Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 221156
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0456 MST Saturday, November 22, 2014

This forecast is for Saturday, November 22, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 51.1 F/10.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 312 ft/min (1.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 11631 ft MSL (4873 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 52.0 F/11.6 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1315 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast thin high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8177 ft MSL (1420 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 11/23....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Fair
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1700 MST)......... Increasing
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1700 MST)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 18543 ft MSL (11785 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Sunday 11/23.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:49:33 / 16:40:44 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 51 min 11 sec (591 min 11 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:45:19 MST... 30.87 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/22/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 6913 ft MSL (155 ft AGL)
Additional freezing level....... 10712 ft MSL (3954 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 17783 ft MSL (11025 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 16457 ft MSL (9699 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +5.6
K index......................... -1.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -61.7 -79.1   290   29   15   1.7   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -59.1 -74.4   300   33   17   1.7   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -57.9 -72.2   330   39   20   0.8   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -56.4 -69.5   335   42   21   4.1   2.2      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -54.0 -65.2   340   42   22   4.1   2.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -51.4 -60.5   345   43   22   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -47.8 -54.0   345   47   24   6.0   3.3      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -44.0 -47.2   350   49   25   8.6   4.7   26.5  79.6    11.7      M    M
 29000  -41.5 -42.7   355   45   23   8.4   4.6   25.8  78.4    11.4      M    M
 28000  -39.0 -38.2   360   41   21   8.4   4.6   25.3  77.5    11.1      M    M
 27000  -35.9 -32.6   005   37   19   7.3   4.0   24.8  76.6    10.9      M    M
 26000  -34.0 -29.2   355   33   17   6.3   3.5   23.4  74.0     9.9      M    M
 25000  -32.1 -25.8   340   30   15   6.3   3.5   22.1  71.7     8.9      M    M
 24000  -30.2 -22.4   325   28   15   6.3   3.5   20.9  69.7     8.1      M    M
 23000  -28.3 -18.9   315   26   14   6.4   3.5   19.7  67.4     7.1      M    M
 22000  -26.4 -15.5   300   25   13   6.4   3.5   18.5  65.3     6.2      M    M
