.1  285  15  8   7.6   4.2 | -13.1   8.4  300  20 10   5.3   2.9
 15000 -10.5  13.1  280  14  7   7.5   4.1 | -11.9  10.6  300  19 10   6.0   3.3
 14500  -9.4  15.1  275  12  6   7.6   4.2 | -11.0  12.2  300  19 10   5.9   3.2
 14000  -8.4  16.9  270  11  5   6.5   3.6 | -10.2  13.6  300  19 10   6.6   3.6
 13500  -7.4  18.7  250   9  5   6.5   3.6 |  -9.2  15.4  295  18  9   6.7   3.7
 13000  -6.4  20.5  235   9  5   7.0   3.8 |  -8.2  17.2  290  17  9   9.0   5.0
 12500  -5.4  22.3  230   9  5   7.5   4.1 |  -6.8  19.8  285  16  8   9.9   5.4
 12000  -4.5  23.9  210   9  5   5.3   2.9 |  -5.5  22.1  275  14  7   8.3   4.5
 11750  -4.0  24.8  210  10  5   7.4   4.0 |  -4.8  23.4  275  13  7   9.4   5.1
 11500  -3.5  25.7  205  10  5   6.6   3.6 |  -4.2  24.4  275  13  7   9.3   5.1
 11250  -3.0  26.6  205  10  5   7.7   4.2 |  -3.5  25.7  270  12  6   8.5   4.7
 11000  -2.4  27.7  200  10  5   7.8   4.3 |  -2.9  26.8  265  12  6   8.3   4.6
 10750  -1.9  28.6  200  10  5   6.9   3.8 |  -2.2  28.0  265  11  6   9.0   4.9
 10500  -1.4  29.5  195  11  6   7.3   4.0 |  -1.6  29.1  260  11  6   9.1   5.0
 10250  -0.9  30.4  190  11  6   6.7   3.7 |  -0.9  30.4  260  10  5   7.9   4.3
 10000  -0.4  31.3  190  11  6   7.0   3.8 |  -0.4  31.3  255  10  5   6.4   3.5
  9750   0.2  32.4  190  11  6   8.4   4.6 |   0.1  32.2  250  10  5   7.8   4.3
  9500   0.8  33.4  190  11  6   9.2   5.0 |   0.7  33.3  240   9  5   8.9   4.9
  9250   1.5  34.7  190  11  6   8.2   4.5 |   1.4  34.5  235   9  5   7.8   4.3
  9000   2.0  35.6  190  10  5   6.9   3.8 |   1.9  35.4  225   8  4   6.6   3.6
  8750   2.6  36.7  190  10  5   8.9   4.9 |   2.4  36.3  215   8  4   7.1   3.9
  8500   3.3  37.9  185   9  5  10.3   5.6 |   2.9  37.2  205   8  4   7.8   4.3
  8250   4.0  39.2  185   9  4   8.5   4.7 |   3.5  38.3  195   8  4   6.2   3.4
  8000   4.5  40.1  185   8  4   7.2   3.9 |   3.8  38.8  190   8  4   4.3   2.3
  7750   5.1  41.2  185   7  3   9.1   5.0 |   4.2  39.6  185   7  4   7.1   3.9
  7500   5.8  42.4  185   6  3   7.5   4.1 |   4.7  40.5  175   7  4   3.8   2.1
  7250   6.1  43.0  185   5  3   2.6   1.4 |   4.5  40.1  170   6  3  -6.6  -3.6
  7000   6.2  43.2  185   4  2   3.1   1.7 |   3.8  38.8  170   4  2  -9.2  -5.0
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.