Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary Off
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

000
UXUS97 KPUB 221106
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0506 MDT Tuesday, July 22, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, July 22, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 81.2 F/27.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1162 ft/min (5.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 20553 ft MSL (13383 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 87.0 F/31.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1030 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11937 ft MSL (4767 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 07/23.... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 18218 ft MSL (11048 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 07/23....... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:51:24 / 20:19:42 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 28 min 18 sec (868 min 18 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:25 MDT... 71.19 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/22/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16692 ft MSL (9522 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18737 ft MSL (11567 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 19221 ft MSL (12051 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.8
K index......................... +25.2

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -67.1 -88.8   270   33   17   1.3   0.7      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.4 -78.5   270   49   25   7.6   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -49.8 -57.6   260   51   26   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -44.9 -48.8   265   52   27   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -39.5 -39.1   265   52   27   6.3   3.5      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -35.6 -32.1   265   47   24   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -31.6 -24.9   265   41   21   6.6   3.6   45.1 113.1    11.0      M    M
 30000  -27.8 -18.0   265   33   17   6.4   3.5   42.3 108.1     9.1      M    M
 29000  -25.9 -14.6   265   29   15   6.4   3.5   41.1 105.9     8.3      M    M
 28000  -24.0 -11.2   270   25   13   6.1   3.3   39.8 103.7     7.4      M    M
 27000  -22.2  -8.0   275   21   11   6.1   3.3   38.3 101.0     6.3      M    M
 26000  -20.4  -4.7   285   18    9   6.1   3.4   37.0  98.6     5.2      M    M
 25000  -18.6  -1.5   300   16    8   6.2   3.4   35.8  96.4     4.3      M    M
 24000  -16.8   1.8   305   12    6   6.2   3.4   34.4  93.9     3.1      M    M
 23000  -14.5   5.9   320    7    4   6.4   3.5   32.9  91.2     1.8      M    M
 22000  -12.5   9.5   335    5    3   8.0   4.4   31.9  89.5     0.9      M    M
 21000  -10.2  13.6   305    4    2   8.0   4.4   31.2  88.2     0.2      M    M
 20000   -8.0  17.6   275    5    3   8.1   4.4   30.7  87.3    -0.4   1300  6.6
