Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 141036
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0435 MDT Monday, April 14, 2014

This forecast is for Monday, April 14, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 20.0 F/-6.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 467 ft/min (2.4 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 13562 ft MSL (6804 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 32.0 F/0.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1200 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 12106 ft MSL (5348 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 04/15...... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Fair
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... 11919 ft MSL (5161 ft AGL)
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 20521 ft MSL (13763 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 04/15......... Fair

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:23:55 / 19:34:18 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 10 min 23 sec (790 min 23 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:59:16 MDT... 60.64 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 04/14/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 13877 ft MSL (7119 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 13380 ft MSL (6622 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +7.2
K index......................... +0.2

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -54.6 -66.3   275   37   19   2.6   1.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -50.7 -59.3   280   40   21   2.6   1.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -47.8 -54.0   295   38   19   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.9 -52.4   300   37   19   0.6   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -46.5 -51.7   305   35   18   0.5   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -46.2 -51.2   315   34   17   0.5   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -46.9 -52.4   320   33   17  -1.7  -1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -47.9 -54.2   325   33   17  -1.6  -0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -47.8 -54.0   320   32   16   2.5   1.4   21.2  70.2    16.2      M    M
 28000  -46.8 -52.2   315   29   15   2.7   1.5   17.7  63.8    13.7      M    M
 27000  -46.0 -50.8   305   27   14   2.7   1.5   15.0  59.1    11.8      M    M
 26000  -44.6 -48.3   300   27   14   8.5   4.7   13.1  55.7    10.5      M    M
 25000  -42.2 -44.0   295   26   13   8.2   4.5   12.5  54.5    10.1      M    M
 24000  -39.8 -39.6   295   26   13   8.2   4.5   11.9  53.5     9.8      M    M
 23000  -37.4 -35.3   295   25   13   7.6   4.2   11.3  52.4     9.4      M    M
 22000  -35.1 -31.2   300   25   13   7.7   4.2   10.5  51.0     8.8      M    M
 21000  -32.8 -27.0   305   26   13   7.7   4.2    9.9  49.8     8.3      M    M
 20000  -30.6 -23.1   310   26   13   7.3   4.0    9.1  48.3     7.7      M    M
 19500  -29.5 -21.1   310   26   13   7.3   4.0    8.6  47.5     7.4      M    M
