Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 291033
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0433 MDT Friday, August 29, 2014

This forecast is for Friday, August 29, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 65.5 F/18.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 900 ft/min (4.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 16948 ft MSL (10190 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 76.0 F/24.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 0900 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 15364 ft MSL (8606 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 08/30..... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Same
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 15113 ft MSL (8355 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 08/30........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:25:11 / 19:35:13 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 10 min 2 sec (790 min 2 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:59:47 MDT... 60.22 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/29/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 13638 ft MSL (6880 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 13661 ft MSL (6903 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15350 ft MSL (8593 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -2.0
K index......................... +1.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -62.7 -80.9   310   20   10   1.6   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -59.2 -74.6   315   33   17   4.6   2.5      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.0 -61.6   300   42   21   4.4   2.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.3 -56.7   300   40   20   4.4   2.4      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -46.7 -52.1   295   38   20   4.5   2.5      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -42.7 -44.9   295   37   19   7.3   4.0      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -38.3 -36.9   295   35   18   7.3   4.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -33.5 -28.3   295   34   17   8.3   4.6   36.7  98.1     9.5      M    M
 29000  -31.0 -23.8   300   33   17   8.3   4.6   36.2  97.1     9.2      M    M
 28000  -27.9 -18.2   300   32   16   8.1   4.5   35.7  96.2     8.9      M    M
 27000  -25.6 -14.1   300   30   15   7.9   4.3   34.9  94.7     8.4      M    M
 26000  -23.2  -9.8   300   28   15   7.9   4.3   34.2  93.5     7.9      M    M
 25000  -20.8  -5.4   305   27   14   7.8   4.3   33.6  92.4     7.5      M    M
 24000  -18.3  -0.9   305   24   12   8.6   4.7   33.1  91.5     7.2      M    M
 23000  -15.7   3.7   305   21   11   8.6   4.7   32.6  90.7     6.9      M    M
 22000  -13.2   8.2   305   19   10   8.6   4.7   32.3  90.2     6.7      M    M
 21000  -11.2  11.8   310   17    9   5.9   3.2   31.1  88.0     5.7      M    M
 20000   -9.4  15.1   320   16    8   5.9   3.3   29.8  85.6     4.6      M    M
 19500   -8.5  16.7   325   16    8   6.0   3.3   29.2  84.5     4.1      M    M
