Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 190933
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0333 MDT Saturday, July 19, 2014

This forecast is for Saturday, July 19, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 77.7 F/25.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1440 ft/min (7.3 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 20958 ft MSL (14200 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 84.0 F/29.3 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1000 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11863 ft MSL (5105 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 07/20....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Neutral
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 41013 ft MSL (34255 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Sunday 07/20.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:49:01 / 20:21:46 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 32 min 46 sec (872 min 46 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:17 MDT... 71.77 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/19/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16031 ft MSL (9273 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16832 ft MSL (10074 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 17416 ft MSL (10658 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -4.2
K index......................... +24.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -64.5 -84.1   280   35   18   0.7   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.4 -78.5   280   53   27   5.2   2.9      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.3 -63.9   275   58   30   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.1 -56.4   275   56   29   6.9   3.8      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -45.0 -49.0   280   53   27   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -40.5 -40.9   285   48   25   7.7   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -35.3 -31.5   295   42   22   8.1   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -31.0 -23.8   295   36   19   7.2   3.9   38.6 101.5     7.5      M    M
 29000  -28.8 -19.8   300   33   17   7.2   3.9   37.7  99.8     6.9      M    M
 28000  -26.7 -16.1   300   30   16   6.7   3.7   36.8  98.2     6.2      M    M
 27000  -24.7 -12.5   300   27   14   6.6   3.6   35.5  95.9     5.3      M    M
 26000  -22.7  -8.9   295   23   12   6.6   3.6   34.3  93.8     4.4      M    M
 25000  -20.8  -5.4   295   19   10   6.7   3.7   33.3  91.9     3.6      M    M
 24000  -18.7  -1.7   295   17    9   7.0   3.8   32.2  89.9     2.7      M    M
 23000  -16.6   2.1   300   15    8   7.0   3.8   31.2  88.1     1.8      M    M
 22000  -14.6   5.7   305   13    7   7.0   3.8   30.3  86.5     1.1      M    M
 21000  -12.5   9.5   305   13    7   7.0   3.8   29.2  84.6     0.1      M    M
 20000  -10.5  13.1   300   13    7   7.0   3.9   28.3  82.9    -0.8   1358  6.9
 19500   -9.5  14.9   300   13    7   6.9   3.8   27.8  82.1    -1.2   1313  6.7