 19000  -28.4 -19.1   315   26   14   7.3   4.0    8.2  46.7     7.0      M    M
 18500  -27.3 -17.1   315   27   14   7.3   4.0    7.8  46.0     6.7      M    M
 18000  -26.2 -15.2   315   27   14   6.2   3.4    7.4  45.3     6.4      M    M
 17500  -25.4 -13.7   315   27   14   5.8   3.2    6.7  44.1     5.8      M    M
 17000  -24.5 -12.1   320   28   14   5.7   3.1    6.0  42.9     5.3      M    M
 16500  -23.7 -10.7   320   28   14   5.3   2.9    5.3  41.6     4.6      M    M
 16000  -22.9  -9.2   320   28   14   5.4   2.9    4.6  40.2     4.0      M    M
 15500  -22.1  -7.8   320   27   14   5.3   2.9    3.8  38.9     3.4      M    M
 15000  -21.3  -6.3   325   27   14   5.4   3.0    3.1  37.6     2.7      M    M
 14500  -20.6  -5.1   330   26   13   3.9   2.1    2.3  36.1     2.0      M    M
 14000  -19.8  -3.6   330   24   13   3.7   2.0    0.8  33.5     0.6      M    M
 13500  -19.3  -2.7   335   24   12   3.3   1.8   -0.2  31.7    -0.3    457  2.3
 13000  -18.8  -1.8   335   23   12   3.2   1.8   -1.2  29.8    -1.3    427  2.2
 12500  -18.4  -1.1   335   23   12   2.7   1.5   -2.3  27.8    -2.3    400  2.0
 12000  -17.9  -0.2   340   23   12   2.5   1.4   -3.4  25.8    -3.4    373  1.9
 11750  -17.8  -0.0   340   22   11   1.3   0.7   -4.0  24.7    -4.0    361  1.8
 11500  -17.7   0.1   340   22   11   0.9   0.5   -4.7  23.5    -4.7    351  1.8
 11250  -17.7   0.1   345   22   11   0.7   0.4   -5.4  22.2    -5.4    342  1.7
 11000  -17.6   0.3   345   22   12   1.9   1.1   -6.1  21.0    -6.0    332  1.7
 10750  -17.4   0.7   345   23   12   2.7   1.5   -6.7  20.0    -6.6    319  1.6
 10500  -17.2   1.0   350   23   12   2.1   1.1   -7.3  18.9    -7.2    307  1.6
 10250  -17.1   1.2   350   23   12   1.8   1.0   -7.9  17.9    -7.8    295  1.5
 10000  -16.9   1.6   350   23   12   5.4   3.0   -8.4  16.9    -8.3    282  1.4
  9750  -16.3   2.7   350   23   12   7.7   4.2   -8.6  16.6    -8.5    257  1.3
  9500  -15.8   3.6   350   22   12   6.2   3.4   -8.8  16.2    -8.8    236  1.2
  9250  -15.4   4.3   350   22   11   6.6   3.6   -9.1  15.7    -9.1    214  1.1
  9000  -14.9   5.2   350   22   11   6.5   3.5   -9.3  15.3    -9.3    192  1.0
  8750  -14.4   6.1   350   23   12   6.9   3.8   -9.5  14.8    -9.6    170  0.9
  8500  -13.9   7.0   350   23   12   7.5   4.1   -9.7  14.5    -9.8    147  0.7
  8250  -13.3   8.1   350   23   12   6.1   3.4   -9.9  14.1   -10.1    124  0.6
  8000  -13.0   8.6   345   21   11   4.6   2.5  -10.3  13.5   -10.4    105  0.5
  7750  -12.6   9.3   335   20   10   6.0   3.3  -10.6  12.9   -10.8     86  0.4
  7500  -12.1  10.2   330   17    9   6.5   3.6  -10.9  12.4   -11.1     64  0.3
  7250  -11.7  10.9   330   16    8   5.5   3.0  -10.8  12.6   -11.0     44  0.2
  7000  -11.2  11.8   325   14    7   5.9   3.2  -10.7  12.8   -10.9     24  0.1
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           04/14/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       04/14/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... -7.5  LI... +5.9                | K index... -30.8  LI... +8.6
