Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
000
UXUS97 KPUB 141036
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0436 MDT Sunday, September 14, 2014

This forecast is for Sunday, September 14, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 71.3 F/21.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1342 ft/min (6.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 20044 ft MSL (13286 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 77.0 F/25.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10881 ft MSL (4123 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 09/15....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 40695 ft MSL (33937 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 09/15.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:39:30 / 19:10:20 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 12 hr 30 min 50 sec (750 min 50 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:54:26 MDT... 54.27 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 09/14/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14663 ft MSL (7905 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18131 ft MSL (11373 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 18284 ft MSL (11526 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +1.9
K index......................... +9.5

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -66.5 -87.7   275   55   28   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -62.1 -79.8   270   77   39   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -51.7 -61.1   270   84   43   4.3   2.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.0 -56.2   270   74   38   4.5   2.5      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -46.3 -51.3   265   64   33   4.5   2.5      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -43.0 -45.4   265   54   28   5.8   3.2      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -39.5 -39.1   265   46   24   5.9   3.2      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -34.6 -30.3   270   42   22   9.3   5.1   35.5  95.9     8.1      M    M
 29000  -31.2 -24.2   275   42   22   9.3   5.1   35.3  95.6     8.1      M    M
 28000  -28.4 -19.1   280   42   22   8.9   4.9   35.3  95.5     8.1      M    M
 27000  -25.9 -14.6   275   39   20   8.3   4.6   34.6  94.3     7.7      M    M
 26000  -23.4 -10.1   275   36   18   8.3   4.6   34.1  93.4     7.4      M    M
 25000  -20.9  -5.6   275   33   17   8.9   4.9   33.7  92.6     7.1      M    M
 24000  -19.4  -2.9   275   31   16   3.6   2.0   31.9  89.3     5.7      M    M
 23000  -18.3  -0.9   275   29   15   3.7   2.0   29.7  85.4     3.9      M    M
 22000  -17.2   1.0   275   27   14   3.7   2.0   27.6  81.7     2.2      M    M
 21000  -15.5   4.1   275   26   13   6.6   3.6   26.2  79.2     1.0      M    M
 20000  -13.5   7.7   270   24   13   6.6   3.6   25.1  77.3    -0.0   1341  6.8
 19500  -12.6   9.3   265   24   12   6.5   3.6   24.6  76.4    -0.5   1297  6.6
 19000  -11.5  11.3   265   23   12   8.6   4.7   24.2  75.6    -0.8   1250  6.4