 19000   -8.4  16.9   300   13    7   8.7   4.8   27.5  81.6    -1.6   1265  6.4
 18500   -7.1  19.2   305   12    6   8.6   4.7   27.3  81.2    -1.8   1213  6.2
 18000   -5.9  21.4   305   11    6   9.1   5.0   27.1  80.9    -2.1   1162  5.9
 17500   -4.5  23.9   305   11    6   9.6   5.3   27.1  80.8    -2.1   1105  5.6
 17000   -3.1  26.4   310   10    5   9.6   5.3   27.1  80.8    -2.2   1047  5.3
 16500   -1.7  28.9   310   10    5   9.5   5.2   27.0  80.7    -2.3    990  5.0
 16000   -0.3  31.5   310   10    5   9.5   5.2   27.0  80.6    -2.3    933  4.7
 15500    1.9  35.4   310    9    5   9.8   5.4   27.0  80.6    -2.4    846  4.3
 15000    3.3  37.9   305    9    5   9.8   5.4   27.0  80.6    -2.4    788  4.0
 14500    4.8  40.6   305    8    4   9.4   5.2   27.0  80.5    -2.4    730  3.7
 14000    6.1  43.0   300    7    4   9.4   5.2   26.9  80.4    -2.5    674  3.4
 13500    7.5  45.5   290    7    3   9.4   5.2   26.9  80.3    -2.6    617  3.1
 13000    8.9  48.0   280    7    3   9.5   5.2   26.8  80.2    -2.7    561  2.9
 12500   10.3  50.5   265    7    4   9.0   4.9   26.7  80.1    -2.8    506  2.6
 12000   11.6  52.9   260    7    4   9.2   5.0   26.6  79.9    -3.0    451  2.3
 11750   12.3  54.1   260    8    4   9.0   4.9   26.6  79.8    -3.0    424  2.2
 11500   12.9  55.2   255    8    4   9.7   5.3   26.5  79.7    -3.1    396  2.0
 11250   13.7  56.7   250    9    4   9.0   5.0   26.5  79.8    -3.1    367  1.9
 11000   14.3  57.7   250    9    5   7.9   4.3   26.4  79.5    -3.3    342  1.7
 10750   14.8  58.6   250    9    5   8.2   4.5   26.3  79.3    -3.4    317  1.6
 10500   15.4  59.7   245   10    5   8.1   4.4   26.2  79.1    -3.6    292  1.5
 10250   16.0  60.8   240   10    5   8.1   4.4   26.0  78.8    -3.7    267  1.4
 10000   16.6  61.9   240   10    5   7.5   4.1   25.9  78.6    -3.9    243  1.2
  9750   17.1  62.8   230   11    6   7.1   3.9   25.7  78.2    -4.1    219  1.1
  9500   17.6  63.7   225   11    6   7.2   3.9   25.5  77.9    -4.3    196  1.0
  9250   18.2  64.8   225   11    6   7.1   3.9   25.3  77.5    -4.6    173  0.9
  9000   18.7  65.7   220   11    6   7.1   3.9   25.1  77.1    -4.8    150  0.8
  8750   19.2  66.6   220   11    6   8.8   4.8   24.9  76.9    -4.9    126  0.6
  8500   19.8  67.6   225   11    6   6.3   3.5   24.8  76.7    -5.1    100  0.5
  8250   20.1  68.2   225   11    6   2.9   1.6   24.4  75.9    -5.6     85  0.4
  8000   20.3  68.5   225   11    6   4.2   2.3   23.9  75.0    -6.1     71  0.4
  7750   20.6  69.1   225   10    5   1.7   0.9   23.4  74.2    -6.6     57  0.3
  7500   20.1  68.2   225   10    5 -14.7  -8.0   22.4  72.4    -7.8     63  0.3
  7250   18.3  64.9   235    8    4 -26.4 -14.5   20.3  68.6    -9.9    109  0.6
  7000   16.6  61.9   245    7    4 -17.7  -9.7   18.3  64.9   -12.0    154  0.8
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/19/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/19/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +24.4  LI... -3.4               | K index... +27.0  LI... -1.7