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -55.0 -67.0  280  36 18   2.2   1.2 | -55.0 -67.0  290  37 19   2.6   1.4
 45000 -51.8 -61.2  280  41 21   2.2   1.2 | -51.1 -60.0  305  42 22   2.7   1.5
 40000 -47.8 -54.0  295  40 20   2.6   1.4 | -51.1 -60.0  315  47 24  -0.3  -0.1
 38000 -46.9 -52.4  305  40 20  -1.7  -0.9 | -51.3 -60.3  320  48 25  -0.3  -0.2
 36000 -48.0 -54.4  325  41 21  -1.9  -1.0 | -51.5 -60.7  330  50 26  -0.3  -0.2
 34000 -49.2 -56.6  335  46 24  -2.0  -1.1 | -51.7 -61.1  340  53 27  -0.7  -0.4
 32000 -48.4 -55.1  345  49 25   2.1   1.2 | -50.5 -58.9  345  57 29   2.3   1.3
 30000 -47.1 -52.8  355  52 27   2.0   1.1 | -49.1 -56.4  350  61 31   2.0   1.1
 29000 -46.0 -50.8  355  52 27   4.5   2.5 | -47.3 -53.1  350  61 31   7.2   4.0
 28000 -44.6 -48.3  355  51 26   4.5   2.5 | -45.1 -49.2  350  60 31   7.2   3.9
 27000 -42.9 -45.2  355  49 25   4.6   2.5 | -42.4 -44.3  355  58 30   7.2   4.0
 26000 -41.5 -42.7  355  47 24   5.2   2.9 | -40.4 -40.7  355  56 29   6.7   3.7
 25000 -40.0 -40.0  350  42 22   5.2   2.8 | -38.4 -37.1  355  54 28   6.6   3.6
 24000 -38.4 -37.1  340  39 20   5.2   2.9 | -36.4 -33.5  355  52 27   6.7   3.7
 23000 -36.8 -34.2  335  36 19   6.2   3.4 | -34.2 -29.6  355  51 26   7.9   4.4
 22000 -34.9 -30.8  330  35 18   6.2   3.4 | -31.8 -25.2  355  50 26   8.0   4.4
 21000 -33.1 -27.6  325  33 17   6.2   3.4 | -29.4 -20.9  360  50 26   8.4   4.6
 20000 -31.2 -24.2  325  32 17   6.4   3.5 | -27.7 -17.9  360  49 25   5.1   2.8
 19500 -30.2 -22.4  325  32 16   6.4   3.5 | -26.9 -16.4  360  48 25   5.1   2.8
 19000 -29.3 -20.7  330  32 16   6.4   3.5 | -26.2 -15.2  355  47 24   5.1   2.8
 18500 -28.3 -18.9  330  31 16   6.4   3.5 | -25.4 -13.7  355  46 24   5.3   2.9
 18000 -27.4 -17.3  335  31 16   6.2   3.4 | -24.7 -12.5  355  45 23   3.5   1.9
 17500 -26.5 -15.7  340  32 16   6.1   3.3 | -24.2 -11.6  355  43 22   3.5   1.9
 17000 -25.6 -14.1  340  32 17   5.9   3.3 | -23.7 -10.7  350  42 22   3.6   2.0
 16500 -24.7 -12.5  345  31 16   5.6   3.1 | -23.1  -9.6  350  40 21   3.7   2.0
 16000 -23.9 -11.0  350  29 15   5.6   3.1 | -22.6  -8.7  350  39 20   3.9   2.2
 15500 -23.1  -9.6  350  28 15   5.1   2.8 | -21.9  -7.4  345  38 19   4.8   2.7
 15000 -22.4  -8.3  355  28 15   5.2   2.9 | -21.2  -6.2  345  37 19   4.8   2.6
 14500 -21.6  -6.9  355  28 14   4.6   2.5 | -20.5  -4.9  345  36 18   4.8   2.6
 14000 -20.6  -5.1  360  27 14   4.7   2.6 | -19.8  -3.6  345  35 18   4.9   2.7
 13500 -19.9  -3.8  360  27 14   4.8   2.6 | -18.9  -2.0  340  33 17   3.5   1.9
 13000 -19.2  -2.6  005  27 14   4.7   2.6 | -18.4  -1.1  340  33 17   4.0   2.2
 12500 -18.5  -1.3  360  27 14   4.6   2.5 | -17.7   0.1  340  32 16   4.6   2.5
 12000 -17.8  -0.0  360  27 14   4.0   2.2 | -17.1   1.2  335  30 16   4.8   2.6
 11750 -17.5   0.5  360  27 14   3.4   1.9 | -16.7   1.9  335  29 15   5.0   2.7
 11500 -17.3   0.9  360  27 14   3.7   2.0 | -16.3   2.7  335  28 14   4.9   2.7
 11250 -17.0   1.4  360  27 14   3.8   2.1 | -16.0   3.2  335  27 14   5.0   2.7