 21000  -24.5 -12.1   290   25   13   6.3   3.5   17.4  63.4     5.4      M    M
 20000  -22.6  -8.7   275   25   13   6.3   3.4   16.1  61.0     4.3      M    M
 19500  -21.7  -7.1   270   26   13   6.3   3.5   15.5  60.0     3.8      M    M
 19000  -20.7  -5.3   265   27   14   6.3   3.5   15.0  58.9     3.3      M    M
 18500  -19.8  -3.6   260   28   14   6.7   3.7   14.4  58.0     2.9      M    M
 18000  -18.7  -1.7   255   28   14   7.3   4.0   14.0  57.2     2.5      M    M
 17500  -17.7   0.1   250   28   14   7.1   3.9   13.6  56.4     2.1      M    M
 17000  -16.4   2.5   250   28   14   9.3   5.1   13.3  56.0     1.9      M    M
 16500  -15.1   4.8   250   27   14   9.1   5.0   13.2  55.7     1.8      M    M
 16000  -13.7   7.3   250   27   14   8.9   4.9   13.1  55.6     1.7      M    M
 15500  -12.4   9.7   255   26   13   8.9   4.9   12.9  55.3     1.5      M    M
 15000  -11.1  12.0   255   25   13   8.9   4.9   12.8  55.0     1.4      M    M
 14500   -9.8  14.4   255   24   12   8.9   4.9   12.7  54.8     1.3      M    M
 14000   -7.8  18.0   260   22   11   8.6   4.7   12.4  54.4     1.1      M    M
 13500   -6.5  20.3   260   21   11   8.4   4.6   12.2  54.0     0.9      M    M
 13000   -5.3  22.5   260   20   10   8.4   4.6   12.0  53.6     0.7      M    M
 12500   -4.0  24.8   260   19   10   8.4   4.6   11.8  53.2     0.5      M    M
 12000   -2.9  26.8   260   19   10   7.6   4.2   11.5  52.7     0.2      M    M
 11750   -2.3  27.9   260   18    9   8.0   4.4   11.3  52.4     0.0      M    M
 11500   -1.7  28.9   260   18    9   7.7   4.2   11.2  52.1    -0.1    391  2.0
 11250   -1.1  30.0   260   17    9   8.3   4.5   11.0  51.9    -0.3    366  1.9
 11000   -0.5  31.1   260   17    9   8.3   4.5   11.0  51.7    -0.4    340  1.7
 10750    0.1  32.2   260   16    8   7.7   4.2   10.8  51.4    -0.5    316  1.6
 10500    0.6  33.1   260   15    8   7.8   4.3   10.6  51.2    -0.7    291  1.5
 10250    1.2  34.2   260   15    8   7.8   4.3   10.5  50.9    -0.8    266  1.4
 10000    1.8  35.2   260   14    7   7.4   4.1   10.3  50.6    -1.0    242  1.2
  9750    2.3  36.1   260   15    7   7.3   4.0   10.1  50.3    -1.2    219  1.1
  9500    2.9  37.2   260   15    8   7.7   4.2   10.0  50.0    -1.4    195  1.0
  9250    3.4  38.1   260   15    8   7.5   4.1    9.8  49.7    -1.6    171  0.9
  9000    3.9  39.0   260   15    8   6.8   3.8    9.6  49.3    -1.8    147  0.7
  8750    4.4  39.9   260   15    8   5.2   2.9    9.4  48.8    -2.0    126  0.6
  8500    4.7  40.5   260   15    8   5.5   3.0    9.0  48.2    -2.4    109  0.6
  8250    5.1  41.2   260   16    8   2.7   1.5    8.6  47.5    -2.8     91  0.5
  8000    5.0  41.0   265   16    8  -4.4  -2.4    7.8  46.1    -3.6     86  0.4
  7750    4.6  40.3   265   16    8  -4.6  -2.5    6.7  44.0    -4.8     91  0.5
  7500    4.6  40.3   265   15    8   5.5   3.0    5.9  42.6    -5.6     85  0.4
  7250    4.6  40.3   265   13    7 -17.1  -9.4    5.2  41.4    -6.3     76  0.4
  7000    1.2  34.2   270   10    5 -69.4 -38.1    1.8  35.2    -9.8    170  0.9