CAPE... +522.6  CIN... -32.7               | CAPE... +268.1  CIN... -1.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.3 -83.7  285  33 17   0.9   0.5 | -64.2 -83.6  280  33 17   1.0   0.6
 45000 -60.9 -77.6  280  52 27   5.2   2.9 | -60.7 -77.3  285  49 25   5.3   2.9
 40000 -52.9 -63.2  275  58 30   6.0   3.3 | -52.3 -62.1  275  57 29   5.9   3.2
 38000 -49.2 -56.6  280  54 28   6.0   3.3 | -48.8 -55.8  275  54 28   5.9   3.2
 36000 -45.6 -50.1  285  51 26   5.9   3.2 | -45.2 -49.4  275  51 26   6.0   3.3
 34000 -41.1 -42.0  285  46 23   7.9   4.3 | -40.6 -41.1  280  46 23   7.8   4.3
 32000 -35.7 -32.3  290  39 20   8.3   4.5 | -36.0 -32.8  285  41 21   7.7   4.3
 30000 -31.2 -24.2  290  33 17   7.5   4.1 | -31.5 -24.7  290  34 18   7.5   4.1
 29000 -28.9 -20.0  290  29 15   7.5   4.1 | -29.3 -20.7  290  31 16   7.5   4.1
 28000 -26.7 -16.1  290  26 14   6.9   3.8 | -27.0 -16.6  295  28 14   7.6   4.1
 27000 -24.6 -12.3  290  24 12   6.9   3.8 | -24.2 -11.6  295  25 13   7.6   4.2
 26000 -22.6  -8.7  290  21 11   7.0   3.8 | -22.0  -7.6  295  23 12   7.6   4.2
 25000 -20.5  -4.9  285  19 10   7.1   3.9 | -19.7  -3.5  295  20 11   7.2   3.9
 24000 -18.4  -1.1  285  18  9   7.1   3.9 | -17.7   0.1  295  20 10   6.8   3.8
 23000 -16.3   2.7  290  17  9   7.1   3.9 | -15.7   3.7  300  19 10   6.9   3.8
 22000 -14.2   6.4  290  16  8   6.7   3.7 | -13.7   7.3  300  18  9   7.0   3.8
 21000 -12.4   9.7  285  14  7   6.3   3.5 | -11.6  11.1  300  17  9   7.0   3.9
 20000 -10.6  12.9  285  13  6   6.4   3.5 |  -9.5  14.9  300  17  9   7.1   3.9
 19500  -9.7  14.5  285  12  6   6.3   3.5 |  -8.5  16.7  300  16  8   7.1   3.9
 19000  -8.6  16.5  285  10  5   8.6   4.7 |  -7.5  18.5  295  15  8   7.0   3.9
 18500  -7.4  18.7  285   8  4   8.5   4.6 |  -6.5  20.3  295  12  6   7.0   3.9
 18000  -6.2  20.8  285   7  3   9.2   5.0 |  -5.4  22.3  290  10  5   7.5   4.1
 17500  -4.7  23.5  285   6  3   9.7   5.3 |  -4.3  24.3  290   8  4   7.7   4.2
 17000  -3.3  26.1  285   6  3   9.7   5.3 |  -3.2  26.2  290   6  3   7.9   4.3
 16500  -1.8  28.8  285   5  3   9.7   5.3 |  -2.0  28.4  295   5  3   9.0   5.0
 16000   0.3  32.5  290   5  2   9.7   5.3 |  -0.7  30.7  295   4  2   8.9   4.9
 15500   1.8  35.2  290   4  2   9.6   5.3 |   0.7  33.3  300   3  2  10.0   5.5
 15000   3.2  37.8  295   4  2   9.6   5.3 |   2.2  36.0  305   3  2  10.0   5.5
 14500   4.6  40.3  295   4  2   9.6   5.2 |   3.6  38.5  305   3  1   9.9   5.4
 14000   6.0  42.8  300   4  2   9.6   5.3 |   5.1  41.2  315   3  1   9.7   5.3
 13500   7.5  45.5  305   4  2   9.4   5.2 |   7.2  45.0  325   3  1   9.8   5.4
 13000   8.9  48.0  305   4  2   9.2   5.1 |   8.7  47.7  330   3  1  10.0   5.5
 12500  10.3  50.5  305   5  3  10.0   5.5 |  10.0  50.0  335   3  1   9.2   5.0
 12000  11.7  53.1  305   6  3   9.3   5.1 |  11.5  52.7  335   3  1   9.8   5.4
 11750  12.4  54.3  305   6  3   8.9   4.9 |  12.2  54.0  335   3  1   9.8   5.4
 11500  13.0  55.4  300   6  3  10.0   5.5 |  13.0  55.4  340   3  1  10.7   5.8
 11250  13.8  56.8  295   6  3   9.4   5.2 |  13.8  56.8  335   3  1  10.1   5.5