 19000   -7.7  18.1   330   16    8   5.0   2.8   28.5  83.3     3.6      M    M
 18500   -7.0  19.4   335   16    8   4.7   2.6   27.6  81.7     2.8      M    M
 18000   -6.3  20.7   335   17    9   4.6   2.5   26.8  80.2     2.1      M    M
 17500   -5.7  21.7   340   18    9   3.4   1.9   25.8  78.4     1.2      M    M
 17000   -5.2  22.6   340   20   10   3.5   1.9   24.8  76.6     0.3      M    M
 16500   -4.7  23.5   345   22   11   3.6   2.0   23.7  74.7    -0.7    878  4.5
 16000   -4.2  24.4   350   24   12   3.7   2.1   22.7  72.9    -1.7    848  4.3
 15500   -3.7  25.3   350   26   13   4.6   2.5   21.7  71.1    -2.6    818  4.2
 15000   -2.9  26.8   355   26   14   6.4   3.5   21.1  70.0    -3.3    779  4.0
 14500   -2.0  28.4   355   27   14   6.5   3.6   20.6  69.0    -3.9    738  3.8
 14000   -0.5  31.1   350   26   13   7.9   4.3   20.0  68.0    -4.7    671  3.4
 13500    0.5  32.9   350   25   13   9.0   4.9   19.7  67.5    -5.1    625  3.2
 13000    1.9  35.4   350   24   12  10.2   5.6   19.8  67.6    -5.2    569  2.9
 12500    3.3  37.9   345   22   11  10.0   5.5   19.9  67.7    -5.3    511  2.6
 12000    4.7  40.5   345   20   10   9.7   5.3   19.8  67.7    -5.4    454  2.3
 11750    5.4  41.7   340   20   10   9.7   5.3   19.8  67.7    -5.4    426  2.2
 11500    6.1  43.0   340   19   10   9.8   5.4   19.8  67.7    -5.4    398  2.0
 11250    6.9  44.4   340   18    9   9.3   5.1   19.8  67.7    -5.5    369  1.9
 11000    7.5  45.5   335   18    9   8.6   4.7   19.8  67.6    -5.6    342  1.7
 10750    8.1  46.6   335   18    9   8.5   4.7   19.7  67.4    -5.7    315  1.6
 10500    8.8  47.8   330   17    9   8.8   4.8   19.6  67.2    -5.8    289  1.5
 10250    9.5  49.1   330   17    9   9.5   5.2   19.5  67.2    -5.8    261  1.3
 10000   10.2  50.4   325   17    9   9.5   5.2   19.5  67.2    -5.9    232  1.2
  9750   10.9  51.6   325   18    9   9.4   5.1   19.5  67.1    -5.9    204  1.0
  9500   11.6  52.9   325   18    9   9.0   5.0   19.5  67.0    -5.9    176  0.9
  9250   12.2  54.0   325   18    9   8.3   4.6   19.4  66.9    -6.0    149  0.8
  9000   12.8  55.0   325   18    9   8.1   4.4   19.3  66.7    -6.2    123  0.6
  8750   13.4  56.1   325   18    9   9.1   5.0   19.2  66.5    -6.3     97  0.5
  8500   14.1  57.4   320   17    9   7.0   3.8   19.1  66.4    -6.4     71  0.4
  8250   14.4  57.9   320   17    9   4.2   2.3   18.7  65.7    -6.8     53  0.3
  8000   14.7  58.5   315   17    9   4.0   2.2   18.3  65.0    -7.2     36  0.2
  7750   15.0  59.0   315   17    9   5.6   3.1   17.9  64.2    -7.7     20  0.1
  7500   15.1  59.2   310   16    8 -10.0  -5.5   17.3  63.2    -8.3     12  0.1
  7250   13.5  56.3   305   13    7 -26.0 -14.3   15.4  59.7   -10.3     53  0.3
  7000   11.8  53.2   300   11    5 -13.8  -7.5   13.4  56.2   -12.3     94  0.5
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/29/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/29/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +16.1  LI... +0.4               | K index... +26.5  LI... -1.6