 11000 -16.7   1.9  360  27 14   3.1   1.7 | -15.6   3.9  335  26 13   5.0   2.8
 10750 -16.5   2.3  355  27 14   2.6   1.4 | -15.2   4.6  340  25 13   5.1   2.8
 10500 -16.3   2.7  355  27 14   3.0   1.6 | -14.9   5.2  340  23 12   4.8   2.7
 10250 -16.1   3.0  355  26 14   3.0   1.6 | -14.5   5.9  340  22 11   5.3   2.9
 10000 -15.9   3.4  355  26 13   2.8   1.5 | -14.1   6.6  340  21 11   6.1   3.3
  9750 -15.7   3.7  355  25 13   3.8   2.1 | -13.6   7.5  340  20 10   7.5   4.1
  9500 -15.3   4.5  355  24 13   4.3   2.4 | -13.0   8.6  345  19 10   8.4   4.6
  9250 -15.0   5.0  355  23 12   5.8   3.2 | -12.4   9.7  345  17  9   8.3   4.5
  9000 -14.5   5.9  350  22 11   7.7   4.2 | -11.8  10.8  345  16  8   7.9   4.4
  8750 -13.9   7.0  350  21 11   8.4   4.6 | -11.2  11.8  340  15  8   9.4   5.2
  8500 -13.2   8.2  345  20 10   9.7   5.3 | -10.4  13.3  340  14  7  11.3   6.2
  8250 -12.5   9.5  345  18  9  10.4   5.7 |  -9.6  14.7  340  13  7  10.9   6.0
  8000 -11.7  10.9  345  17  9  10.7   5.8 |  -8.8  16.2  340  13  7  10.7   5.9
  7750 -10.9  12.4  340  17  9  11.0   6.0 |  -8.0  17.6  340  13  7  10.7   5.9
  7500 -10.1  13.8  340  16  8  10.4   5.7 |  -7.2  19.0  340  12  6  11.2   6.1
  7250  -9.4  15.1  340  15  8   9.4   5.1 |  -6.3  20.7  340  12  6  11.6   6.4
  7000  -8.7  16.3  340  14  7  10.2   5.6 |  -5.5  22.1  340  11  6  11.3   6.2
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           04/14/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       04/14/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... -10.2  LI... +7.3               | K index... -1.1  LI... +5.2
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -55.7 -68.3  290  39 20   1.6   0.9 | -56.8 -70.2  300  40 20   0.9   0.5
 45000 -53.3 -63.9  310  50 26   1.6   0.9 | -55.5 -67.9  315  53 27   0.9   0.5
 40000 -52.8 -63.0  325  50 26   0.2   0.1 | -54.1 -65.4  335  56 29   0.9   0.5
 38000 -52.8 -63.0  330  53 27  -0.8  -0.4 | -54.0 -65.2  340  60 31  -1.5  -0.8
 36000 -53.3 -63.9  340  61 32  -0.8  -0.4 | -54.9 -66.8  345  73 37  -1.6  -0.9
 34000 -53.8 -64.8  345  71 37  -0.4  -0.2 | -55.7 -68.3  350  87 45   5.7   3.1
 32000 -51.3 -60.3  350  77 40   4.6   2.5 | -51.0 -59.8  355  87 45   7.8   4.3
 30000 -48.6 -55.5  355  84 43   5.2   2.9 | -46.3 -51.3  355  87 45   7.9   4.3
 29000 -46.5 -51.7  355  80 41   7.0   3.9 | -43.9 -47.0  355  85 44   7.8   4.3
 28000 -44.4 -47.9  355  76 39   7.0   3.9 | -41.6 -42.9  355  83 43   7.8   4.3
 27000 -41.8 -43.2  355  70 36   7.0   3.8 | -39.3 -38.7  355  81 42   8.0   4.4
 26000 -39.6 -39.3  350  67 34   7.4   4.0 | -37.3 -35.1  355  77 40   6.2   3.4
 25000 -37.4 -35.3  350  64 33   7.4   4.0 | -35.4 -31.7  355  73 37   6.2   3.4
 24000 -35.2 -31.4  350  62 32   7.4   4.0 | -33.5 -28.3  350  68 35   6.2   3.4
 23000 -33.1 -27.6  345  60 31   7.0   3.8 | -31.5 -24.7  350  65 33   6.8   3.7
 22000 -31.0 -23.8  345  58 30   7.0   3.8 | -29.5 -21.1  345  62 32   6.8   3.7
 21000 -28.9 -20.0  345  56 29   7.0   3.8 | -27.5 -17.5  345  59 30   6.7   3.7