 18500  -10.2  13.6   265   23   12   8.9   4.9   24.1  75.4    -1.0   1196  6.1
 18000   -8.8  16.2   265   23   12   8.9   4.9   24.0  75.2    -1.1   1142  5.8
 17500   -7.6  18.3   265   23   12   8.6   4.7   23.8  74.8    -1.3   1088  5.5
 17000   -6.3  20.7   270   22   11   8.6   4.7   23.6  74.5    -1.5   1035  5.3
 16500   -5.0  23.0   270   21   11   8.5   4.7   23.4  74.2    -1.7    982  5.0
 16000   -3.7  25.3   275   20   10   8.5   4.7   23.2  73.8    -1.9    929  4.7
 15500   -2.5  27.5   275   19   10   8.7   4.8   23.0  73.4    -2.1    877  4.5
 15000   -1.2  29.8   275   18    9   8.8   4.8   22.9  73.1    -2.3    823  4.2
 14500    0.8  33.4   280   16    8   9.2   5.1   22.7  72.8    -2.6    743  3.8
 14000    2.1  35.8   280   15    8   9.3   5.1   22.6  72.7    -2.7    687  3.5
 13500    3.5  38.3   280   15    7   9.5   5.2   22.5  72.6    -2.8    631  3.2
 13000    4.9  40.8   280   14    7   9.7   5.3   22.5  72.5    -2.8    573  2.9
 12500    6.4  43.5   280   14    7  10.0   5.5   22.5  72.5    -2.8    515  2.6
 12000    7.9  46.2   280   13    7   9.5   5.2   22.5  72.6    -2.8    456  2.3
 11750    8.6  47.5   280   13    7   9.7   5.3   22.5  72.5    -2.9    427  2.2
 11500    9.3  48.7   280   13    7   9.7   5.3   22.5  72.5    -2.9    398  2.0
 11250   10.0  50.0   275   13    7   9.3   5.1   22.5  72.5    -2.9    370  1.9
 11000   10.7  51.3   275   13    6   8.8   4.8   22.5  72.4    -3.0    342  1.7
 10750   11.3  52.3   275   13    6   8.9   4.9   22.4  72.3    -3.1    316  1.6
 10500   12.0  53.6   275   12    6   8.6   4.7   22.3  72.2    -3.2    289  1.5
 10250   12.6  54.7   270   12    6   8.1   4.4   22.2  72.0    -3.3    263  1.3
 10000   13.1  55.6   270   12    6   7.9   4.4   22.1  71.7    -3.4    239  1.2
  9750   13.7  56.7   265   12    6   8.4   4.6   21.9  71.5    -3.6    214  1.1
  9500   14.3  57.7   265   12    6   6.9   3.8   21.8  71.3    -3.7    188  1.0
  9250   14.7  58.5   260   12    6   4.6   2.5   21.5  70.7    -4.1    169  0.9
  9000   15.0  59.0   255   11    6   4.4   2.4   21.1  70.0    -4.5    152  0.8
  8750   15.4  59.7   255   11    6   7.6   4.2   20.8  69.4    -4.9    133  0.7
  8500   16.0  60.8   250   11    5   3.4   1.9   20.6  69.0    -5.1    110  0.6
  8250   15.8  60.4   245   10    5  -3.2  -1.8   19.7  67.5    -5.9    106  0.5
  8000   15.7  60.3   240   10    5  -1.0  -0.6   18.8  65.9    -6.9    104  0.5
  7750   15.5  59.9   240    9    5  -6.0  -3.3   17.9  64.3    -7.8    102  0.5
  7500   14.4  57.9   230   10    5 -22.9 -12.6   16.2  61.2    -9.5    127  0.6
  7250   12.2  54.0   240    8    4 -32.2 -17.7   13.7  56.6   -12.1    186  0.9
  7000    9.9  49.8   255    7    4 -25.6 -14.0   11.1  52.0   -14.7    246  1.2
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/14/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       09/14/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +12.7  LI... -0.2               | K index... +20.1  LI... -1.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -26.0                  | CAPE... +92.7  CIN... -47.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.0 -86.8  275  53 27   2.1   1.1 | -65.3 -85.5  270  53 27   2.1   1.1