 19500   -6.8  19.8   270    6    3   8.4   4.6   30.5  86.9    -0.6   1251  6.4
 19000   -5.6  21.9   270    7    3   8.5   4.7   30.2  86.4    -0.9   1199  6.1
 18500   -4.4  24.1   275    8    4   8.5   4.6   30.1  86.1    -1.1   1148  5.8
 18000   -3.2  26.2   275    8    4   7.7   4.2   29.7  85.5    -1.4   1098  5.6
 17500   -2.0  28.4   275    8    4   7.7   4.2   29.4  84.9    -1.8   1049  5.3
 17000   -0.8  30.6   275    9    4   9.0   4.9   29.1  84.5    -2.0    999  5.1
 16500    0.5  32.9   275    8    4   9.3   5.1   29.1  84.3    -2.1    942  4.8
 16000    1.9  35.4   275    8    4   9.4   5.2   29.0  84.2    -2.2    886  4.5
 15500    3.4  38.1   275    7    4   9.6   5.3   29.0  84.2    -2.2    828  4.2
 15000    4.8  40.6   275    6    3   9.6   5.3   29.0  84.1    -2.3    771  3.9
 14500    6.2  43.2   270    5    3   9.1   5.0   28.9  84.0    -2.3    714  3.6
 14000    7.5  45.5   270    4    2   9.1   5.0   28.8  83.8    -2.4    659  3.3
 13500    8.9  48.0   260    3    2   9.0   4.9   28.7  83.6    -2.5    603  3.1
 13000   10.2  50.4   250    2    1   9.0   5.0   28.6  83.4    -2.7    549  2.8
 12500   11.5  52.7   230    2    1   8.2   4.5   28.4  83.2    -2.8    495  2.5
 12000   12.9  55.2   205    2    1   9.6   5.3   28.3  82.9    -3.0    440  2.2
 11750   13.6  56.5   195    2    1   9.4   5.2   28.3  82.9    -3.0    412  2.1
 11500   14.3  57.7   185    2    1   9.5   5.2   28.3  82.9    -3.0    383  1.9
 11250   15.0  59.0   175    2    1   9.3   5.1   28.2  82.8    -3.1    355  1.8
 11000   15.7  60.3   170    3    1   9.2   5.0   28.2  82.7    -3.1    327  1.7
 10750   16.3  61.3   170    3    1   9.0   5.0   28.1  82.6    -3.2    299  1.5
 10500   17.0  62.6   170    3    1   9.3   5.1   28.1  82.6    -3.2    272  1.4
 10250   17.7  63.9   170    3    2   9.6   5.3   28.1  82.5    -3.3    243  1.2
 10000   18.4  65.1   175    3    2   9.2   5.1   28.0  82.5    -3.3    215  1.1
  9750   19.1  66.4   180    3    2   8.2   4.5   28.0  82.3    -3.4    188  1.0
  9500   20.3  68.5   195    3    2   8.8   4.8   27.8  82.0    -3.6    137  0.7
  9250   20.9  69.6   210    4    2   9.1   5.0   27.7  81.8    -3.7    110  0.6
  9000   21.6  70.9   215    4    2   7.7   4.2   27.6  81.7    -3.8     83  0.4
  8750   22.0  71.6   225    4    2   5.7   3.2   27.4  81.3    -4.1     62  0.3
  8500   22.4  72.3   240    5    2   5.5   3.0   27.1  80.7    -4.5     43  0.2
  8250   22.8  73.0   250    5    3   6.0   3.3   26.7  80.1    -4.8     24  0.1
  8000   23.2  73.8   255    6    3   4.3   2.4   26.4  79.6    -5.2      5  0.0
  7750   23.0  73.4   265    7    3 -12.2  -6.7   25.6  78.0    -6.1      4  0.0
  7500   21.0  69.8   280    6    3 -34.1 -18.7   23.0  73.4    -8.8     55  0.3
  7250   19.1  66.4   295    6    3   3.6   2.0   20.5  68.9   -11.5    107  0.5
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/22/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/22/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +24.3  LI... -1.3               | K index... +27.5  LI... -1.8