 20000 -27.0 -16.6  345  54 28   6.3   3.5 | -25.7 -14.3  345  56 29   5.9   3.2
 19500 -26.1 -15.0  345  53 27   6.3   3.5 | -24.8 -12.6  345  55 28   5.9   3.2
 19000 -25.2 -13.4  345  52 27   6.3   3.5 | -23.9 -11.0  340  54 28   5.9   3.2
 18500 -24.2 -11.6  345  52 27   6.4   3.5 | -23.1  -9.6  340  53 27   5.9   3.3
 18000 -23.3  -9.9  345  50 26   5.8   3.2 | -22.3  -8.1  340  51 26   4.5   2.5
 17500 -22.4  -8.3  345  49 25   5.9   3.2 | -21.6  -6.9  340  50 25   4.6   2.5
 17000 -21.5  -6.7  345  47 24   5.1   2.8 | -20.9  -5.6  340  48 25   4.6   2.5
 16500 -20.8  -5.4  340  45 23   4.9   2.7 | -20.2  -4.4  340  47 24   4.6   2.5
 16000 -20.1  -4.2  340  43 22   4.6   2.5 | -19.1  -2.4  335  45 23   5.3   2.9
 15500 -19.4  -2.9  340  41 21   4.2   2.3 | -18.3  -0.9  335  44 23   5.2   2.8
 15000 -18.8  -1.8  340  40 21   4.1   2.3 | -17.5   0.5  330  43 22   7.0   3.8
 14500 -18.2  -0.8  335  39 20   3.6   2.0 | -16.4   2.5  325  42 21   7.5   4.1
 14000 -17.7   0.1  335  38 19   3.6   2.0 | -15.2   4.6  320  40 21   7.7   4.2
 13500 -16.6   2.1  330  35 18   5.5   3.0 | -14.1   6.6  315  36 19   7.8   4.3
 13000 -15.8   3.6  325  34 17   6.4   3.5 | -12.9   8.8  310  32 17   7.7   4.2
 12500 -14.8   5.4  320  31 16   7.3   4.0 | -11.8  10.8  305  29 15   7.5   4.1
 12000 -13.8   7.2  320  28 14   6.4   3.5 | -10.6  12.9  300  26 13   7.1   3.9
 11750 -13.3   8.1  315  26 13   7.2   4.0 | -10.2  13.6  300  24 12   5.0   2.7
 11500 -12.7   9.1  315  24 13   7.1   3.9 |  -9.8  14.4  295  22 11   5.7   3.1
 11250 -12.2  10.0  310  23 12   6.9   3.8 |  -9.4  15.1  295  20 10   5.2   2.8
 11000 -11.8  10.8  310  21 11   5.7   3.1 |  -9.1  15.6  290  18  9   1.5   0.8
 10750 -11.4  11.5  310  20 10   5.9   3.2 |  -9.1  15.6  285  16  8   0.8   0.4
 10500 -10.9  12.4  310  18  9   6.7   3.7 |  -9.0  15.8  280  14  7   2.6   1.4
 10250 -10.4  13.3  305  16  8   6.1   3.3 |  -8.8  16.2  275  12  6   2.4   1.3
 10000 -10.0  14.0  305  14  7   5.0   2.7 |  -8.6  16.5  270  10  5   3.4   1.9
  9750  -9.6  14.7  310  12  6   6.8   3.7 |  -8.3  17.1  260   8  4   4.4   2.4
  9500  -9.0  15.8  315  11  5   8.7   4.7 |  -8.0  17.6  250   6  3   4.2   2.3
  9250  -8.4  16.9  320   9  5   7.9   4.3 |  -7.6  18.3  225   4  2   5.9   3.2
  9000  -7.8  18.0  325   8  4   7.3   4.0 |  -7.1  19.2  210   4  2   8.0   4.4
  8750  -7.3  18.9  335   7  3   8.4   4.6 |  -6.5  20.3  195   3  2   8.3   4.5
  8500  -6.6  20.1  345   6  3   9.8   5.4 |  -5.8  21.6  170   3  2   8.8   4.8
  8250  -5.8  21.6  355   6  3  10.1   5.6 |  -5.2  22.6  155   4  2   9.4   5.1
  8000  -5.0  23.0  360   5  3  10.8   5.9 |  -4.5  23.9  155   4  2   9.7   5.3
  7750  -4.3  24.3  360   5  3   9.5   5.2 |  -3.7  25.3  150   4  2   9.8   5.4
  7500  -3.6  25.5  005   5  3   9.7   5.3 |  -3.0  26.6  140   4  2   8.5   4.7
  7250  -2.8  27.0  005   5  3  11.4   6.2 |  -2.5  27.5  140   4  2   7.0   3.9
  7000  -2.0  28.4  010   5  3  10.4   5.7 |  -2.0  28.4  135   4  2   7.8   4.3
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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