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           11/22/2014 at 0800 MST          |       11/22/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -12.6  LI... +4.2               | K index... -11.6  LI... +4.7
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -61.9 -79.4  285  31 16   0.9   0.5 | -60.9 -77.6  285  34 18   0.6   0.3
 45000 -60.5 -76.9  295  33 17   0.9   0.5 | -59.9 -75.8  300  43 22   0.5   0.3
 40000 -59.9 -75.8  325  41 21   0.4   0.2 | -60.2 -76.4  310  42 22  -0.2  -0.1
 38000 -58.0 -72.4  330  44 23   5.5   3.0 | -58.3 -72.9  315  44 23   5.6   3.1
 36000 -54.7 -66.5  335  44 23   5.5   3.0 | -54.9 -66.8  325  49 25   5.6   3.1
 34000 -51.3 -60.3  335  45 23   6.5   3.6 | -51.4 -60.5  325  51 26   7.3   4.0
 32000 -47.4 -53.3  335  44 23   6.5   3.6 | -47.0 -52.6  325  44 23   7.3   4.0
 30000 -43.4 -46.1  335  42 22   8.1   4.4 | -42.6 -44.7  325  38 20   7.9   4.3
 29000 -41.0 -41.8  335  39 20   8.0   4.4 | -40.2 -40.4  325  36 19   7.9   4.3
 28000 -38.6 -37.5  330  36 19   8.0   4.4 | -37.9 -36.2  325  34 18   7.9   4.3
 27000 -35.6 -32.1  330  33 17   8.1   4.5 | -34.9 -30.8  320  32 16   8.4   4.6
 26000 -33.2 -27.8  325  31 16   8.2   4.5 | -32.4 -26.3  315  30 15   8.5   4.7
 25000 -30.7 -23.3  320  29 15   8.2   4.5 | -29.8 -21.6  310  29 15   8.5   4.7
 24000 -28.3 -18.9  315  27 14   8.2   4.5 | -27.3 -17.1  305  27 14   8.4   4.6
 23000 -25.8 -14.4  315  28 15   8.3   4.6 | -24.8 -12.6  305  27 14   8.3   4.6
 22000 -23.3  -9.9  320  30 15   8.3   4.6 | -22.3  -8.1  305  28 14   8.3   4.6
 21000 -20.9  -5.6  315  30 15   6.4   3.5 | -19.9  -3.8  305  27 14   7.3   4.0
 20000 -19.2  -2.6  305  24 12   5.6   3.1 | -17.9  -0.2  300  24 12   6.9   3.8
 19500 -18.4  -1.1  295  21 11   5.6   3.1 | -16.8   1.8  295  23 12   6.9   3.8
 19000 -17.5   0.5  285  20 10   5.6   3.1 | -15.8   3.6  285  21 11   6.9   3.8
 18500 -16.7   1.9  270  19 10   5.0   2.7 | -14.8   5.4  280  20 10   6.9   3.8
 18000 -16.1   3.0  260  19 10   3.9   2.2 | -13.8   7.2  275  21 11   6.7   3.7
 17500 -15.5   4.1  250  20 10   3.7   2.0 | -12.8   9.0  270  22 11   7.1   3.9
 17000 -14.8   5.4  245  21 11   6.2   3.4 | -11.9  10.6  265  22 11   3.5   1.9
 16500 -13.9   7.0  240  21 11   6.1   3.3 | -11.4  11.5  255  22 11   3.7   2.0
 16000 -12.9   8.8  240  22 11   7.7   4.2 | -10.8  12.6  245  22 11   4.7   2.6
 15500 -11.7  10.9  240  22 11   8.6   4.7 | -10.0  14.0  240  20 10   5.4   3.0
 15000 -10.4  13.3  240  22 11   8.6   4.7 |  -9.2  15.4  240  19 10   6.3   3.4
 14500  -9.1  15.6  240  22 11   8.6   4.7 |  -7.9  17.8  240  18  9   9.9   5.4
 14000  -7.8  18.0  245  22 11   8.6   4.7 |  -6.4  20.5  240  17  9   9.9   5.4
 13500  -5.9  21.4  250  22 11   8.6   4.7 |  -4.6  23.7  250  15  8   7.7   4.2
 13000  -4.6  23.7  250  22 11   8.6   4.7 |  -3.5  25.7  260  15  8   7.9   4.4
 12500  -3.3  26.1  255  22 11   8.6   4.7 |  -2.2  28.0  270  15  8   8.3   4.6
 12000  -2.2  28.0  260  23 12   7.4   4.1 |  -1.3  29.7  285  18  9   5.1   2.8
 11750  -1.6  29.1  260  23 12   7.8   4.3 |  -0.9  30.4  290  20 10   5.7   3.1