CAPE... +208.6  CIN... -72.8               | CAPE... +311.4  CIN... -18.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.9 -88.4  270  33 17   1.5   0.8 | -67.2 -89.0  270  30 16   2.3   1.3
 45000 -61.1 -78.0  270  49 25   7.4   4.1 | -60.8 -77.4  270  48 25   7.3   4.0
 40000 -49.9 -57.8  260  52 27   8.0   4.4 | -49.1 -56.4  265  51 26   7.7   4.2
 38000 -44.5 -48.1  265  49 25   8.0   4.4 | -44.5 -48.1  265  50 26   7.7   4.2
 36000 -39.9 -39.8  265  47 24   6.0   3.3 | -40.0 -40.0  265  48 25   6.3   3.4
 34000 -36.2 -33.2  265  41 21   6.2   3.4 | -36.1 -33.0  265  39 20   6.4   3.5
 32000 -32.5 -26.5  270  35 18   6.3   3.5 | -32.3 -26.1  265  31 16   6.2   3.4
 30000 -28.8 -19.8  275  27 14   6.1   3.4 | -28.7 -19.7  275  23 12   5.9   3.2
 29000 -27.0 -16.6  275  23 12   6.1   3.4 | -27.0 -16.6  280  20 10   5.9   3.2
 28000 -25.1 -13.2  280  19 10   7.0   3.8 | -25.1 -13.2  285  17  9   6.8   3.7
 27000 -23.0  -9.4  290  17  9   6.9   3.8 | -23.1  -9.6  290  15  8   6.7   3.7
 26000 -20.9  -5.6  300  15  8   6.9   3.8 | -21.1  -6.0  300  14  7   6.7   3.7
 25000 -18.8  -1.8  310  14  7   7.4   4.0 | -18.4  -1.1  310  13  6   8.4   4.6
 24000 -16.6   2.1  315  11  5   7.6   4.2 | -15.9   3.4  310  11  5   8.3   4.6
 23000 -13.8   7.2  325   7  4   7.6   4.2 | -13.4   7.9  305   9  4   8.3   4.6
 22000 -11.6  11.1  335   4  2   6.8   3.8 | -11.2  11.8  300   7  4   6.4   3.5
 21000  -9.6  14.7  305   2  1   7.0   3.9 |  -9.3  15.3  280   7  3   6.7   3.7
 20000  -7.6  18.3  240   2  1   7.2   4.0 |  -7.4  18.7  260   7  4   7.0   3.8
 19500  -6.6  20.1  235   3  2   7.6   4.2 |  -6.5  20.3  260   7  4   7.2   4.0
 19000  -5.5  22.1  255   4  2   7.8   4.3 |  -5.5  22.1  270   6  3   7.3   4.0
 18500  -4.5  23.9  270   4  2   8.1   4.4 |  -4.5  23.9  280   6  3   7.7   4.2
 18000  -3.2  26.2  275   5  2   9.0   5.0 |  -3.3  26.1  285   5  3   8.7   4.8
 17500  -1.9  28.6  280   5  3   9.0   4.9 |  -2.0  28.4  285   5  2   8.6   4.7
 17000  -0.6  30.9  280   5  3   9.2   5.0 |  -0.7  30.7  285   4  2   9.1   5.0
 16500   0.8  33.4  275   5  3   9.2   5.0 |   0.7  33.3  275   3  1   9.1   5.0
 16000   2.2  36.0  270   5  2   9.1   5.0 |   2.0  35.6  255   2  1   8.8   4.8
 15500   3.5  38.3  265   4  2   8.9   4.9 |   3.2  37.8  195   1  1   8.3   4.6
 15000   4.8  40.6  255   3  2   8.9   4.9 |   4.5  40.1  145   2  1   8.3   4.6
 14500   6.1  43.0  240   2  1   8.6   4.7 |   5.7  42.3  125   3  2   8.6   4.7
 14000   7.4  45.3  210   2  1   8.6   4.7 |   7.0  44.6  115   5  2   8.5   4.7
 13500   8.7  47.7  170   2  1   8.8   4.8 |   8.3  46.9  105   5  3   8.8   4.9
 13000  10.0  50.0  140   2  1   8.9   4.9 |   9.5  49.1  100   6  3   9.0   4.9
 12500  11.3  52.3  130   3  2   7.8   4.3 |  10.7  51.3  095   6  3   7.8   4.3
 12000  12.6  54.7  120   4  2   9.7   5.3 |  12.1  53.8  090   6  3  10.8   5.9
 11750  13.3  55.9  120   4  2   9.5   5.2 |  12.9  55.2  085   6  3  10.4   5.7
 11500  14.0  57.2  120   5  2   9.1   5.0 |  13.6  56.5  085   6  3   9.7   5.3