CAPE... +119.0  CIN... -41.4               | CAPE... +175.3  CIN... -5.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.2 -80.0  295  18  9   1.9   1.0 | -62.1 -79.8  285  20 11   2.1   1.1
 45000 -58.4 -73.1  305  27 14   4.5   2.5 | -58.1 -72.6  295  29 15   4.4   2.4
 40000 -51.3 -60.3  295  34 18   4.5   2.5 | -51.2 -60.2  295  37 19   4.5   2.5
 38000 -48.6 -55.5  295  35 18   4.5   2.5 | -48.5 -55.3  300  36 19   4.5   2.5
 36000 -45.9 -50.6  295  36 19   4.6   2.5 | -45.8 -50.4  300  36 19   4.6   2.5
 34000 -42.3 -44.1  295  35 18   6.5   3.6 | -42.2 -44.0  305  35 18   6.5   3.6
 32000 -38.5 -37.3  290  34 18   6.5   3.6 | -38.3 -36.9  305  33 17   6.6   3.6
 30000 -34.2 -29.6  290  32 16   7.3   4.0 | -34.2 -29.6  305  29 15   7.0   3.8
 29000 -31.5 -24.7  295  29 15   7.3   4.0 | -32.1 -25.8  305  27 14   7.0   3.8
 28000 -29.3 -20.7  295  28 14   7.8   4.3 | -29.5 -21.1  305  23 12   7.5   4.1
 27000 -26.8 -16.2  295  27 14   8.5   4.7 | -27.1 -16.8  305  22 11   8.2   4.5
 26000 -24.2 -11.6  300  26 13   8.5   4.7 | -24.6 -12.3  305  21 11   8.2   4.5
 25000 -21.7  -7.1  300  25 13   8.6   4.7 | -22.2  -8.0  305  21 11   8.2   4.5
 24000 -19.3  -2.7  300  23 12   8.0   4.4 | -19.8  -3.6  305  20 10   7.9   4.3
 23000 -16.9   1.6  300  21 11   8.0   4.4 | -17.4   0.7  310  19 10   7.9   4.3
 22000 -14.5   5.9  300  18 10   8.0   4.4 | -15.1   4.8  310  18  9   7.8   4.3
 21000 -12.4   9.7  300  17  9   6.9   3.8 | -13.4   7.9  310  18  9   5.4   3.0
 20000 -10.3  13.5  300  15  8   7.0   3.8 | -11.8  10.8  310  18  9   5.6   3.0
 19500  -9.2  15.4  300  14  7   7.1   3.9 | -11.0  12.2  310  18  9   5.7   3.1
 19000  -8.3  17.1  300  14  7   5.0   2.8 | -10.3  13.5  315  17  9   5.0   2.7
 18500  -7.6  18.3  300  13  7   4.5   2.5 |  -9.6  14.7  320  17  9   4.9   2.7
 18000  -7.0  19.4  305  13  7   4.2   2.3 |  -9.0  15.8  325  16  8   5.3   2.9
 17500  -6.7  19.9  315  14  7   1.2   0.7 |  -8.0  17.6  330  16  8   7.6   4.2
 17000  -6.5  20.3  325  16  8   1.2   0.7 |  -6.9  19.6  335  17  9   7.5   4.1
 16500  -6.1  21.0  335  18  9   6.7   3.7 |  -5.8  21.6  340  17  9   7.8   4.3
 16000  -5.0  23.0  340  19 10   7.7   4.2 |  -4.7  23.5  340  17  9   7.8   4.3
 15500  -3.9  25.0  350  20 10   8.0   4.4 |  -3.5  25.7  345  17  9   7.9   4.3
 15000  -2.7  27.1  355  20 10   8.4   4.6 |  -2.4  27.7  350  16  8   8.0   4.4
 14500  -1.6  29.1  360  20 10   8.6   4.7 |  -1.2  29.8  350  16  8   8.0   4.4
 14000   0.1  32.2  360  20 10   8.4   4.6 |   0.6  33.1  355  15  7   8.2   4.5
 13500   1.3  34.3  355  20 10   8.6   4.7 |   1.8  35.2  360  14  7   8.4   4.6
 13000   2.6  36.7  350  19 10   8.8   4.8 |   3.0  37.4  355  13  7   8.6   4.7
 12500   3.8  38.8  345  19 10   9.6   5.3 |   4.2  39.6  350  13  6   9.4   5.1
 12000   5.2  41.4  345  19 10   8.9   4.9 |   5.6  42.1  350  13  7   9.2   5.1
 11750   5.9  42.6  345  19 10   8.9   4.9 |   6.3  43.3  350  13  7   9.2   5.0
 11500   6.6  43.9  340  19 10   9.8   5.4 |   7.0  44.6  345  13  7  10.1   5.5
 11250   7.3  45.1  340  19 10  10.0   5.5 |   7.8  46.0  345  13  7  10.3   5.6