 11500  -1.0  30.2  265  24 12   7.8   4.3 |  -0.5  31.1  290  23 12   5.6   3.1
 11250  -0.4  31.3  265  24 12   7.6   4.2 |  -0.0  32.0  295  25 13   5.6   3.1
 11000   0.1  32.2  265  25 13   6.8   3.7 |   0.3  32.5  295  28 14   4.1   2.3
 10750   0.6  33.1  270  25 13   6.6   3.6 |   0.5  32.9  295  30 16   2.6   1.4
 10500   1.1  34.0  270  25 13   6.7   3.7 |   0.7  33.3  295  32 17   2.6   1.4
 10250   1.6  34.9  270  26 13   6.9   3.8 |   0.9  33.6  295  34 18   2.6   1.4
 10000   2.0  35.6  270  26 13   6.1   3.3 |   1.0  33.8  295  36 19   3.0   1.7
  9750   2.4  36.3  270  26 13   5.4   3.0 |   1.3  34.3  295  34 17   3.5   1.9
  9500   2.8  37.0  270  26 13   5.8   3.2 |   1.5  34.7  290  31 16   3.6   2.0
  9250   3.2  37.8  275  26 13   5.7   3.1 |   1.7  35.1  290  29 15   2.9   1.6
  9000   3.6  38.5  275  26 13   5.9   3.3 |   1.9  35.4  285  27 14   5.9   3.2
  8750   4.0  39.2  270  26 14   2.9   1.6 |   2.6  36.7  285  24 12   9.4   5.2
  8500   4.0  39.2  270  27 14   0.8   0.4 |   3.2  37.8  285  21 11   9.0   4.9
  8250   4.1  39.4  270  27 14   0.4   0.2 |   3.9  39.0  285  19 10   9.1   5.0
  8000   3.9  39.0  270  26 14  -3.8  -2.1 |   4.6  40.3  285  17  9  10.0   5.5
  7750   3.6  38.5  270  24 13  -3.5  -1.9 |   5.3  41.5  285  16  8   9.7   5.3
  7500   3.5  38.3  265  20 10   1.9   1.0 |   6.0  42.8  285  14  7   8.7   4.8
  7250   3.5  38.3  265  16  8  -5.6  -3.1 |   6.6  43.9  285  13  7   8.6   4.7
  7000   2.4  36.3  265  12  6 -23.5 -12.9 |   7.2  45.0  280  12  6   8.1   4.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/22/2014 at 1400 MST          |       11/22/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +3.5  LI... +4.4                | K index... +10.7  LI... +2.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... 0.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.1 -79.8  290  50 26   2.2   1.2 | -62.6 -80.7  300  49 25   3.0   1.7
 45000 -58.8 -73.8  305  61 32   1.7   0.9 | -58.0 -72.4  305  64 33   2.6   1.4
 40000 -59.0 -74.2  295  46 24  -0.2  -0.1 | -55.7 -68.3  290  53 27   1.5   0.8
 38000 -57.9 -72.2  295  42 22   4.3   2.3 | -54.6 -66.3  285  48 25   1.8   1.0
 36000 -55.0 -67.0  300  41 21   4.2   2.3 | -53.5 -64.3  280  42 21   1.8   1.0
 34000 -52.1 -61.8  300  40 21   7.2   3.9 | -52.1 -61.8  270  37 19   6.6   3.6
 32000 -47.9 -54.2  295  38 20   7.1   3.9 | -48.4 -55.1  265  38 20   6.1   3.3
 30000 -43.4 -46.1  290  36 18   9.1   5.0 | -44.5 -48.1  260  40 21   9.3   5.1
 29000 -40.6 -41.1  285  34 18   9.1   5.0 | -41.8 -43.2  265  41 21   9.1   5.0
 28000 -37.9 -36.2  280  33 17   9.1   5.0 | -39.1 -38.4  265  42 22   9.1   5.0
 27000 -35.2 -31.4  275  32 16   9.0   4.9 | -36.4 -33.5  265  43 22   9.1   5.0
 26000 -32.6 -26.7  275  31 16   8.5   4.7 | -34.0 -29.2  265  43 22   7.6   4.2
 25000 -30.1 -22.2  275  30 16   8.5   4.7 | -31.7 -25.1  270  42 22   7.7   4.2
 24000 -27.5 -17.5  280  29 15   8.6   4.7 | -28.9 -20.0  275  42 21   7.8   4.3
 23000 -24.6 -12.3  280  29 15   7.8   4.3 | -26.4 -15.5  270  40 21   8.3   4.5
 22000 -22.2  -8.0  280  29 15   7.8   4.3 | -24.0 -11.2  265  39 20   8.3   4.5