 11250  14.7  58.5  120   5  3   8.8   4.8 |  14.3  57.7  085   6  3   9.3   5.1
 11000  15.3  59.5  115   5  3   9.1   5.0 |  15.0  59.0  080   6  3   9.9   5.4
 10750  16.0  60.8  115   5  3   9.2   5.1 |  15.7  60.3  080   6  3  10.1   5.6
 10500  16.7  62.1  115   5  3   9.3   5.1 |  16.5  61.7  075   6  3  10.2   5.6
 10250  17.4  63.3  115   5  3   9.4   5.2 |  17.2  63.0  075   6  3  10.3   5.7
 10000  18.1  64.6  110   5  3   9.2   5.0 |  18.0  64.4  070   6  3  10.1   5.5
  9750  19.3  66.7  100   4  2   8.4   4.6 |  19.4  66.9  065   6  3   9.8   5.4
  9500  19.9  67.8  095   4  2   8.2   4.5 |  20.2  68.4  065   6  3  10.2   5.6
  9250  20.5  68.9  090   3  2   8.9   4.9 |  21.0  69.8  065   6  3  10.3   5.6
  9000  21.1  70.0  080   3  1   6.1   3.4 |  21.7  71.1  065   6  3   9.6   5.3
  8750  21.4  70.5  045   3  2   5.4   3.0 |  22.4  72.3  060   6  3   9.8   5.4
  8500  21.9  71.4  015   4  2   7.7   4.2 |  23.2  73.8  060   6  3  10.8   5.9
  8250  22.4  72.3  355   5  2   7.3   4.0 |  24.0  75.2  060   6  3  10.3   5.7
  8000  22.9  73.2  345   6  3   7.0   3.8 |  24.8  76.6  060   6  3  11.2   6.1
  7750  23.4  74.1  340   8  4  10.3   5.6 |  25.7  78.3  060   6  3  17.1   9.4
  7500  24.3  75.7  335   8  4  17.2   9.4 |  27.2  81.0  055   6  3  24.5  13.4
  7250  25.3  77.5  335   8  4   4.6   2.5 |  28.7  83.7  055   6  3  12.2   6.7
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           07/22/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/22/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +31.6  LI... -1.8               | K index... +33.8  LI... -2.8
CAPE... +379.2  CIN... -7.9                | CAPE... +460.5  CIN... -4.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.4 -89.3  270  34 18   2.3   1.3 | -67.7 -89.9  275  36 18   2.9   1.6
 45000 -61.0 -77.8  275  51 26   7.4   4.0 | -60.7 -77.3  275  51 26   7.3   4.0
 40000 -49.9 -57.8  270  54 28   7.5   4.1 | -49.2 -56.6  275  53 27   7.2   4.0
 38000 -44.8 -48.6  270  51 26   7.5   4.1 | -44.9 -48.8  275  49 25   7.2   4.0
 36000 -40.3 -40.5  270  48 24   7.0   3.9 | -40.6 -41.1  275  45 23   7.3   4.0
 34000 -36.1 -33.0  270  40 20   7.1   3.9 | -36.2 -33.2  275  38 20   7.3   4.0
 32000 -31.9 -25.4  270  32 16   6.5   3.6 | -31.8 -25.2  280  31 16   7.0   3.8
 30000 -28.4 -19.1  270  22 11   5.9   3.2 | -28.0 -18.4  280  22 11   6.4   3.5
 29000 -26.6 -15.9  275  17  9   5.9   3.2 | -26.1 -15.0  280  17  9   6.4   3.5
 28000 -24.8 -12.6  280  13  7   6.7   3.7 | -24.2 -11.6  280  14  7   6.6   3.6
 27000 -22.8  -9.0  290  11  6   6.6   3.6 | -22.2  -8.0  290  11  6   6.6   3.6
 26000 -20.8  -5.4  300  10  5   6.6   3.6 | -20.2  -4.4  300   9  5   6.6   3.6
 25000 -18.7  -1.7  315   9  5   8.0   4.4 | -17.6   0.3  315   8  4   7.7   4.2
 24000 -15.6   3.9  310   8  4   8.3   4.6 | -15.3   4.5  320   7  4   7.7   4.2
 23000 -13.2   8.2  310   7  4   8.3   4.5 | -13.0   8.6  320   7  3   7.7   4.2
 22000 -10.9  12.4  305   7  3   7.0   3.8 | -10.9  12.4  325   6  3   6.5   3.6