 11000  14.4  57.9  290   7  3   8.0   4.4 |  14.4  57.9  340   2  1   9.0   5.0
 10750  15.0  59.0  290   7  4   8.4   4.6 |  15.1  59.2  340   2  1   9.1   5.0
 10500  15.6  60.1  285   8  4   8.5   4.7 |  15.8  60.4  340   2  1  10.2   5.6
 10250  16.2  61.2  280   7  4   8.8   4.8 |  16.6  61.9  340   2  1  11.2   6.2
 10000  16.9  62.4  275   7  4   8.8   4.8 |  17.4  63.3  340   2  1   9.7   5.3
  9750  17.5  63.5  270   7  4   9.0   5.0 |  18.1  64.6  340   2  1   8.8   4.8
  9500  18.2  64.8  265   6  3   8.5   4.7 |  18.7  65.7  345   2  1   9.6   5.2
  9250  18.8  65.8  265   7  3   8.0   4.4 |  19.5  67.1  345   2  1   9.9   5.5
  9000  19.4  66.9  270   7  3   7.9   4.3 |  20.2  68.4  345   2  1  10.0   5.5
  8750  19.9  67.8  270   7  4   7.3   4.0 |  21.0  69.8  345   1  1  10.5   5.8
  8500  20.4  68.7  275   8  4   7.0   3.8 |  21.8  71.2  350   1  1  10.5   5.7
  8250  20.9  69.6  275   8  4   7.2   3.9 |  22.5  72.5  350   1  1  10.4   5.7
  8000  21.3  70.3  275   8  4   7.0   3.8 |  23.3  73.9  350   1  1  10.0   5.5
  7750  21.8  71.2  280   8  4   8.0   4.4 |  24.1  75.4  355   1  1  11.5   6.3
  7500  22.3  72.1  275   7  4   8.1   4.4 |  25.0  77.0  355   1  1  12.1   6.6
  7250  22.8  73.0  270   7  3   7.0   3.8 |  25.7  78.3  360   1  1  10.7   5.9
  7000  23.3  73.9  270   6  3   8.0   4.4 |  26.5  79.7  005   1  1  11.9   6.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           07/19/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/19/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +26.1  LI... -1.4               | K index... +26.7  LI... -1.5
CAPE... +171.7  CIN... -16.4               | CAPE... +235.6  CIN... -30.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.4 -83.9  275  35 18   0.7   0.4 | -64.6 -84.3  280  35 18   1.7   0.9
 45000 -61.2 -78.2  280  47 24   5.2   2.8 | -60.7 -77.3  280  45 23   4.8   2.6
 40000 -52.7 -62.9  275  54 28   6.7   3.7 | -52.6 -62.7  275  55 28   6.8   3.8
 38000 -48.7 -55.7  275  52 27   6.7   3.7 | -48.5 -55.3  275  52 27   6.8   3.7
 36000 -44.7 -48.5  275  50 26   7.0   3.8 | -44.5 -48.1  280  49 25   7.1   3.9
 34000 -40.0 -40.0  280  45 23   7.9   4.3 | -39.8 -39.6  280  45 23   7.9   4.3
 32000 -35.3 -31.5  280  40 21   7.8   4.3 | -35.1 -31.2  285  40 21   7.7   4.2
 30000 -30.6 -23.1  285  35 18   7.7   4.2 | -30.5 -22.9  290  34 18   7.7   4.2
 29000 -28.3 -18.9  285  32 17   7.7   4.2 | -28.2 -18.8  290  31 16   7.7   4.2
 28000 -26.0 -14.8  290  30 15   7.6   4.2 | -25.3 -13.5  295  27 14   7.6   4.1
 27000 -23.3  -9.9  295  26 14   7.5   4.1 | -23.1  -9.6  300  25 13   7.6   4.2
 26000 -21.1  -6.0  295  24 12   7.5   4.1 | -20.8  -5.4  300  22 11   7.6   4.2
 25000 -18.9  -2.0  300  21 11   7.2   3.9 | -18.6  -1.5  305  20 10   7.2   4.0
 24000 -16.8   1.8  305  21 11   7.0   3.8 | -16.5   2.3  310  18  9   7.0   3.9
 23000 -14.8   5.4  310  20 10   7.0   3.8 | -14.5   5.9  315  17  9   7.0   3.9
 22000 -12.7   9.1  315  20 10   6.7   3.7 | -12.4   9.7  320  15  8   6.9   3.8
 21000 -10.8  12.6  315  18  9   6.6   3.6 | -10.4  13.3  315  14  7   6.8   3.7