 45000 -61.2 -78.2  270  73 38   6.0   3.3 | -60.8 -77.4  270  74 38   5.3   2.9
 40000 -52.3 -62.1  270  83 43   4.9   2.7 | -52.8 -63.0  265  87 45   5.2   2.8
 38000 -49.3 -56.7  265  75 38   5.0   2.8 | -49.7 -57.5  265  77 40   5.2   2.8
 36000 -46.3 -51.3  265  66 34   5.0   2.8 | -46.6 -51.9  265  66 34   5.2   2.8
 34000 -43.0 -45.4  265  56 29   5.5   3.0 | -43.3 -45.9  270  57 29   5.7   3.1
 32000 -39.7 -39.5  265  45 23   5.6   3.1 | -39.8 -39.6  270  47 24   5.7   3.2
 30000 -34.2 -29.6  270  42 21   9.2   5.1 | -34.7 -30.5  270  41 21   8.6   4.7
 29000 -31.4 -24.5  270  41 21   9.2   5.1 | -32.1 -25.8  270  40 20   8.6   4.7
 28000 -28.7 -19.7  270  41 21   8.8   4.8 | -29.5 -21.1  270  38 20   8.7   4.8
 27000 -26.2 -15.2  270  39 20   8.4   4.6 | -26.9 -16.4  270  36 19   8.7   4.8
 26000 -23.6 -10.5  270  37 19   8.4   4.6 | -24.3 -11.7  270  34 18   8.7   4.8
 25000 -21.1  -6.0  270  34 18   8.8   4.8 | -21.7  -7.1  270  32 17   9.2   5.0
 24000 -19.4  -2.9  275  33 17   4.9   2.7 | -20.0  -4.0  275  31 16   4.7   2.6
 23000 -18.0  -0.4  280  31 16   5.0   2.8 | -18.7  -1.7  280  31 16   4.8   2.6
 22000 -16.6   2.1  285  30 16   5.2   2.9 | -17.3   0.9  285  31 16   5.1   2.8
 21000 -14.9   5.2  285  28 15   5.8   3.2 | -15.2   4.6  285  30 15   7.7   4.2
 20000 -13.2   8.2  285  26 13   5.8   3.2 | -12.9   8.8  290  28 15   7.6   4.2
 19500 -12.3   9.9  285  25 13   5.6   3.1 | -11.8  10.8  290  28 14   7.6   4.2
 19000 -11.3  11.7  285  24 12   8.2   4.5 | -10.6  12.9  290  27 14   8.1   4.4
 18500 -10.0  14.0  290  23 12   8.4   4.6 |  -9.4  15.1  295  26 14   8.1   4.4
 18000  -8.8  16.2  290  22 11   8.4   4.6 |  -8.2  17.2  295  26 13   8.2   4.5
 17500  -7.5  18.5  290  21 11   8.4   4.6 |  -7.0  19.4  295  24 12   8.6   4.7
 17000  -6.3  20.7  290  21 11   8.3   4.6 |  -5.7  21.7  295  23 12   8.6   4.7
 16500  -5.0  23.0  290  20 10   8.6   4.7 |  -4.5  23.9  295  21 11   8.2   4.5
 16000  -3.7  25.3  290  19 10   8.6   4.7 |  -3.2  26.2  295  21 11   8.2   4.5
 15500  -2.5  27.5  290  19 10   8.7   4.8 |  -2.0  28.4  295  20 10   8.4   4.6
 15000  -0.6  30.9  295  18  9   8.7   4.8 |  -0.2  31.6  295  19 10   8.5   4.7
 14500   0.7  33.3  295  17  9   9.1   5.0 |   1.1  34.0  295  18  9   8.7   4.8
 14000   2.1  35.8  295  17  9   9.2   5.0 |   2.4  36.3  295  17  9   8.8   4.8
 13500   3.4  38.1  300  16  8   9.4   5.1 |   3.7  38.7  295  16  8   9.0   5.0
 13000   4.8  40.6  300  15  8   9.4   5.2 |   5.0  41.0  295  14  7   9.2   5.0
 12500   6.2  43.2  300  14  7   9.3   5.1 |   6.3  43.3  290  12  6   9.3   5.1
 12000   7.6  45.7  300  13  7   9.6   5.3 |   7.7  45.9  290  11  6   9.4   5.2
 11750   8.3  46.9  300  13  7   9.3   5.1 |   8.4  47.1  295  11  6   9.1   5.0
 11500   9.0  48.2  300  13  7  10.3   5.7 |   9.1  48.4  295  11  5  10.3   5.6
 11250   9.8  49.6  295  12  6  10.3   5.7 |   9.9  49.8  290  10  5  10.4   5.7