 11000   8.0  46.4  340  20 10   8.9   4.9 |   8.5  47.3  340  13  7   9.1   5.0
 10750   8.7  47.7  340  20 10   8.7   4.8 |   9.1  48.4  335  13  7   9.1   5.0
 10500   9.3  48.7  340  21 11   9.0   4.9 |   9.8  49.6  335  13  7   9.3   5.1
 10250  10.0  50.0  340  22 11   9.6   5.3 |  10.5  50.9  335  13  7   9.7   5.3
 10000  10.7  51.3  340  23 12   9.5   5.2 |  11.2  52.2  330  13  7   9.8   5.4
  9750  11.4  52.5  335  23 12   9.3   5.1 |  12.0  53.6  330  13  7  10.0   5.5
  9500  12.1  53.8  335  24 12   9.0   4.9 |  12.7  54.9  330  13  7   9.8   5.4
  9250  12.8  55.0  335  24 12   8.3   4.6 |  13.4  56.1  330  13  7   9.5   5.2
  9000  13.4  56.1  330  23 12   8.2   4.5 |  14.1  57.4  330  13  7   9.7   5.3
  8750  14.0  57.2  330  23 12   8.8   4.8 |  14.9  58.8  330  13  7  10.6   5.8
  8500  14.6  58.3  325  22 11   7.3   4.0 |  15.7  60.3  330  13  6  11.0   6.0
  8250  15.0  59.0  320  20 10   5.6   3.1 |  16.5  61.7  330  12  6  10.8   5.9
  8000  15.4  59.7  315  18  9   5.5   3.0 |  17.3  63.1  330  12  6  10.9   6.0
  7750  15.8  60.4  310  17  9   6.8   3.7 |  18.1  64.6  330  12  6  10.6   5.8
  7500  16.3  61.3  300  15  8   7.3   4.0 |  18.9  66.0  330  12  6  11.8   6.5
  7250  16.7  62.1  300  13  7   6.2   3.4 |  19.8  67.6  330  11  6  13.2   7.3
  7000  17.1  62.8  300  12  6   7.2   3.9 |  20.7  69.3  330  11  6  12.1   6.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           08/29/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/29/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +27.2  LI... -2.6               | K index... +30.4  LI... -1.7
CAPE... +348.3  CIN... -1.1                | CAPE... +278.0  CIN... -3.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.4 -80.3  285  26 13   2.5   1.4 | -62.1 -79.8  280  28 14   2.3   1.3
 45000 -58.0 -72.4  295  35 18   4.3   2.4 | -58.4 -73.1  285  36 19   2.9   1.6
 40000 -51.3 -60.3  295  37 19   4.1   2.2 | -53.6 -64.5  290  43 22   5.0   2.7
 38000 -48.8 -55.8  295  38 19   4.1   2.2 | -50.6 -59.1  290  39 20   4.9   2.7
 36000 -46.4 -51.5  295  39 20   4.2   2.3 | -47.7 -53.9  295  35 18   5.0   2.7
 34000 -42.4 -44.3  295  36 19   7.6   4.2 | -43.3 -45.9  295  30 16   8.1   4.4
 32000 -37.8 -36.0  300  32 17   7.6   4.2 | -38.5 -37.3  300  25 13   8.1   4.4
 30000 -33.5 -28.3  305  28 14   7.0   3.9 | -33.5 -28.3  300  22 12   8.5   4.7
 29000 -31.4 -24.5  305  25 13   7.1   3.9 | -31.0 -23.8  305  21 11   8.5   4.7
 28000 -28.8 -19.8  310  22 11   7.4   4.1 | -27.9 -18.2  305  20 10   7.8   4.3
 27000 -26.5 -15.7  310  21 11   7.7   4.2 | -25.7 -14.3  305  20 10   7.3   4.0
 26000 -24.2 -11.6  315  20 10   7.7   4.3 | -23.5 -10.3  305  21 11   7.4   4.0
 25000 -21.9  -7.4  315  19 10   7.8   4.3 | -21.4  -6.5  310  21 11   7.4   4.0
 24000 -19.8  -3.6  315  18  9   7.1   3.9 | -19.2  -2.6  305  21 11   7.3   4.0
 23000 -17.7   0.1  320  17  9   7.1   3.9 | -17.1   1.2  305  20 10   7.3   4.0
 22000 -15.6   3.9  325  17  9   7.1   3.9 | -15.0   5.0  300  20 10   7.3   4.0
 21000 -13.7   7.3  320  17  9   6.3   3.5 | -13.0   8.6  300  19 10   6.7   3.7