 21000  -8.8  16.2  300   7  4   7.2   3.9 |  -9.0  15.8  340   5  3   6.7   3.7
 20000  -6.8  19.8  300   8  4   7.5   4.1 |  -7.2  19.0  355   5  3   6.8   3.8
 19500  -5.8  21.6  300   8  4   6.7   3.7 |  -6.2  20.8  015   4  2   7.4   4.1
 19000  -4.9  23.2  305   6  3   6.8   3.7 |  -5.2  22.6  070   4  2   7.5   4.1
 18500  -4.0  24.8  310   4  2   7.3   4.0 |  -4.1  24.6  100   7  4   7.8   4.3
 18000  -2.8  27.0  320   2  1   8.4   4.6 |  -3.0  26.6  105   9  5   8.5   4.7
 17500  -1.7  28.9  065   1  1   8.4   4.6 |  -1.8  28.8  110  11  6   8.5   4.7
 17000  -0.5  31.1  100   3  2   8.6   4.7 |  -0.5  31.1  110  12  6   9.3   5.1
 16500   0.8  33.4  100   5  3   8.7   4.7 |   0.8  33.4  110  12  6   9.3   5.1
 16000   2.0  35.6  100   7  3   8.7   4.8 |   2.1  35.8  110  12  6   9.5   5.2
 15500   3.2  37.8  100   7  4   8.7   4.8 |   3.6  38.5  110  12  6   9.7   5.3
 15000   4.5  40.1  095   8  4   8.7   4.8 |   5.0  41.0  110  12  6   9.7   5.3
 14500   5.9  42.6  095   8  4   9.6   5.3 |   6.5  43.7  110  12  6   9.8   5.4
 14000   7.3  45.1  095   8  4   9.6   5.2 |   7.9  46.2  110  12  6   9.8   5.4
 13500   8.7  47.7  095   8  4   9.7   5.3 |   9.4  48.9  110  12  6   9.8   5.4
 13000  10.2  50.4  095   8  4   9.8   5.4 |  10.8  51.4  110  12  6   9.9   5.4
 12500  11.5  52.7  095   8  4   8.4   4.6 |  12.2  54.0  110  12  6   8.3   4.5
 12000  13.0  55.4  095   8  4  10.7   5.9 |  13.6  56.5  115  11  6  10.2   5.6
 11750  13.8  56.8  095   8  4  10.4   5.7 |  14.3  57.7  115  11  6   9.9   5.4
 11500  14.5  58.1  095   8  4  10.0   5.5 |  15.1  59.2  115  11  6   9.3   5.1
 11250  15.2  59.4  095   8  4   9.8   5.4 |  15.7  60.3  115  11  6   9.1   5.0
 11000  16.0  60.8  095   8  4  10.0   5.5 |  16.4  61.5  115  11  6   9.8   5.4
 10750  16.7  62.1  095   8  4  10.1   5.5 |  17.2  63.0  120  11  6  10.0   5.5
 10500  17.5  63.5  095   8  4  10.1   5.5 |  17.9  64.2  120  11  5  10.1   5.5
 10250  18.3  64.9  095   7  4  10.2   5.6 |  18.7  65.7  120  11  5  10.3   5.7
 10000  19.0  66.2  095   7  4   9.9   5.4 |  19.4  66.9  120  11  5  10.1   5.5
  9750  20.4  68.7  095   7  4   9.8   5.4 |  20.9  69.6  120  10  5   9.7   5.3
  9500  21.2  70.2  095   7  4  10.4   5.7 |  21.6  70.9  120  10  5   9.8   5.4
  9250  22.0  71.6  095   7  4  10.5   5.8 |  22.3  72.1  120  10  5   9.9   5.4
  9000  22.7  72.9  095   7  4   9.5   5.2 |  23.1  73.6  125  10  5   9.6   5.3
  8750  23.4  74.1  100   7  4   9.5   5.2 |  23.8  74.8  125  10  5   9.8   5.4
  8500  24.2  75.6  100   7  4  10.7   5.9 |  24.5  76.1  125  10  5  10.2   5.6
  8250  24.9  76.8  100   7  4  10.0   5.5 |  25.3  77.5  125  10  5  10.0   5.5
  8000  25.7  78.3  100   7  3  11.5   6.3 |  26.0  78.8  125  10  5  10.3   5.7
  7750  26.7  80.1  100   7  3  16.8   9.2 |  26.9  80.4  125   9  5  13.1   7.2
  7500  28.1  82.6  095   7  3  21.6  11.8 |  27.9  82.2  125   9  5  16.9   9.3
  7250  29.5  85.1  095   7  3  14.4   7.9 |  29.0  84.2  120   8  4  10.6   5.8
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.