 11000  10.5  50.9  295  12  6   9.1   5.0 |  10.6  51.1  290  10  5   9.3   5.1
 10750  11.2  52.2  295  11  6   9.1   5.0 |  11.3  52.3  290  10  5   9.3   5.1
 10500  11.9  53.4  295  11  6   9.3   5.1 |  12.0  53.6  290   9  5   9.8   5.4
 10250  12.6  54.7  295  11  6  10.0   5.5 |  12.7  54.9  290   9  5  10.8   5.9
 10000  13.3  55.9  295  10  5   9.2   5.0 |  13.5  56.3  290   9  4   9.7   5.3
  9750  13.9  57.0  290  10  5   8.6   4.7 |  14.2  57.6  290   8  4   8.7   4.8
  9500  14.6  58.3  290  10  5   8.0   4.4 |  14.9  58.8  290   8  4   9.2   5.0
  9250  15.1  59.2  285  10  5   7.0   3.9 |  15.6  60.1  285   8  4   9.4   5.1
  9000  15.6  60.1  285  10  5   7.1   3.9 |  16.2  61.2  285   7  4   9.6   5.2
  8750  16.2  61.2  280  10  5   9.9   5.5 |  17.0  62.6  285   7  4  10.5   5.8
  8500  16.9  62.4  275  10  5   5.8   3.2 |  17.8  64.0  285   7  3  10.7   5.9
  8250  17.0  62.6  270  10  5   0.3   0.2 |  18.6  65.5  280   6  3  10.3   5.7
  8000  17.1  62.8  270  10  5   2.5   1.4 |  19.3  66.7  280   6  3  10.5   5.7
  7750  17.2  63.0  265  10  5  -0.9  -0.5 |  20.1  68.2  275   6  3  10.2   5.6
  7500  17.0  62.6  260  10  5  -2.4  -1.3 |  20.9  69.6  275   5  3  11.0   6.0
  7250  16.9  62.4  260   8  4  -0.0  -0.0 |  21.7  71.1  275   5  3  12.0   6.6
  7000  16.8  62.2  255   7  4  -2.0  -1.1 |  22.6  72.7  270   5  2  11.3   6.2
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           09/14/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       09/14/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.2  LI... -2.4               | K index... +29.1  LI... -1.2
CAPE... +248.3  CIN... -11.9               | CAPE... +158.4  CIN... -14.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.3 -85.5  270  54 28   3.0   1.7 | -65.0 -85.0  275  53 27   3.0   1.6
 45000 -60.1 -76.2  270  74 38   4.2   2.3 | -60.1 -76.2  275  76 39   3.5   1.9
 40000 -53.7 -64.7  265  83 43   5.4   3.0 | -54.7 -66.5  270  79 41   5.9   3.2
 38000 -50.5 -58.9  265  75 39   5.2   2.9 | -51.3 -60.3  270  71 37   5.6   3.1
 36000 -47.4 -53.3  270  67 35   5.3   2.9 | -47.9 -54.2  270  63 33   5.7   3.1
 34000 -43.5 -46.3  270  59 30   6.9   3.8 | -43.8 -46.8  270  56 29   7.4   4.0
 32000 -39.4 -38.9  270  51 26   6.9   3.8 | -38.8 -37.8  270  47 24   7.2   4.0
 30000 -34.3 -29.7  275  46 24   7.8   4.3 | -33.8 -28.8  275  43 22   8.6   4.7
 29000 -32.0 -25.6  275  45 23   7.8   4.3 | -31.2 -24.2  275  42 22   8.6   4.7
 28000 -29.7 -21.5  280  44 23   8.0   4.4 | -28.7 -19.7  280  41 21   8.1   4.4
 27000 -27.2 -17.0  280  42 21   8.4   4.6 | -26.5 -15.7  280  40 21   7.4   4.1
 26000 -24.6 -12.3  275  39 20   8.4   4.6 | -24.3 -11.7  280  39 20   7.4   4.1
 25000 -22.1  -7.8  275  37 19   8.7   4.8 | -22.1  -7.8  285  38 19   7.5   4.1
 24000 -20.2  -4.4  280  36 19   5.9   3.3 | -20.0  -4.0  285  35 18   7.0   3.9
 23000 -18.4  -1.1  285  35 18   6.0   3.3 | -17.9  -0.2  285  32 17   7.0   3.9
 22000 -16.6   2.1  290  34 18   6.0   3.3 | -15.8   3.6  290  29 15   7.1   3.9
 21000 -14.7   5.5  290  33 17   6.8   3.7 | -13.7   7.3  290  26 13   7.3   4.0