 21000 -19.9  -3.8  280  29 15   7.2   3.9 | -21.5  -6.7  260  39 20   8.6   4.7
 20000 -17.8  -0.0  270  30 15   7.1   3.9 | -18.9  -2.0  255  36 18   8.8   4.8
 19500 -16.8   1.8  265  30 16   7.2   3.9 | -17.6   0.3  255  34 17   8.8   4.8
 19000 -15.7   3.7  260  31 16   7.2   4.0 | -16.3   2.7  250  32 17   8.8   4.8
 18500 -14.7   5.5  255  32 17   7.1   3.9 | -15.0   5.0  250  31 16   8.5   4.6
 18000 -13.7   7.3  255  31 16   6.8   3.7 | -13.9   7.0  250  28 15   7.7   4.2
 17500 -12.7   9.1  250  30 15   6.7   3.7 | -12.7   9.1  255  26 13   7.8   4.3
 17000 -11.7  10.9  250  29 15   7.5   4.1 | -11.7  10.9  260  23 12   6.6   3.6
 16500 -10.5  13.1  255  27 14   7.4   4.1 | -10.7  12.7  260  20 11   6.6   3.6
 16000  -9.4  15.1  260  25 13   6.8   3.7 |  -9.7  14.5  265  18  9   6.7   3.7
 15500  -8.5  16.7  260  23 12   6.4   3.5 |  -8.7  16.3  270  15  8   6.9   3.8
 15000  -7.5  18.5  265  21 11   6.2   3.4 |  -7.7  18.1  280  12  6   7.0   3.8
 14500  -6.7  19.9  280  20 10   5.4   3.0 |  -6.5  20.3  290  11  6   8.1   4.4
 14000  -5.8  21.6  290  19 10   5.4   3.0 |  -5.3  22.5  300  11  6   8.1   4.4
 13500  -4.9  23.2  300  19 10   6.6   3.6 |  -4.2  24.4  305  13  7   7.1   3.9
 13000  -4.0  24.8  310  21 11   6.4   3.5 |  -3.1  26.4  305  17  9   7.3   4.0
 12500  -2.9  26.8  315  22 11   8.3   4.5 |  -2.2  28.0  305  22 11   5.4   2.9
 12000  -2.0  28.4  310  24 12   3.4   1.9 |  -1.6  29.1  300  26 14   1.6   0.9
 11750  -1.8  28.8  310  26 13   2.2   1.2 |  -1.5  29.3  300  29 15   1.5   0.8
 11500  -1.7  28.9  305  25 13   1.2   0.7 |  -1.3  29.7  300  31 16   2.2   1.2
 11250  -1.7  28.9  300  25 13   1.3   0.7 |  -1.1  30.0  295  31 16   2.6   1.4
 11000  -1.6  29.1  300  24 12   1.0   0.6 |  -1.0  30.2  295  31 16   1.9   1.1
 10750  -1.5  29.3  295  22 12   4.1   2.2 |  -0.9  30.4  290  31 16   2.2   1.2
 10500  -1.1  30.0  290  21 11   8.1   4.4 |  -0.6  30.9  290  30 16   4.8   2.6
 10250  -0.5  31.1  290  19 10   8.4   4.6 |  -0.2  31.6  285  28 14   6.0   3.3
 10000   0.2  32.4  285  17  9   8.3   4.5 |   0.2  32.4  285  26 13   5.5   3.0
  9750   1.5  34.7  285  15  8   9.8   5.4 |   1.0  33.8  280  22 11   8.2   4.5
  9500   2.2  36.0  280  14  7   9.5   5.2 |   1.7  35.1  275  21 11   9.2   5.1
  9250   2.9  37.2  280  13  7   9.6   5.2 |   2.4  36.3  275  19 10   9.0   4.9
  9000   3.6  38.5  280  12  6   9.5   5.2 |   3.0  37.4  275  17  9   9.0   4.9
  8750   4.4  39.9  280  11  6   9.7   5.3 |   3.7  38.7  270  16  8   8.8   4.8
  8500   5.1  41.2  275  11  6   9.9   5.4 |   4.3  39.7  270  14  7   8.6   4.7
  8250   5.8  42.4  275  10  5  10.4   5.5 |   5.0  41.0  265  13  7   8.8   4.8
  8000   6.6  43.9  275  10  5  10.5   5.7 |   5.6  42.1  260  12  6   6.9   3.8
  7750   7.4  45.3  275   9  5  11.9   6.5 |   5.8  42.4  250  10  5  -1.8  -1.0
  7500   8.3  46.9  275   8  4  13.5   7.4 |   5.3  41.5  240   7  4 -11.5  -6.3
  7250   9.3  48.7  270   6  3  10.8   5.9 |   4.7  40.5  220   5  2   4.3   2.3
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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