 20000 -11.8  10.8  320  18  9   6.3   3.5 | -11.0  12.2  295  17  9   6.7   3.7
 19500 -10.9  12.4  320  19 10   6.3   3.4 | -10.1  13.8  295  17  9   6.8   3.7
 19000 -10.0  14.0  315  19 10   7.0   3.9 |  -9.1  15.6  295  15  8   5.6   3.0
 18500  -8.9  16.0  315  18  9   7.2   3.9 |  -8.4  16.9  300  13  7   5.4   3.0
 18000  -7.9  17.8  315  17  9   7.2   3.9 |  -7.6  18.3  310  11  6   5.5   3.0
 17500  -6.8  19.8  315  17  9   7.1   3.9 |  -6.8  19.8  320   9  5   5.7   3.1
 17000  -5.8  21.6  315  17  9   7.1   3.9 |  -6.0  21.2  340   7  4   5.6   3.1
 16500  -4.8  23.4  320  16  8   7.2   4.0 |  -5.1  22.8  360   6  3   6.7   3.7
 16000  -3.7  25.3  320  15  8   7.2   4.0 |  -4.1  24.6  020   6  3   6.9   3.8
 15500  -2.7  27.1  320  14  7   7.5   4.1 |  -3.1  26.4  035   6  3   7.1   3.9
 15000  -1.6  29.1  325  12  6   7.8   4.3 |  -2.1  28.2  035   7  4   7.3   4.0
 14500  -0.5  31.1  330  10  5   8.1   4.4 |  -1.1  30.0  035   8  4   7.5   4.1
 14000   1.4  34.5  340   8  4   9.3   5.1 |   0.8  33.4  035   8  4   8.6   4.7
 13500   2.7  36.9  345   6  3   9.7   5.3 |   2.0  35.6  030   8  4   9.8   5.4
 13000   4.2  39.6  345   6  3   9.9   5.4 |   3.6  38.5  030   8  4  10.6   5.8
 12500   5.6  42.1  345   6  3   9.0   5.0 |   5.2  41.4  030   9  4   9.8   5.4
 12000   7.0  44.6  350   6  3  10.2   5.6 |   6.6  43.9  025   9  5   9.8   5.4
 11750   7.8  46.0  350   6  3  10.0   5.5 |   7.3  45.1  025   9  5   9.4   5.2
 11500   8.5  47.3  350   6  3   9.6   5.3 |   8.0  46.4  025   9  5  10.2   5.6
 11250   9.2  48.6  350   6  3   9.6   5.3 |   8.8  47.8  025   9  5  10.3   5.7
 11000   9.9  49.8  350   6  3  10.1   5.6 |   9.5  49.1  025   9  5   9.6   5.3
 10750  10.7  51.3  350   6  3  10.1   5.6 |  10.3  50.5  025   9  5   9.7   5.3
 10500  11.4  52.5  350   6  3   9.8   5.4 |  11.0  51.8  025   9  5   9.5   5.2
 10250  12.1  53.8  350   5  3   8.9   4.9 |  11.7  53.1  020   9  5   9.0   5.0
 10000  12.8  55.0  350   5  3   9.9   5.4 |  12.4  54.3  020   9  5   9.8   5.4
  9750  13.6  56.5  350   5  3  11.1   6.1 |  13.1  55.6  020   9  5  10.7   5.8
  9500  14.4  57.9  350   5  3  10.3   5.6 |  13.9  57.0  020  10  5   9.9   5.4
  9250  15.1  59.2  350   5  3   9.3   5.1 |  14.6  58.3  020  10  5   9.1   5.0
  9000  15.8  60.4  350   5  3   9.5   5.2 |  15.3  59.5  015   9  5   9.3   5.1
  8750  16.6  61.9  350   5  3  10.5   5.8 |  16.0  60.8  015   9  5  10.7   5.8
  8500  17.4  63.3  355   5  3  10.8   5.9 |  16.8  62.2  015   9  5  10.6   5.8
  8250  18.2  64.8  355   5  3  10.6   5.8 |  17.6  63.7  015   9  5   9.8   5.4
  8000  18.9  66.0  355   5  3  10.6   5.8 |  18.3  64.9  015   9  5   9.9   5.4
  7750  19.7  67.5  355   5  3  10.5   5.8 |  19.0  66.2  015   9  4  10.1   5.5
  7500  20.5  68.9  355   5  3  11.5   6.3 |  19.7  67.5  015   8  4   7.7   4.2
  7250  21.4  70.5  355   5  2  12.6   6.9 |  20.1  68.2  010   8  4   5.3   2.9
  7000  22.3  72.1  360   5  2  11.8   6.5 |  20.5  68.9  010   7  4   7.2   3.9
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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