 20000 -12.7   9.1  290  31 16   6.9   3.8 | -11.6  11.1  295  22 11   7.3   4.0
 19500 -11.7  10.9  290  30 15   6.9   3.8 | -10.5  13.1  300  20 10   7.4   4.1
 19000 -10.7  12.7  285  28 15   8.4   4.6 |  -9.5  14.9  305  18  9   7.0   3.8
 18500  -9.4  15.1  285  26 13   8.6   4.7 |  -8.4  16.9  310  15  8   7.0   3.8
 18000  -8.2  17.2  285  23 12   8.7   4.8 |  -7.4  18.7  315  12  6   7.1   3.9
 17500  -6.9  19.6  285  20 10   8.9   4.9 |  -6.4  20.5  320  11  6   7.4   4.1
 17000  -5.6  21.9  290  17  9   8.8   4.9 |  -5.3  22.5  325  10  5   7.3   4.0
 16500  -4.3  24.3  290  14  7   9.4   5.1 |  -4.2  24.4  330   9  4   8.0   4.4
 16000  -2.9  26.8  290  12  6   9.4   5.2 |  -3.0  26.6  335   8  4   8.1   4.4
 15500  -1.6  29.1  295  10  5   9.5   5.2 |  -1.2  29.8  335   6  3   8.6   4.7
 15000   0.5  32.9  295   8  4   9.5   5.2 |   0.0  32.0  335   6  3   8.5   4.7
 14500   1.9  35.4  295   7  4   9.2   5.1 |   1.3  34.3  335   5  2   9.5   5.2
 14000   3.3  37.9  295   6  3   9.2   5.0 |   2.8  37.0  330   4  2   9.7   5.3
 13500   4.7  40.5  295   5  3   9.4   5.1 |   4.2  39.6  325   3  2   9.8   5.4
 13000   6.1  43.0  290   4  2   9.5   5.2 |   5.7  42.3  315   2  1   9.8   5.4
 12500   7.5  45.5  280   4  2   9.1   5.0 |   7.2  45.0  295   2  1   8.8   4.8
 12000   8.9  48.0  270   3  1   9.7   5.3 |   8.5  47.3  250   1  1   9.5   5.2
 11750   9.6  49.3  265   3  1   9.9   5.5 |   9.1  48.4  230   2  1   9.3   5.1
 11500  10.3  50.5  255   2  1   8.4   4.6 |   9.8  49.6  215   2  1   9.1   5.0
 11250  10.9  51.6  240   2  1   8.6   4.7 |  10.5  50.9  210   3  2   8.3   4.6
 11000  11.6  52.9  230   2  1  10.3   5.7 |  11.1  52.0  210   4  2   8.1   4.4
 10750  12.4  54.3  220   2  1  10.0   5.5 |  11.7  53.1  205   5  2   8.2   4.5
 10500  13.1  55.6  210   2  1   9.8   5.4 |  12.3  54.1  200   6  3   7.9   4.3
 10250  13.8  56.8  205   3  1   8.9   4.9 |  12.8  55.0  205   7  3   7.2   3.9
 10000  14.5  58.1  205   3  1   9.7   5.3 |  13.3  55.9  205   8  4   7.0   3.8
  9750  15.3  59.5  200   3  1  10.5   5.8 |  13.8  56.8  205   9  5   7.2   3.9
  9500  16.0  60.8  195   3  1   9.9   5.4 |  14.4  57.9  205  10  5   6.7   3.7
  9250  16.7  62.1  195   3  2   9.1   5.0 |  14.8  58.6  205  11  6   5.8   3.2
  9000  17.4  63.3  190   3  2   9.4   5.1 |  15.2  59.4  205  12  6   5.7   3.2
  8750  18.2  64.8  190   3  2  10.9   6.0 |  15.6  60.1  205  14  7   5.7   3.1
  8500  19.0  66.2  185   3  2  11.0   6.0 |  16.1  61.0  205  15  8   6.4   3.5
  8250  19.8  67.6  185   3  2  10.1   5.6 |  16.6  61.9  205  16  8   7.6   4.2
  8000  20.6  69.1  185   4  2  10.1   5.5 |  17.1  62.8  200  16  8   7.2   4.0
  7750  21.3  70.3  185   4  2  10.5   5.8 |  17.7  63.9  200  16  8   8.5   4.7
  7500  22.1  71.8  180   4  2  11.2   6.1 |  18.3  64.9  200  16  8   7.3   4.0
  7250  22.9  73.2  180   3  2  11.2   6.1 |  18.7  65.7  200  14  7   4.5   2.5
  7000  23.7  74.7  175   3  2  11.2   6.2 |  19.0  66.2  200  13  7   6.7   3.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.