 20000  -8.9  16.0  310  16  8   6.6   3.6 |  -8.5  16.7  315  13  7   6.8   3.7
 19500  -7.9  17.8  310  15  8   6.7   3.7 |  -7.5  18.5  310  12  6   6.9   3.8
 19000  -6.9  19.6  310  13  7   6.9   3.8 |  -6.5  20.3  315  12  6   6.9   3.8
 18500  -6.0  21.2  320  11  6   6.9   3.8 |  -5.5  22.1  315  11  6   6.9   3.8
 18000  -5.0  23.0  325   9  5   7.3   4.0 |  -4.4  24.1  320  10  5   7.7   4.2
 17500  -3.9  25.0  330   7  4   7.5   4.1 |  -3.3  26.1  320  10  5   8.0   4.4
 17000  -2.8  27.0  340   6  3   7.7   4.2 |  -2.1  28.2  315   9  5   8.2   4.5
 16500  -1.6  29.1  345   5  2   8.7   4.8 |  -0.9  30.4  315   8  4   8.9   4.9
 16000  -0.4  31.3  350   4  2   8.6   4.7 |   0.4  32.7  315   7  4   8.9   4.9
 15500   0.9  33.6  355   3  2   9.4   5.1 |   1.8  35.2  315   6  3   9.4   5.2
 15000   2.3  36.1  355   3  2   9.4   5.2 |   3.2  37.8  320   6  3   9.5   5.2
 14500   3.7  38.7  355   2  1   9.5   5.2 |   4.6  40.3  320   5  3   9.4   5.2
 14000   5.9  42.6  360   2  1   9.7   5.3 |   6.7  44.1  320   4  2   9.4   5.1
 13500   7.3  45.1  005   1  1   9.5   5.2 |   8.0  46.4  325   3  2   9.2   5.1
 13000   8.7  47.7  005   1  0   9.4   5.2 |   9.4  48.9  320   3  1   9.1   5.0
 12500  10.2  50.4  000   0  0   9.7   5.3 |  10.8  51.4  315   2  1   9.5   5.2
 12000  11.5  52.7  180   1  0   9.4   5.2 |  12.2  54.0  300   1  1   8.9   4.9
 11750  12.2  54.0  175   1  1   9.2   5.0 |  12.8  55.0  290   1  1   8.7   4.8
 11500  12.9  55.2  180   2  1  10.3   5.7 |  13.5  56.3  275   1  1   9.7   5.3
 11250  13.7  56.7  185   2  1   9.5   5.2 |  14.2  57.6  240   1  1   9.2   5.1
 11000  14.3  57.7  185   3  2   8.0   4.4 |  14.8  58.6  225   2  1   7.9   4.4
 10750  14.9  58.8  180   4  2   8.2   4.5 |  15.4  59.7  215   2  1   8.1   4.4
 10500  15.5  59.9  180   4  2   9.1   5.0 |  16.0  60.8  210   3  1   8.8   4.8
 10250  16.3  61.3  185   5  3  10.0   5.5 |  16.7  62.1  210   4  2   9.5   5.2
 10000  17.0  62.6  185   6  3   8.7   4.8 |  17.4  63.3  210   5  2   8.6   4.7
  9750  17.5  63.5  185   7  3   7.9   4.3 |  18.0  64.4  205   6  3   8.0   4.4
  9500  18.1  64.6  185   7  4   8.7   4.8 |  18.5  65.3  205   7  4   8.4   4.6
  9250  18.8  65.8  185   8  4   9.3   5.1 |  19.2  66.6  200   8  4   8.6   4.7
  9000  19.5  67.1  185   8  4   9.4   5.2 |  19.8  67.6  200   9  5   8.8   4.8
  8750  20.2  68.4  185   9  4  10.2   5.6 |  20.5  68.9  200   9  5   9.4   5.1
  8500  21.0  69.8  185   9  5  10.1   5.6 |  21.2  70.2  195  10  5   9.8   5.4
  8250  21.7  71.1  185   9  5  10.0   5.5 |  21.9  71.4  195  10  5   9.9   5.5
  8000  22.4  72.3  185   9  5   9.8   5.4 |  22.6  72.7  195  10  5  10.2   5.6
  7750  23.1  73.6  185   9  5  10.9   6.0 |  23.3  73.9  195  10  5   9.2   5.1
  7500  23.9  75.0  185   9  5  10.1   5.5 |  23.9  75.0  190  10  5   7.3   4.0
  7250  24.5  76.1  185   9  4   7.9   4.3 |  24.4  75.9  190   9  5   6.9   3.8
  7000  25.1  77.2  185   8  4   9.7   5.3 |  24.9  76.8  190   8  4   7.2   3.9
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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